Supporting Civil Society Organizations for Empowerment and Economics Progress of Small Farmers and People Living in Poverty

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1 Sida Evaluation 2008:25 Supporting Civil Society Organizations for Empowerment and Economics Progress of Small Farmers and People Living in Poverty t Results and Effects of Sida s Framework Agreement with Swedish Cooperative Centre Hans Peter Dejgaard Jocke Nyberg Anders Rudqvist Department for Cooperation with Non-Governmental Organisations, Humanitarian Assistance and Conflict Management

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3 Supporting Civil Society Organizations for Empowerment and Economics Progress of Small Farmers and People Living in Poverty Results and Effects of Sida s Framework Agreement with Swedish Cooperative Centre Hans Peter Dejgaard Jocke Nyberg Anders Rudqvist Sida Evaluation 2008:25 Department for Cooperation with Non-Governmental Organisations, Humanitarian Assistance and Conflict Management

4 This report is part of Sida Evaluations, a series comprising evaluations of Swedish development assistance. Sida s other series concerned with evaluations, Sida Studies in Evaluation, concerns methodologically oriented studies commissioned by Sida. Both series are administered by the Department for Evaluation, an independent department reporting to Sida s Director General. This publication can be downloaded/ordered from: Authors: Hans Peter Dejgaard, Jocke Nyberg, Anders Rudqvist. The views and interpretations expressed in this report are the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida. Sida Evaluation 2008:25 Commissioned by Sida, Department for Cooperation with Non-Governmental Organisations, Humanitarian Assistance and Conflict Management Copyright: Sida and the authors Registration No.: Date of Final Report: January 2008 Printed by Edita Communication, 2008 Art. no. Sida46268en ISBN ISSN SWEDISH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY Address: SE Stockholm, Sweden. Office: Valhallavägen 199, Stockholm Telephone: +46 (0) Telefax: +46 (0) Homepage:

5 Table of Contents List of Abbreviations and Acronyms...3 Executive Summary Introduction Objective of the Evaluation The Work of the Evaluation Team Methods and Approach Limitations of the Evaluation Report Outline and Acknowledgements SCC Mandate and Strategies Mandates and Constituency SCC Overall and Regional Strategies Cross-cutting Issues SCC Organization, Field Offices and Human Resources Budget and Financial Sources Outcomes and Achievements in 4 Selected Countries The Zambia Study The Kenya Study The Honduras Study The Paraguay Study SCC Working with Partners in the South Partner Selection, Partnerships and Cvil Society Advocacy and Role of SCC Partners within Civil Society Capacity Development, Including Technical Capacities and Knowledge Management Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems and Measurement of Outcome The New Aid Agenda and Challenges to SCC Cross-cutting Issues (gender, environment, HIV/AIDS and democracy/cso governance) Relevance, Sustainability and Lesson Learned Level of Compliance in Terms of Relevance and Objectives of SCC and Sida/SEKA Poverty Orientation, Stratification and Mechanisms by which to Reach the Poorest Sustainability, Replicability and Exit Strategies Added Value from SCC Growth, Quality, Focus and Regional Strategies at SCC Co-operation and Dialogue with Sida Recommendations...49 Annex 1 Terms of Reference...51 Annex, Study of Zambia Programme...57 General Conclusion on Zambia Study Introduction SCC Regional Strategy Context for Poor Farmers in Zambia Partner Relationships and Poverty Orientation...60

