1 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations Evaristo Vidal Otero and Manuel Pérez Cota Escuela Superior Ingeniería Informática, Universidad de Vigo Campus Universitario As Lagoas s/n Ourense, Spain Abstract. With the recent growth of e-government the amount of information is much bigger than before and the options available to citizens to deal with the government are much more. But this vast amount of information and the increased complexity of the processes by which governments interacts and share data, makes necessary the use of tools to help manage that information, addressing problems and decision making. Electronic Government Interoperability Framework (egif) is the solution to data sharing problem and Business Intelligence is the right tool to address decision making problems, this research shows the current state of information systems in public administration and how it could integrate Business Intelligence and evolve in the future. Keywords: business intelligence, e-government, government architectures, egif, government interoperability Resumen El concepto de gobernanza, que podría definirse como el arte o la forma de gobernar, ha ido incrementando su importancia en el mundo empresarial a lo largodelosúltimosaños.hoyendíatantoenlasempresascomoenlosorganismo públicos hay una creciente demanda de transparencia, ahorro, y de la necesidad de poder comprobar y conocer cual es el estado de la empresa u organismo. Para conseguir estos objetivos es necesario proporcionar a cada uno de los actores de dicho sistema la información adecuada y la herramienta que puede proporcionar esto es la Inteligencia de Negocio o Business Intelligence (BI). Las herramientas de BI aprovechan los datos que genera la empresa para poder extraer a partir de ellos información, conocimiento, nuevas relaciones y patrones de conocimiento que puedan ayudar en la toma de decisiones. Pero para poder utilizar dichos datos es necesario acceder a ellos, por tanto hay que evitar los denominados silos de información y solventar el problema de la interoperabilidad. La mayoría de los gobiernos han estado desarrollando frameworks cuyo fin es mejorar la interoperabilidad, denominados egif (e-gvernment Interoperability Framework). Todos estos frameworks se desarrollan con vistas a facilitar el
2 2 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations intercambio de información a diferentes niveles: entre diferentes gobiernos, entre los ciudadanos y el gobierno, entre las empresas y el gobierno y entre otros organismos y el gobierno. La mayoría de estos egifs definen una arquitectura SOA que todos los organismos públicos deben de respetar. Por ejemplo en el caso europeo existe el European Entity Framework (EIF) que define unas normas básicas defindas en 5 niveles: técnicas, semánticas, organizativas, legales y políticas. Cada país miembro de la Unión Europea crea su propio framework de interoperabilidad, llamado National Interoperability Framework (NIF) que debe cumplir con las directrices de EIF. Estado del arte Como paso previo a la ivestigación se ha realizado un estudio de aplicaciones de BI en diferentes organismos gubernamentales. El primer ejemplo estudiado es de 7 municipios suizos. Aplicando una solución de BI típica mediante cuadros de mando, pretenden analizar los procesos de negocio, la toma de decisiones y obtener contadores de rendimiento para poder cuantificar los objetivos planteados. Las conclusiones obtenidas fueron que no es relevante aplicar BI a ayuntamientos pequeños (menos de habitantes) y lo dificil que es hacer que los usuarios hagan uso de las herramientas. Turull y Vivas muestran un ejemplo de aplicación de BI en el ayuntamiento de San Cugat del Vallés. Decidieron utilizar BI para mejorar la comunicación y la motivación de los empleados aplicando las técnicas que se utilizan en el sector privado. Para esto desarrollaron un cuadro de mando dividido en 4 secciones: capacitación e innovación, procesos internos, clientes-ciudadanos y finanzas. La principal ventaja conseguida fue evaluar como variaciones en unos procesos afectan a otros procesos, su detección permite saber cómo se pueden mejorar los procesos que están fallando. Peláez y Martín desarrollaron un Cuadro de mando para el análisis de la información de Extranjería del Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas. La solución desarrollada consiste en un cuadro de mando y un conjunto de informes que proporcionan al usuario la información necesaria. La solución aportada permitió eliminar los silos de información y porporcionó la capacidad de resolver gran cantidad de problemas rápidamente y en un entorno multicanal. Díaz and Martín desarrollaron un módulo estadístico, Sistema de Información para el Anlisis de la Actividad de la Subdirección General de Gestión de Personal del Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas. Las ventajas del modelo aportado son muy similares a las del caso anterior, eliminar los silos de información y ayudar en la toma de decisiones. Vivek Kundra, máximo responsable de tecnología o CIO del gobierno federal de EEUU, es el promotor del proyecto Data.gov, el cual engloba una herramienta llamada IT Dashboard. Dicha herramienta es un cuadro de mando encargado de mostrar información sobre los proyectos tecnológicos llevados a cabo por el gobierno y poder analizar cuánto dinero se invierte y cómo se invierte en cada uno de ellos. La herramienta está disponible para todos los ciudadanos, y forma parte de un proyecto más amplio llamado gobierno abierto, cuya idea
