REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON SMALL PELAGIC FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE ALBORAN SEA UNDER THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO FISHERIES

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1 CopeMed II ArtFiMed Technical Documents Nº18 (GCP/INT/028/SPA GCP/INT/006/EC) REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON SMALL PELAGIC FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE ALBORAN SEA UNDER THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO FISHERIES March 2011 iii

2 CopeMed II ArtFiMed Technical Documents Nº18 (GCP/INT/028/SPA GCP/INT/006/EC) REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON SMALL PELAGIC FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE ALBORAN SEA UNDER THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO FISHERIES September 2011

3 The conclusions and recommendations given in this document and in other documents in the Co-ordination to Support Fisheries Management in the Western and Central Mediterranean CopeMed II Project series are those considered appropriate at the time of preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained in subsequent stages of the Project. The designation employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO, the Government of Spain or the Commission of the European Union concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or concerning the determination of its frontiers or boundaries. This document has been financed by the European Union and the Government of Spain. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union or the Government of Spain.

4 Preface The CopeMed II Project on Co-ordination to Support Fisheries Management in the Western and Central Mediterranean is executed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and funded by the Government of Spain, represented by the Secretaría General del Mar, and the European Union, represented by the European Commission (EC). The objective of the project is to maintain the sustainability of the marine fisheries in the central and western Mediterranean Sea and its ecosystem, taking into consideration environmental, biological, economic, social and institutional issues. In addition, the project will continue to reinforce the collaboration among the participating countries of the sub-region by supporting their participation in the activities of the Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). Regions covered by CopeMed II are the western and central sub-regions of the Mediterranean. Countries involved are Algeria, France, Italy, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain. The main beneficiaries are the fishery policy-makers, managers and fishery administrations in the western and central Mediterranean countries. The project is also contributing to the strengthening of regional collaboration by supporting the participation of the countries in relevant regional scientific organizations, such as the FAO s General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). Secondary beneficiaries include the national research institutes, fishers and fishers associations, and industrial organizations. Proyecto CopeMed II (FAO-FIRF) Subdelegación del Gobierno en Málaga Paseo de Sancha 64, Offices Málaga Spain Tel: (+34) Fax: (+34) URL: This document is printed on paper iii

5 CopeMed II (GCP/INT/028/SPA GCP/INT/006/EC) and ArtFiMed (GCP/RAB/005/SPA) Publications CopeMed II ArtFiMed project publications are issued in the CopeMed II Technical Documents series and are related to meetings, missions and research organized or conducted within the framework of the CopeMed II and ArtFiMed Projects. Comments on this document would be welcomed and should be sent to the Project headquarters: Project CopeMed II Subdelegación del Gobierno en Málaga Paseo de Sancha 64, Offices Málaga (Spain) Project ArtFiMed Subdelegación del Gobierno en Málaga Paseo de Sancha 64, Offices Málaga (Spain) For bibliographic purposes this document should be cited as follow: CopeMed II Report of the Working Group on Small Pelagic Fisheries Management in the Alboran Sea under the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. CopeMed II ArtFiMed Technical Documents Nº 18 (GCP/INT/028/SPA GCP/INT/006/EC). Málaga, pp. iv

6 Preparation of this document This document is the final version of the meeting report of the Working Group on Small Pelagic Fisheries Management in the Alboran Sea under the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries, prepared by the Project CopeMed II. Acknowledgements CopeMed II acknowledges the participation of Mediterranean experts from fishery administrations and fishery research institutions in Algeria, Morocco and Spain in the meeting for improving the small pelagic fishery management in the Alboran Sea. CopeMed II Report of the Working Group on Small Pelagic Fisheries Management in the Alboran Sea under the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. CopeMed II ArtFiMed Technical Documents Nº18 (GCP/INT/028/SPA GCP/INT/006/EC). Málaga, pp. ABSTRACT In accordance with the recommendations of the CopeMed II Coordination Committee (Tunis, Tunisia, 6-7 May 2010), a multidisciplinary working group of experts from national fishery administrations and research centres involved in the three countries (Morocco, Algeria and Spain) met in Málaga on 15 March 2011 to: review the state of small pelagic fisheries in the Alboran Sea; consider their weaknesses and strengths; and update information on the structure of the fishing fleets, in order to plan new objectives within a collaborative CopeMed II framework and in accordance with the FAO s Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF). Participants from Algeria, Morocco and Spain presented information and data on their respective national fisheries, targeting small pelagic species andthe main management tools being applied. Scientists from the national fishery research institutions presented data on the main problems and the state of the stocks. Two documents prepared for CopeMed II summarized the fisheries in Morocco and Spain. A third document, summarizing the situation in the Alboran eco-region, with information from the three countries, was also presented by CopeMed II. After discussion on options for a follow-up of the activities of the Working Group, it was agreed that the Working Group on Small Pelagic Fisheries Management in the Alboran Sea under the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries will cover all aspects of cooperation in the improvement of the fisheries management based on an ecosystem approach and of the relationship between different actors and countries. Causes of declining fish yield in the Alboran Sea and the need for a joint review of the North-South information were analysed. Standardization of the methodology to calculate the fishing effort and of the stock evaluation methods used to compare the results was recommended and differences in the fleets operating in GSAs 01 and 03 were identified. With the aim of initiating a process of thematic meetings, draft terms of reference for a first meeting to jointly work on the biological aspects of the main target species of the Alboran Sea was agreed, with the participation of fishery researchers from institutions in Algeria, Morocco and Spain. v