6 5. Achievements in the Selected Projects Cross-cutting Issues Capacity Development and Knowledge Management Advocacy in the Four Projects Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PME) and Measurement of Outcome Alignment, Harmonisation and Donor Co-ordination Sustainability, Replicability and Exit-strategies SCC Structure in Southern Africa Added Value from SCC Comment on the Regional Strategy...75 Annex A: Comments from SCC-SA Office to the Reports Recommendations...77 Annex B: Outcome of the ZNFU projects 2004 to Annex C: Program for Field Work in Zambia...83 Annex D: List of Interviews...84 Annex, Kenya Country Report...87 List of Abbreviations Introduction SCC-EA Strategies: Some Findings Partner Analysis and Capacity Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PME) Relevance and Effectiveness Conclusions and Recommendations...98 Annex A: SCC Response to the Key Issues Annex B: List of Interviews Annex C: Select List of Literature Reviewed Annex D: Achievements from the Three Selected Projects in SCC-EA Anexo, Informe de Honduras + Oficina Regional para América Latina Introducción La Intervención Evaluada Hallazgos Conclusiones Recomendaciones Anexo A: Agenda de trabajo de campo de la evaluación en Honduras, 3 a 11 de Septiembre de Anexo, Informe de las actividades de SCC en Paraguay Conclusiones Generales Introducción Contexto Político, Social e Económico y el Papel de la Sociedad Civil La Estrategia Regional de SCC y su Relación con SCC Paraguay Temas de Ejes Transversales (género, medioambiente) Relaciones con las Contrapartes Planificación, Monitoreo y Control de Calidad Eficacia y Pertinencia Resultados Alcanzados Recomendaciones Anexo A: Programa del Evaluador en Paraguay, 2 al 11/09/ Anexo B: Lista de Personas Entrevistadas...164

7 List of Abbreviations and Acronyms ACAN Agricord AIDS ANAFAE BID/IADB CAFTA CBM CEEDCo CBOs CCS CDE CDE CIPAE CHC COFEP II COAPALMA CONAJUCOOP CONAVI COFEP CSOs CTH DANIDA DFID EPA FBOs FECOPROD FECORAH FLACSO FUCVAM HIV ICADE IFAD IFAP IFC IMF ILO KATC MEJORA M&E NORAD NACHU NEPAD Asociación Campesina Nacional (Honduras) The Alliance of Agri-Agencies Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Asociación Nacional para el Fomento de la Agricultura Ecológica (Honduras) Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (Inter American Development Bank) Tratado de Libre Comercio de Centro América y Estados Unidos (Central American Free Trade Agreement) Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano (Mesoamerican Biological Corridor) Community Empowerment and Enterprise Development through Co-operatives (Kenya) Community Based Organisations Cooperative Consultancy Services Construcción de Ciudadanía Democrática (Paraguay) Centro de Educación y Estudios (Paraguay) Comité de Iglesias para Ayudas de Emergencia (Paraguay) Confederación Hondureña de Cooperativas Community Finance and Empowerment Project (Kenya) Oil palm processing cooperative enterprise (Honduras) Centro Juvenil Cooperativo (Coordinación Nacional de las Juventudes Cooperativistas de Paraguay) Consejo Nacional de la Vivienda (Paraguay) Community Finance Empowerment Project (Kenya) Civil Society Organisations Central de Trabajadores de Honduras Danish International Development Agency The Department For International Development (UK) Economic Partnership Agreements (EU) Faith Based Organisation Federación de Cooperativas de Producción (Paraguay) Federación de Cooperativas y Empresas de La Reforma Agraria de Honduras Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales Federación Unificadora de Cooperativas de Vivienda por Ayuda Mutua FUCVAM (Uruguay, Paraguay) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Instituto para la Cooperación y Autodesarrollo (Honduras) International Fund for Agricultural Development International Federation of Agricultural Producers Instituto de Investigación y Formación Cooperativista (Honduras) International Monetary Fund International Labour Organization Kasisi Agricultural Training Centre (Zambia) Mejoramiento Organizativo, Productivo y de Comercialización de las Empresas y Familias Campesinas (Honduras) Monitoring and Evaluation Norwegian Development Agency National Housing Cooperative Union (Kenya) The New Partnership for Africa s Development SUPPORTING CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS FOR EMPOWERMENT AND ECONOMICS PROGRESS OF SMALL FARMERS AND PEOPLE LIVING IN POVERTY Sida EVALUATION 2008:25 3