3 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations 3 base es proporcionar a los ciudadanos toda la información posible. Pese a sus grandes logros permitiendo detectar la duplicidad de proyectos, el derroche de dinero público en proyectos de escasa utilidad,... a nivel tecnológico presenta una debilidad y es que los datos no se actualizan de manera automática. Son los propios organismos públicos los que envían cada cierto tiempo los datos, por tanto no siempre se va a disponer de la información más actualizada. Contribución original Esta investigación muestra qué están haciendo los diferentes gobiernos para facilitar el acto gobierno y la toma de decisiones. Todas las administraciones públicas presentan los mismos problemas: datos no homogéneos, no integrados, innacesibles (silos de información),... Además se ha desarrollado un comparativa sobre el alcance de algunos de estos egifs (comunicaciones entre administraciones de un mismo gobiernos, diferentes gobiernos,ciudadanos,...) y se ha mostrado como la mayoría de los gobiernos basan sus infraestructura en arquitectura SOA. Con respecto a futuras investigaciones, las actualizaciones, evoluciones y mejoras que se produzcan en SOA deberían tenerse en cuenta poder seguir mejorando la toma de decisiones y por tanto la implantación de BI en las administraciones públicas. El futuro vendrá marcado por el desarrollo de el procesamiento de eventos complejos(complex Event Processing) y las arquitecturas orientadas a eventos(event Driven Architecture). 1 Introduction According to The UK Corporate Governance Code, Corporate governance is the system by which companies are directed and controlled . The concept can be easily applied to the public sector. In both sectors there is an increasing demand for accountability, transparency and the necessity for having checks and balances. Both sectors have important issues in process, customs, policies, laws, institutions and general public. However the main difference between private and public sector is that private is sector is more about financial statements, profits and held accountable to the stakeholders while public sector is centred in budgets, policy proposals and has to achieve policy objectives set by parliament. Both sectors are becoming more similar each day and they have common needs like the need of reports, statistics and knowledge . To achieve policy objectives, is necessary to provide the right information to each governance layer and for this is essential to share data and information between public administrations: Central, Regional and Local Entities. Business Intelligence (BI) is the best way to achieve these objectives. BI can be defined as tools for consolidating, analysing, and providing access to vast amounts of data to help users make better decision . When data have been captured and organized, it is available for further analysis (Fig. 1). BI tools enable users to analyse these data and discover new patterns and relationships that are useful
4 4 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations Fig. 1. The pyramid knowledge shows how systems maturity could help in transform data into knowledge. Figure by David Marco  for guiding decision making. This tools include software for query and reporting databases, online analytical processing and data mining. But with the need of information sharing appears a known problem called Interoperability. As the e-government grows the amount of data and information that has to be exchanged becomes a bigger problem. Interoperability problem is related to the concept of Information silo, which is a management system that can not interoperate with other related management systems. To solve this problem different solutions are available. The most used are: Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). In the last decade most of the countries were making a big effort to develop their own Enterprise Architecture Frameworks or e-government Interoperability Framework: in Europe the European Interoperability Framework (EIF), in Australia the Australian Government Architecture(AGA)... All this frameworks are created to ease sharing of information and resources, reduce costs, and improve citizen services. The main idea is how BI can be integrated with these frameworks to provide an Information Systems which uses all the data scattered across all public administrations to determine the decision to be taken. This paper is organized in four sections including this introduction. Section 2 shows the research methodology and summarizes the states of the art. It also describes the theoretical background of e-government interoperability and business intelligent. Section 3 presents a comparative of the Government Interoperability Frameworks and their future evolution on BI integration. Section 4 concludes the paper and proposes further work.