7 INDEX 1. Introduction National small pelagic fisheries Scientific issues relevant to small pelagic fishery management in the Alboran Sea Putting the management of small pelagic fisheries in the northern Alboran Sea into practice: the Spanish fishery administration Putting the management of small pelagic fisheries in the southern Alboran Sea into practice: Algerian and Moroccan governments Lessons learned, conclusions and recommendations Closure of the Working Group session Appendix I: List of participants...13 Appendix II: Agenda...15 Appendix III: Non-exhaustive List of Publications on EAF Appendix IV: Summary of the Alboran Sea, an example for the enforcement of the EAF: The Alboran Initiative Appendix V: Summary of the current state of the small pelagic fisheries in GSA01 (northern Alboran Sea) Appendix VI: Summary of the exploitation state and biological data of small pelagic resources in GSA03 (Morocco) Appendix VII: Summary of the current state of small pelagic fisheries in the southern Alboran Sea: GSA04 (Algeria)...21 Appendix VIII: Summary of the review and update of the pilot plan for shared management of small pelagic fisheries in the Alboran Sea between Spain and Morocco: new elements to consider Appendix IX: Summary of the Adriatic Sea experience in small pelagic fishery management...23 Appendix X: Summary of research progress in small pelagic post-larval ecology of the Bay of Málaga nursery grounds: recruitment implications Appendix XI: Summary of «habitats sensibles pour les ressources petits pélagiques de la mer d Alboran marocaine» Appendix XII: Summary of management of small pelagic fisheries in the northern Alboran Sea (SGM-MARM)...26 Appendix XIII: Summary of management of small pelagic fisheries in the northern Alboran Sea (DGPA-Junta de Andalucía)...28 Appendix XIV: Summary of the small pelagic management plan of the Department of Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture in Morocco Appendix XV: Draft terms of reference of the Working Group Appendix XVI: Current state of the small pelagic fisheries in GSA01 (northern Alboran Sea...33 Appendix XVII: Level of exploitation and biological data of small pelagic resources in GSA03 (Morocco) Appendix XVIII: Review and update of the pilot plan for shared management of small pelagic fisheries in the Alboran Sea between Spain and Morocco. New elements to consider..116 Appendix XIX: Réflexions concernant l étude de faisabilité d un éventuel plan pilote sur les pêcheries des petits pélagiques dans la Mer d Alboran.. 170

8 1. Introduction The FAO-CopeMed II Coordinator, Mr J. A. Camiñas, opened the meeting of the Working Group on Small Pelagic Fisheries Management in the Alboran Sea under the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. He welcomed the participants, thanking them for their participation and contributions. Experts from Algeria (Centre National de Recherche et Développement de la Pêche et de l'aquaculture-cnrdpa), Morocco (General Directorate for Fisheries and Aquaculture and the Institut National de Recherche Halieutique-INRH) and Spain (Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of the Junta de Andalucía, and the Instituto Español de Oceanografía-IEO) participated in the meeting. Mr. Camiñas also thanked the Subdelegación del Gobierno (represented by Mr. F. Ron, Deputy General Secretary and responsible for fishery issues) for its continued support to CopeMed II and the present meeting. Following the introduction of the participants (Appendix I), the Agenda was adopted (Appendix II). Mr. Robles, former Director of CopeMed, phase I, was elected chairperson and Mr. Fernández, rapporteur. The CopeMed II Coordinator reviewed the objectives of the meeting and CopeMed II s creation of the Working Group on Management of Small Pelagic Fisheries in the Alboran Sea under the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. On the initiative of the Coordinator, it was agreed that the summarized presentations sent by the authors will be incorporated into the report of the present meeting Description of the pilot project on small pelagic fisheries in the Alboran Sea. Objectives and expected results of the Working Group (J. A. Camiñas). The Alboran Sea is the westernmost portion of the Mediterranean, lying between Spain, Morocco and Algeria. The fisheries of small pelagic species in this area are very important to the three countries: more than 200 vessels from the Moroccan and Spanish fleets fishing small pelagics in the Alboran Sea represent a mean landing of tons, with a landed value of about 24 million euros; more than fishers are directly involved. The Coordination Committee agreed during its last meeting (Tunis, Tunisia, 6-7 May 2010) to organize a meeting involving scientists, fisheries administrators and NGOs of the three countries to discuss the current situation of these fisheries, the national fishery resources policy, the fishing regulations and management tools Why an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF)? Most of the world s marine fisheries have been recognized as overexploited or fully exploited. Overexploitation results in dramatic declines in marine populations, possibly below minimum viable reproductive levels, causing the commercial collapse of fisheries. Over the last twenty five years, there has been much discussion of the application of the ecosystem approach to the exploitation of natural resources and to fisheries management 1. An Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries strives to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking account of the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries 2. By 1 Publications prepared by the FAO may be consulted (www.fao.org) and are summarized in Appendix III of the present report. 2 FAO (2003). The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries, 4 (Suppl. 2):112pp. 1