8 NGOs OD OPPAZ PME SACCO SACAU SCC SCC-EA SCC-LA SCC-SA SCC-Vi SEKA SEK Sida SHADE UNDP USAID USD UNIOCOOP Vi Agroforestry ZNFU WB Non-Governmental Organisations Organisational Development Organic Producers and Processors Association of Zambia Planning Monitoring and Evaluation Savings and Credit Co-operative (Kenya) Southern Confederation of Agricultural Unions Swedish Cooperative Centre SCC Eastern Africa SCC Latin America SCC Southern Africa Swedish Cooperative Centre and Vi Agroforestry NGO Division at the Department for Cooperation with Non-Governmental Organisations and Humanitarian Assistance and Conflict Management, Asdi/Sida Swedish Kronor Swedish Agency for International Development Cooperation Sustainable Habitat Development (Kenya) United Nations Development Programme United States Agency for International Development US Dollar Unión de Cooperativas de Servicios Agropecuarios (Honduras) VI-SKOGEN (in Swedish) Zambia National Farmers Union The World Bank Farmer group in Southern province in Zambia 4 SUPPORTING CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS FOR EMPOWERMENT AND ECONOMICS PROGRESS OF SMALL FARMERS AND PEOPLE LIVING IN POVERTY Sida EVALUATION 2008:25

9 Executive Summary Chapter 1 and 2. Introduction and Context: 1. The Swedish Cooperative Centre (SCC) is one of 14 organisations that have entered into framework funding agreements with Sida in SCC s framework agreement with Sida amounts to SEK million. According to the Terms of Reference issued by Sida, the overall purpose of this evaluation is to assess the relevance and results of SCC s development cooperation in relation to the objectives of Sida/ SEKA and of SCC. Moreover, the evaluation should serve as a learning tool and suggest possible improvements. 2. The Evaluation Team selected four countries, travelling to all of them during September 2007: Paraguay, Honduras, Kenya and Zambia. Here, selected projects and partners were visited, and the team sought to conduct broad-based consultations as well as to meet target groups in relatively remote rural communities together with SCC partners. In addition, valuable discussions were held with the staff at three regional SCC offices, which turned out to be open-minded and constructive. 3. The Swedish Cooperative Centre ( Kooperation Utan Gränser ) has 62 member organisations representing all major Swedish cooperatives and sectors in which cooperatives play a central role in Sweden. SCC operates in 26 countries with activities in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Eastern Europe. The vision of SCC is a world free from poverty and injustice. To make its vision a reality, self-help is adopted as a general principle, meaning that poor people are given tools to find their own way out of poverty. 4. SCC s overall strategy is outlined in the document New steps in the Right Direction, the Swedish Cooperative Centre s strategy for , in which the primary target group of the SCC s development cooperation is defined as poor women and men who are members, or potential members, of cooperative organisations or other democratic associations or informal groups working to achieve common goals. The overarching priority areas or sectors are rural development, housing and habitat, as well as financial services. This is further explained in the two regional strategies for Africa and Latin America. 5. Within a decentralised framework, the headquarters in Stockholm focuses on developing the global framework, policies, strategies and methods, information work and fundraising. Thus, greater responsibility and decision-making powers have been delegated to the regional SCC offices as concerns the signing of contracts with Southern partners in charge of day-to-day implementation. Chapter 3. Achievements in the four countries: 6. Chapter 3 presents brief summaries of the achievements and outcomes that were identified in the four country studies. Zambia The overall conclusion of the country study is that, over a ten-year period, SCC has contributed to strengthening democratic farmer organisations in Zambia, which have affiliated associations in almost all districts of the country. In particular, the Zambia National Farmers Union (ZNFU) is an example of how assistance can break new ground by supporting, from an early stage, what has today evolved into ZNFU, one of the strongest farmer organisations in Southern Africa. ZNFU has grown to become both influential at the national level and relevant to thousands of smallscale farmers engaged in local farmers groups, study circles and marketing activities. In this way, the Swedish support has contributed to improving the livelihoods of small-scale farmers in the four selected SUPPORTING CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS FOR EMPOWERMENT AND ECONOMICS PROGRESS OF SMALL FARMERS AND PEOPLE LIVING IN POVERTY Sida EVALUATION 2008:25 5