5 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations 5 2 The methodological framework and state of the art This research paper consists in three stages: In the first stage we describe an investigation about what governments need to apply BI with satisfactory results, which must be the IT infrastructure development at different levels. Second stage resumes different applications of BI to public sector. In the third stage will be made a comparative of different Government Interoperability Frameworks, and an analysis about how to adapt Business Intelligence to big public administrations (National governments, European Government) and show which problems are founded and how they can be solved. This analysis will be made having in mind the European case, at this moment is the most challenging because of the following motivations: European Interoperability Framework is in an early stage and under active development, exist a lot of functionally gaps to investigate and is complemented by the National Interoperability Framework in each EU member. It has a lot of legal and politic interoperability challenges; it tries to unify a lot of countries that work in a different way. The EU members have different languages so a common language is needed to analyse the requirements in the same way in every country. Data stored in different languages must be integrated. 2.1 Stages of growth in e-government According to Gottschalk and Solli-Sæther, Interoperability is referring to a property of diverse systems and organizations enabling them to work together. When systems and organizations are able to inter-operate then information and services are provided and accepted between them. In a narrow sense, the term interoperability is often used to describe technical systems . Gartner defined four stages to measure the progress of e-government in the research Gartner s Four Phases of e-government Model. The stages are: presence, interaction, transaction and transformation. The stages define the capacity of providing e-government capabilities to citizens and business. The concept is very similar to another classification created by Gottschalk and Solli- Sæther . These researches created a new four stages of growth model labelling each stage according to a meaningful characteristic: Stage 1 Aligning work process: Basic business processes are defined, some activities are carried out in an agency and others in a different agency. Data definition is not totally detailed and sometimes is exchanged manually. Stage 2 Knowledge sharing: Government agencies are prepared to share their knowledge. Agencies begin to define best practices, technical standards, semantic standards. Usually a framework defines how the agencies interoperate, in the majority of the cases in a technical way. Stage 3 Joint value creation: Agencies share development costs and benefits. They have common information models and service catalogues.
6 6 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations Stage 4 Strategic alignment: Common government and political decisions. Synergies between agencies and no conflicting goals between them. The relevance of the previous stages of growth model is that is the base of the framework A framework for analysing Interoperability in electronic government, created by Solli-Sæther  (Fig. 2). This framework uses the levels of interoperability defined in the European Interoperability Framework, it only covers the three initial levels of interoperability: organizational interoperability, semantic interoperability and technical interoperability. But not the political context and the legal interoperability, however it shows which properties can be found in each stage of growth. This could help to understand what has to be done to achieve decision making and integrate BI in governments. Fig. 2. Framework for e-government interoperability created by Solli-Sæther. 2.2 Business Intelligent in the public sector Nowadays it is indispensable to treat the amount of information and the complexity in an integrated way, we need tools to treat data and transform it into information and knowledge, tools that help people to make decisions. That tool is Business Intelligence, but research on BI applied to public administration or governments it is a topic not very studied. A very specific approach was the development of a cockpit for seven Swiss municipalities by Alessia C. Neuroni et al. [23, 21]. They developed a cockpit solution architecture (Fig. 3) on top of a web based platform, the solution consists on multiple dashboards that provides information in different perspectives. The
7 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations 7 research contains two main objectives: the first one is about administrative process, policy making and find the indicators needed to measure the municipality goals. The second perspective presents a technical architecture to adapt BI and elements needed (data warehouse, OLAP, data mining, ETL) to municipalities. Alessia C. Neuroni et al. show that the most complex challenge is convince the users to use the cockpit in everyday political decision. Another problem is the definition of the key performance indicators (KPIs), Decision makers in municipalities are not used to measurements in a political context, even if they are well acquainted with such measurements in industry. They have also found out that in small municipalities(less than inhabitants) strategic thinking is less popular than direct problem resolving. Although the proposed architecture works