9 addressing both human and ecological well-being, EAF means to implement sustainable development concepts in fisheries The pilot project on small pelagic fisheries in the Alboran Sea. Background. The idea was developed during phase I of CopeMed, and adopted by the Coordination Committee. The recommendations of a Stakeholders Forum (Madrid, July 2003) on a Pilot Plan for the Co-Management of Small Pelagic Fisheries in the Alboran Sea were: Its long-term objective would be to apply a co-management approach to a specific fishery with the three countries implied and the three actors of system (Administration, Industry and Research) involved. Its immediate objectives are: jointly assess the small pelagic stocks in the area, try to harmonize different management measures within national legislations, take stock management decisions considering the ecosystem approach and the possible effects of the pilot plan on the markets of the region, and build a model that could be applied in other GFCM subregions. During the CopeMed I Coordination Committee meeting in Tunis (May 2005), it was agreed that, given the fact that there are no stocks of fishes or other exploitable living marine resources that are clearly limited to water under the sole jurisdiction of any Mediterranean country, it is recommended that the countries collaborate among themselves and with the Regional Fisheries Organisations to harmonizing their national legislation governing the fishery exploitation, management and research and, in relation to the pilot project for the Alboran Sea, Before the production of co-management decisions, it should be clarified if shared stocks are present in this area, therefore the project should focus more on deepening the knowledge on small pelagic resources Objectives and outputs of CopeMed II related to small pelagic fishery management The expected outputs of the CopeMed II Objective 3 related to the small pelagic fisheries of the Alboran Sea 3 mention that the stocks in the Alboran Sea will be jointly analysed by experts from the different countries around the Alboran Sea and common databases on the sardine and anchovy fisheries will be created. During the last CopeMed II Coordination Committee meeting in Tunis, the interest in advancing with this issue was affirmed Objectives of the meeting and expected results The objectives of the present meeting are as follows: The implementation of the EAF in the fisheries of the Alboran Sea. The analysis of the different components: national fleets; social and economic aspects and the corresponding indicators; and the state of the stocks and stocks assessment. A joint approach to the existing national management tools and management procedures with the medium-term objective of harmonizing the regulations. Incorporate stakeholders into the management process: co-management. 3 CopeMed II Objective 3: Strengthening the institutional capacity at national level (functioning of organizations, relations between actors, development of management strategies) and at sub-regional level. 4 CopeMed II should continue supporting cooperation on research on the small pelagic fish in the Alboran Sea to facilitate the preparation of proposals for the management of these stocks. The project should organize the subregional demersal and small pelagic Working Groups on shared stocks; update the information on the small pelagics in the Alboran Sea and draft recommendations for the administrations. 2

10 Improve the cooperation among the countries. The expected results should include: Strengths and weaknesses of fishery management in the three countries, by analysing the documents presented during the meeting. Mechanisms to harmonize national management tools in a subregional context. Organization of a joint Alboran Sea working group on small pelagic stocks assessment among the three countries. Establishment of mechanisms and synergies for the monitoring of the fishery resources and the ecosystem (a joint scientific plan?). Improve the mechanisms for communication among the three countries The Alboran Sea, an example for the aplication of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries: the Alboran Initiative (R. Robles). Mr. Robles summarized the fishery information in the book Conservation and sustainable development of the Alboran Sea 5 and introduced the recommendations and strategic elements relevant to the Alboran eco-region (Summary in Appendix IV to the present report). He highlighted the key elements to ensure the sustainable use and conservation of the natural and cultural heritage: integrated coastal-zone management; protection of marine and coastal areas and species conservation; sustainable management of exploited fishery resources, pointing out some strengths and several weaknesses of Mediterranean fishery management. He reviewed the fishery resources management regulations, at the level of the international organizations (GFCM, ICCAT and the EU) and of the countries themselves, stressing the poor performance and possible problems in their implementation. Finally, he raised a number of elements to be considered in the implementation of a strategy for the future of eco-alboran region. 2. National small pelagic fisheries 2.1. Current state of small pelagic fisheries in the northern Alboran Sea: GSA01, Spain (A. Giráldez). The Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga (IEO) research on the "small pelagic fishery in GSA 6 01: past and current status", which also includes the Ceuta and Melilla enclaves in North Africa, was presented. This study reviewed target species, fleet and fishery features, catch, state of exploitation of stocks and economic value (Summary in Appendix V to the present report). The document prepared for CopeMed II is available in Appendix XVI. Discussion: The progressive reduction in the fleet and the fishing effort was noted and the importance of historical data and information was underlined. It was confirmed that the sardine is the species mainly supporting this fishery. 5 Robles, R. (2010). Conservation and sustainable development of the Alboran Sea: strategic elements for its future management. 6 GSA: GFCM Geographical Sub-Area. 3