10 districts. This cost-effectiveness concept has since been scaled up with support from other donors, such as Norway, Holland and Sida s agriculture sector programme. OPPAZ is implementing a new Eco Marketing project aimed at strengthening the targeted organic producer groups with respect to their organisational and technical capabilities, while setting up control systems to monitor their adherence to organic practices. There is evidence of increased volumes of some organic products, such as vegetables, rice, groundnuts and sunflower. The regional farmer organisation, SACAU, is currently developing its capacity as a recognised regional voice of organised farmers in Southern Africa. With SCC support, SACAU has gained strength in its analysis and advocacy activities related to trade issues, including the ongoing negotiations with the EU on Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). Kenya The overall conclusion is that the SCC programme responds well to the overall objective of reducing poverty and strengthening civil society. The programme is well consolidated, and support for the Savings and Credit Co-operatives (SACCOs), which is the fastest growing co-operative sector in Kenya, has been particularly successful, involving 15 co-operatives, particularly in retail banking, savings and group lending. On average, they have brought about a 23% increase in the number of people accessing financial services during the project period. SCC has done well by contributing to democratic governance structures, accountability and regular audits in the co-operatives as a way of stamping out practices that used to give a negative public image to the cooperative movement. In this respect, SCC has brought to bear its ample experience of organisational development, and also has an interesting Leadership for Change training programme, where leaders are taught skills in leadership, entrepreneurship and change management. The project entitled Community Empowerment and Enterprise Development through Cooperatives (CEEDCo) is working with 4,200 small-scale farmers organised in 47 cooperatives. The project has increased the farmers technical capacity to access markets through bulk sales. Furthermore, the farmers have raised both subsistence and cash crop production, while making progress on diversification through new farming techniques and organic methods. Honduras The conclusion is that SCC s long-term presence and experience in Honduras has been instrumental to the achievement of the positive result with the rural and urban target group of poor people. As an example, the MEJORA project Improving Business Capacity of Farmers Organizations has managed to raise peasant family income by diversifying production, expanding areas under cultivation, and improving small-scale irrigation systems. Additional progress has been made in administration and democratic practices among participating cooperatives. The technical assistance offered by promoters and complemented by local leaders (enlaces) is appreciated by beneficiaries, and has had a noticeable effect. Another project in the Tawahka Biosphere Reserve is operating in very inaccessible terrain with myriad tensions between the various population groups. Nevertheless, the peasant and indigenous communities have been organized. They voluntarily exercise surveillance over the forests in order to prevent illegal deforestation, and have also converted their agriculture and livestock breeding into more environmentally-friendly alternative production systems. Paraguay The general conclusion of the evaluation is that SCC s counterparts have performed well in their work and projects in terms of results and technical capacity related to the selected areas that were studied, namely agricultural development as well as housing and habitat. The majority of SCC partners are 6 SUPPORTING CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS FOR EMPOWERMENT AND ECONOMICS PROGRESS OF SMALL FARMERS AND PEOPLE LIVING IN POVERTY Sida EVALUATION 2008:25

11 working with a clear poverty orientation, reaching marginalized target groups in both rural and urban areas. The outcome of the CIPAE project is the construction of a new residential area, with 300 homes of 70m 2 built so far. SCC and CIPAE have successfully developed a model of how to organize housing cooperatives that can finance and build homes for poor people, while making them more aware of their rights. The project with FECOPROD and nine different small-scale farmer associations have improved the livelihoods of 903 farmers (635 men and 277 women). Furthermore, members of the target group have enhanced their organizational capabilities, expanded markets for their products, enlarged the business of their association, participated in advocacy regarding national politics, and honed their skills in areas such as leadership, agricultural techniques, etc. Chapter 4. SCC working with partners in the South: 7. SCC s selection of partners is strongly linked to SCC s own identity as part of the historically important cooperative movement in Sweden. SCC has a set of clear definitions and criteria when selecting partners, highlighting values such as self-help, democracy, equality, justice and solidarity. In Central America, as well as in Eastern and Southern Africa, the cooperative agricultural movements went into crisis in the 1980s and 90s. In this context, it was well justified that SCC left the cooperative movement in Southern Africa, and that it took a bottom-up approach in Kenya, starting by strengthening first-level cooperatives on the ground. Interestingly, in the case of Paraguay, this cooperative model remains intact and well. 8. In general terms, SCC is skilful at selecting partners in all four countries visited. SCC cooperates with partners that are well aware of the importance of combining income-generating activities with promotion of internal democracy. SCC is highly valued by the Southern organisations for its partnership approach, which emphasizes that all partners, and ultimately their members, are owners of the development work. In many projects, SCC has set the condition that the partner should provide a certain amount of resources not always monetary as counterpart funding. This model is working well. 9. Historically, advocacy has not been a strong field for SCC, as the focus has been on improving cooperative members incomes through higher productivity and market access. In Sweden, the communication department s role is mainly confined to feeding the 65 Swedish member organizations media outlets with journalistic articles for fund-raising purposes. Nevertheless, SCC has initiated small steps, for instance a feature article on fair trade coffee and the campaign report Small farmers, big markets. However, few efforts have been made to take advantage of SCC s field presence and its partners work as an important tool for North-South advocacy for different issues in Sweden, e.g. related to EU, WTO, UN and the World Bank. At the regional and country level, SCC staff increasingly view the need for advocacy and a human-rights approach. However, although advocacy and policy work feature as priorities, few goals and indicators can be found in the various project documents so far. Both Paraguay and Honduras provide good examples of contributions delivered by partners towards new legislation, leading to the creation of national housing authorities and a new public housing financing mechanism. In Southern Africa, the regional farmer organisation, SACAU, is very active in influencing key agricultural issues in important negotiations, including the on-going negotiations with the EU on the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPAs). In this respect, SCC could more actively seek engagement with international networks, e.g. with alliances such as Via Campesina, Agricord and IFAP. SUPPORTING CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS FOR EMPOWERMENT AND ECONOMICS PROGRESS OF SMALL FARMERS AND PEOPLE LIVING IN POVERTY Sida EVALUATION 2008:25 7