properly for municipalities, it would need a lot of changes to adapt it to a bigger problem, for example integrate Business Intelligent into national governments or European government. Fig. 3. Cockpit solution architecture created by Alessia C. Neuroni et al. Turull and Vivas describe how was de implementation of a balanced scorecard in the council of San Cugat del Vallés, the council decided to use this tool to improve the communication and motivation of the employees and tried to adapt the strategic thinking of the private sector to the council . They were trying to achieve not only financial goals but services for the citizens. The balanced scorecard was divided in 4 perspectives: training and innovation, internal processes, clients-citizens and financing. Firstly previous experiences in Charlotte (USA), Calgary (Canada), London and Wakefield (England) and council of Barcelona were studied, and then the model of Charlotte was adapted to
8 8 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations San Cugat. They have presented a balanced scorecard with 48 key performance indicators (KPI), but the important thing is that they have found the causal relations between them. Nowadays they can evaluate how variations in a KPI are causing variations in a different KPI, and with this knowledge they can improve their motivation, productivity and reduce their expenses. According to Peláez and Martín , the use of a dashboard in the Public Administration results in improvements in resolution time when consulting the Foreign Service, the standardization and homogenization of the data, normalization of business process and provide different information for each group of users (executives, office and officers). The Foreign Service Office needs tools to improve file management, discover tendencies and find out data that provides improvements to the business process. The solution provided is called Cuadro de mando para el análisis de la información de Extranjería del Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas and consists in a data warehouse which incorporates the KPIs(Key Performance Indicators), an OLAP model and a big collection of dynamic and static reports provide the information to the each group of users. The dashboard succeeded in providing the capacity to solve big amounts of problems in a small time and in a multi-channel environment. Díaz and Martín developed a module of statistical information of Human Resources in the Spanish Public Administration named Sistema de Información para el Anlisis de la Actividad de la Subdirección General de Gestión de Personal del Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas . The proposed solution consists on a data warehouse, an OLAP model and a collection of reports generated by Reporting Tools. The previous situation presents the typical problems: multiple sources of information which are not integrated and data from different sources that have to be integrated manually. Finally the achievements provided by the solutions were: a tool for analyse the quality and the performance of the system and a deeper and clarity vision of the system provided by the data warehouse, which can help in the decision making. Vivek Kundra, the Federal Chief Information Officer (CIO) is the leader of the Data.gov project. According to Data.gov website  The purpose of Data.gov is to increase public access to high value, machine readable datasets generated by the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. As a priority Open Government Initiative for President Obama s administration, Data.gov increases the ability of the public to easily find, download, and use datasets that are generated and held by the Federal Government. Data.gov provides descriptions of the Federal datasets (metadata), information about how to access the datasets, and tools that leverage government datasets. The data catalogues will continue to grow as datasets are added. Federal, Executive Branch data are included in the first version of Data.gov. Another part of the Data.gov project is the IT Dashboard. According to IT Dashboard website , The IT Dashboard provides the public with an online window into the details of Federal information technology (IT) investments and provides users with the ability to track the progress of investments over time. The IT Dashboard displays data received from federal agencies reports to the
9 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations 9 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), including general information on over 7,000 Federal IT investments and detailed data for over 800 of those investments that agencies classify as major. The performance data used to track the 800 major IT investments is based on milestones contained in agency reports to OMB called Capital Asset Plans, commonly referred to as Exhibit 300s. Federal Agency Chief Information Officers (CIOs) are responsible for evaluating and updating select data on a monthly basis, which is accomplished through interfaces provided on the IT Dashboard website. Examples of this interactive dashboard can be seen in (Fig. 4, 5). Fig. 4. IT Dashboard picture for statistics visualization. Fig. 5. IT Dashboard tool for trends analysis. A deeper analysis on IT Dashboard, shows a very powerful tool that provides information in an understandable way, data is used to provide that kind of information. But the main problem is that nowadays the data has to be reported to the OMB and that occurs in arbitrary and long periods of time (weeks, months).