12 10. Capacity development is part of most projects supported by SCC, and is seen as a means of improving the performance of partner organisations as such. SCC is probably among the leading international NGOs as regards strengthening farmer and cooperative organisations. This is in line with this year s World Development Report, which calls for more attention to the agricultural sector. The SCC interventions have led to hundreds of stronger member-based organisations at local, district, provincial and national levels. SCC has relatively successfully introduced organisational development (OD), adapting this field of activity to member-based organisations. A major challenge is posed in Kenya, where one project is implemented directly with the first-level cooperatives by technical teams managed by the SCC regional office (direct implementation also in the Lake Victoria Development Programme implemented with the Vi Agroforesty). This reflects weaknesses in the representation of cooperatives and small-scale farmers interests at the national level. 11. The evaluation team has met SCC staff who are dedicated and motivated in their work. They are highly competent in the development of cooperative organisations, farmer organisations, housing cooperatives and savings & credits (or financial services or microfinance). However notwithstanding some variety between the four countries SCC has not in all four countries demonstrated the same degree of technical capacity and networking with the local resource base in the fields of rural development, sustainable agriculture, environmental mainstreaming and local business development. 12. SCC has made a major effort in the development and application of a system for planning, monitoring and evaluation (PME), which is considered fundamental to quality assurance and accountability in the management of Swedish funds. The team s conclusion is that SCC is doing an excellent job of meeting Sida s expectations on PME. The Honduras country report mentions it as one of the best PME systems seen among Swedish NGOs. The project documents are of good quality and spring from sound participatory processes. However, the more emphasis could be placed on baseline data. This constitutes an obstacle to measuring the outcomes and progress towards reaching the indicators set out in the Logical Framework planning. More outcome- and impact-oriented methodologies could also be useful. 13. In its regional strategies, SCC intends to strengthen the partner organisations capacity and accountability. The evaluation team has tested how the PME system works among selected partners in Zambia and Kenya (which already have their own annual planning and reports). The actual integration of the organisations own systems into the praised PME system has been relatively scarce, as project documents and progress reports are often prepared exclusively for SCC. A challenge for SCC regional teams will be to progress further towards harmonisation and alignment and downward accountability to the constituency as part of the aid effectiveness agenda of the Paris Declaration. The evaluation team observed an interesting example in Zambia, where the leadership of ZNFU wishes to move away from fragmented projects towards joint budget support from several international agencies based on their new strategic plan. Similar efforts was found in SCC s programme in Kenya. This fit very well into SCC s intended shift from project- to programme-based approaches. 14. SCC has carried out a number of relevant studies related to gender equity etc. However, the evaluation team found relatively few lessons learned or adjustments generated by independent external evaluations. SCC headquarters is aware that improvements are needed as concerns the practice of carrying out external evaluations. 15. The evaluation finds that SCC has progressed substantially in recent years in the area of gender after a late start. SCC gender policy paper was issued in 2004, and the area has since been given higher priority in both Africa and Latin America. Many projects have increased female membership and leadership in cooperatives, and several projects have incorporated gender-sensitive indicators. In all three regions, specific programmes are addressing gender mainstreaming. Nevertheless, there is still a certain degree of resistance among leaders in the farmer and cooperative movement. To overcome this, SCC is aware that win-win situations related to the organisations core business need to be established. 8 SUPPORTING CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS FOR EMPOWERMENT AND ECONOMICS PROGRESS OF SMALL FARMERS AND PEOPLE LIVING IN POVERTY Sida EVALUATION 2008:25

13 16. Historically, SCC has devoted limited thinking and financial resources to the dreadful HIV/AIDS epidemic. Fortunately, SCC has taken important steps forward during the last two years, proving the capacity of SCC staff to convince partners on the need for collaborating with specialised national NGOs in this field. During visits to the communities, the evaluation team noticed that SCC and its partners have clearly endeavoured to pay attention to the prevention of the disease. 17. This year, SCC is developing its policy and guidelines on environmental sustainability, where the most urgent challenge will be to mainstream the issue into the agriculture projects, as well as to promote linkages between natural resource management, improved livelihoods and poverty reduction. Another challenge will be to address climate change. Chapter 5. Relevance, sustainability and lessons learned: 18. A key conclusion of the evaluation is that SCC s programme is relevant in terms of the objectives of the partners, of SCC and of Sida/SEKA. The objectives of SCC partners are couched in terms such as building citizenship, increasing organisational capacity, empowering people living in poverty, increasing the leadership of women, promoting sustainable agricultural methods, etc. Almost all the partners work with a clear objective of creating what is often called citizenship. This is an aspect integrated into the cooperative model. 19. Like Sida, SCC has adopted a multidimensional approach to poverty and poverty reduction, and has a clear poverty orientation in the four countries of cooperation. Nevertheless, SCC would benefit from a more analytical and explicit approach to poverty targeting and stratification, including variables and categories such as land tenure, marginality, ethnicity and gender. This could contribute to improving the outreach to the poorer segments of the population. 20. It seems important to discuss SCC s strategies for sustainability, including the issue of exit strategies. Financial sustainability is one of the concerns most frequently raised in SCC s reports. However, many of the projects have not agreed with partners on adequate exit strategies, nor have they considered replicability mechanisms at an early stage. 21. Sida s ToR for the evaluation asked about the value added, meaning what SCC is adding to the money value of the grants. In addition to the strengths already mentioned, the most important reply is probably that the field presence of SCC and its committed staff is valued by the partners as essential for a close and qualified dialogue. Nevertheless, there is still room for increasing the added value, as indicated above in this Summary, e.g. on advocacy, knowledge management of technical issues, analysis of target groups and project outcomes, etc. 22. In general, SCC s new regional strategies for Africa and Latin America are well formulated and build on many years of experience in these regions. However, they seem to stretch thin what the regional teams are able to cover within their working hours and in-house competencies, as they encompass 26 countries, three core strategic sectors and various cross-cutting issues. Less SCC added value could be the end effect, unless suffi cient focus and attention is brought to bear on a realistic and focused regional strategy and project portfolio. Therefore, the evaluation team raises the issue of growth versus quality/consolidation in the light of the very high growth rate and accelerating turnover experienced in recent years. In year 2000, the total turnover of SCC was SEK 100 million. In 2007, it is estimated at SEK 221 million, reflecting increased collaboration with Vi Agroforestry, the merging processes with Sveriges Bönder Hjälper and, most recently, the KF Project Centre, adding 14 countries to the project portfolio. In 2008, the turnover will be approximately SEK 250 million. SUPPORTING CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS FOR EMPOWERMENT AND ECONOMICS PROGRESS OF SMALL FARMERS AND PEOPLE LIVING IN POVERTY Sida EVALUATION 2008:25 9

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