10 10 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations Definitely the IT Dashboard is a good improvement in reporting but is far away from the capabilities of Business Intelligence. It is a good beginning but it must be improved. 3 The original contribution According Solli-Sæther s framework we know that Organizational Interoperability level is where Business Intelligence has to be applied to take advantage of his benefits. However, to improve the organizational level, the technical and semantical level must be improved too. The last years the majority of the countries were making big efforts evolving their information systems and their technical architectures. Goverments always have the same problems to share and reuse information: information silos, data homogenization, data integration, data normalization and interoperability. Interoperability refers to the capacity of exchanging data between governments and different countries, citizens, other governments or organizations. To solve these problems, governments developed e-gifs (e- Government Interoperability Framework). In order to analyze how to integrate BI and governments, this research begins with a comparative study of the different e-gifs: European Interoperability Framework(EIF) for Europe , Greek electronic Government Interoperability Framework for Greece , efig for UK , NORA for the Netherlands , OIO Enterprise Architecture for Denmark , EstIF for Estonia , SAGA for Germany , e-ping for Brazil , AGA for Australia , Belgian Government Interoperability Framework for Belgium  and New Zeland egif for New Zeland . In Europe the base framework is EIF, it provides a common base that every EU member has to support in their NIF (National Interoperability Framework). The main idea is to analyze the scope of each framework (Table 1), the relevance of this scope is that we need data to obtain knowledge; if we have data about how government and business are interoperating we can analyze that information and obtain knowledge. Table 1. Scope of each egif Country Framework G2B G2C G2G G2OG G2Org Europe EIF X X X Greece Greek egif UK e-gif X X X X X Netherlands NORA Denmark OIO EA X X Estonia EstIF X X X Germany SAGA X X X Brazil e-ping X X X X X Australia AGA X X X Belgium BELGIF X X X New Zeland NZ e-gif
11 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations 11 The architecture of these frameworks is compared in Table 2. Most of them assume implicitly the use of SOA, but not all of them describe in detail the use of SOA and provide some guidance on how to integrate it. Table 2. SOA adoption in the different egifs Label Text Europe Explicitly calls for SOA adoption Greece Explicitly for LGAF (Local Government Access Framework) UK Recommendation( v7 under development) Netherlands Explicitly adopts soa Denmark Explicitly adopts soa Estonia Implicitly adopts soa Germany Explicitly adopts soa Brazil Explicitly adopts soa Australia Explicitly adopts soa Belgium Implicitly adopts soa. Uses Belgian Federal Service Bus New Zeland Implicitly adopts soa Once we know that SOA is going to be the base of most of the frameworks is time show how to integrate BI in SOA architecture. As e-government evolves information silos are going to be left back and a big collection of services is going to replace them, so a big amount of data that could not be accessed before is now available to obtain knowledge. To integrate SOA and BI, the first idea is to integrate a datawarehouse or datamarts in the architecture and load data with ETLs. However, traditional BI presents problem that could be solved in SOA architecture. Some of these problems are: As the Swiss municipalities example shows, it is complicated for users to use BI tools, this occurs in private sector as well, companies provide BI tools to their users but they rarely use them and when they use them, it is like reporting tools and like interactive tools that provide knowledge. It is necessary to provide to each user the information that he needs and show how to use it. The main idea is alert when a problem is happening and not create a report where the users finds a problem. Data.gov project shows that data update it is an important problem. Latency must be as short as possible, the goal is to achieve real time latency. Nowadays it is important to have updated data for achieve updated information and updated knowledge. Out of date data could lead us to erroneous decisions. Traditional BI solutions are slow, they are not adequated to work in real time. Data is load into a data warehouse and then an OLAP cube is built, but the cube could not be updated in real time. Nowadays BI relies on people, persons that makes decision, but while the amount of data grows it is impossible to analyse it manually. Automatic tools are needed to analyse that big amount of data.
12 12 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations The previous list shows that despite the fact that could be possible to integrate traditional BI in SOA architecture, we must take advantage of SOA benefits, so a new architecture that integrates SOA and BI must be used. A possible solution is to make improvements to SOA and transform it into EDA( Event Driven Architecture). According to Maréchaux EDA defines a methodology for designing and implementing applications and systems in which events transmit between decoupled software components and services. EDA does not replace, but rather, complements the SOA . While SOA is based on request response model, EDA is based in a push model. Events can be seen as messages with a header describing metadata and the body containing the information. But the most important thing of EDA is that it provides de ability of process collections of events. This is named Complex Event Processing(CEP). According to Michelson CEP deals with evaluating a confluence of events and then taking action. The events (notable or ordinary) may cross event types and occur over a long period of time. The event correlation may be casual, temporal, or spatial. CEP requires the employment of sophisticated event interpreters, eventpattern definition and matching, and correlation techniques. CEP is commonly used to detect and respond to business anomalies, threats, and opportunities . In Fig. 6 can be seen an example of a complex event processing system. Fig. 6. Example of complex event processing system. A possible example which clarifies these ideas is the integration of RFID tags in passports. Millions of persons travelling around the world creates millions of events when rfid readers read a tags. This is the niche of EDA and CEP, here humans has no place, they can not handle such big amount of events, and automatic tools for analyse the information are needed.
13 Planning and control systems for governmental organizations 13 4 Conclusions and future work This research was carried out in order to find out about state of the art of what governments are doing to improve their decision making, this research shows that BI is a very powerful tool for governments. It provides a collection of advantages that had been used for years in the private sector and must be integrated in the public sector. As the previous research shows, governments are trying to use BI and improve their decision making, but most of them presents the same problems: not homogenized data, not integrated data, inaccessible data that must be transferred and crossed manually, and traditional BI architectures which uses ETLs for load data into the data warehouse, making impossible to take advantage of real time data and knowledge. The research also shows that most of the countries were developing the last decade Interoperability Frameworks for integrate and update their information systems. Most of them implicitly or explicitly are adopting SOA as the reference architecture and how governments could take advantage of this to integrate BI in their architectures. The future is going to be more SOA and BI must be adapted and evolve as SOA evolves. In near future governments must take advantage of EDA and CEP like private companies are doing nowadays. Future research must go deep in the comparison of the new versions of each egif, most of them are described in different languages maaking extremely difficult their comparison. It is important to notice that some of these e-gifs had not been updated during years and only inform that the new version of the framework is being developed. The stages of growth of Solli-Sæther must incorporate the absent levels: legal and political context. A deeper look into the evolution ofsoa, EDAand CEPmust be taken into account in orderto improve decision making in the public sector. References 1. Charalabidis, Y., Lampathaki, F., Sarantis, D., Sourouni, A.M., Mouzakitis, S., Gionis, G., Koussouris, S., Ntanos, C., Tsiakaliaris, C., Tountopoulos, V., Askounis, D.: The greek electronic government interoperability framework: Standards and infrastructures for one-stop service provision. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Panhellenic Conference on Informatics. pp IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA (2008), 2. Comission, E.: European Interoperability Framework(EIF). eu/isa/strategy/doc/annex_ii_eif_en.pdf (2010) 3. Financial Reporting Council: The UK Corporate Governance Code. UK%20Corp%20Gov%20Code%20June% pdf (2010) 4. Díaz Díaz, I., Martín Murillo, A.: Sistema de Información para el análisis de la actividad de la Subdirección General de Gestion de Personal del Ministerio de Administraciones Públicas 5. Gottschalk, P., Solli-Sæther, H.: Interoperability in e-government: Stages of growth. 20og%20Solli-S%C3%A6ther.pdf (2009)
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