11 Horse mackerel (of overall length 15 cm or larger) is of great commercial interest, being exported to the Spanish Levante for fattening tuna. The smaller specimens are exported to Portugal for local consumption. The difference in size at first maturity of sardine and anchovy, in relation to the regulations in Spain, and the possibility for EU countries to adjust to a higher legal size set up by the European Commission, was considered. In GSA01, there are important east-west differences in terms of landings. In the eastern ports, more diversity in species landings is found, and in the western ports, sardine is the main species. Small pelagic catches (landings by vessel/day) and market prices were compared with those in the Adriatic Sea, with the conclusion that there is a similar scenario. There is a disparity between the national and regional government data/information in terms of purse-seiner crews. The main weaknesses of the sector (resource seasonality, low salaries, instability, loss of income, etc.) were acknowledged Level of exploitation and biological data of small pelagic resources in GSA03, Morocco (M. Najih). Mr. Najih summarized the most important characteristics of the small pelagic fisheries in the Moroccan Alboran Sea (GSA03), listing the fleet and fisheries characteristics, target species and the biological data and economic importance of this activity in the Moroccan Mediterranean (Summary in Appendix VI hereto). The document prepared for CopeMed II is available in Appendix XVII. Discussion: Causes of declining fish yield in the Alboran Sea were analysed, being essentially a joint review of the data as basis of the conclusions reached. The need for a joint review of the North-South information was stressed and the creation of a working group to analyse campaign data for /4 was recommended. Standardization of the methodology to calculate the fishing effort and of the stock evaluation methods used to compare the results was also recommended. Differences in the fleets operating in GSAs 01 and 03 were identified (vessel characteristics, crew, etc.), as was the importance of market prices in the behaviour of the fishing fleet. Analysis of sardine length-frequency distribution in GSA03 has provided information on breeding areas: the sardine appears to breed mainly along the eastern coast and then migrates westward. An influence of the incoming Atlantic Current, and other environmental issues, were proposed to explain the length-frequency distribution of the sardine. The Strait of Gibraltar is not a barrier, but an element that links the Atlantic and Mediterranean fish populations Current state of small pelagic fisheries in southern Alboran Sea: GSA04, Algeria (S. Ben Smail). A review and analysis of updated data on small pelagic fisheries in Algeria, critical habitats relative to species, and the factors ensuring the sustainability of pelagic resources in GSA04 for the purpose of small pelagic fishery management in the Alboran Sea was presented (Summary in Appendix VII). 4

12 Discussion: The need for updating fishery data in Algeria and its presentation at the next meeting of the Working Group for discussion was recommended. The significant increase in the fishing effort of the Algerian purse-seine fleet was stressed. The importance of collaboration among the three countries regarding small pelagic fishery management was emphasized. Mrs. Ben Smail was asked to prepare a document with information on the Algerian small pelagic fisheries so as to update and supplement the information already available in Morocco and Spain Review and update of the pilot plan for shared management of small pelagic fisheries in the Alboran Sea between Spain and Morocco: new elements to consider (F. Álvarez). Characteristics of purse-seine fisheries in the northern and southern Alboran Sea (GSAs 01 and 03) were presented and the similarities and differences, as well as the strengths and weaknesses, were analysed. The pilot plan for small pelagic fishery management prepared for CopeMed I was described, following a review of its strengths and weaknesses and the analysis of the updated information submitted by Spain and Morocco, highlighting the main key factors that support a co-management of the exploitation of the small pelagic resources in the Alboran Sea (Summary in Appendix VIII). The document prepared for CopeMed II is available in Appendix XVIII. Discussion: Following a discussion of the GFCM recommendations, the importance of establishing well defined geographical study areas, advancing joint scientific research on these resources, standardizing scientific data and methods, and sharing experiences and projects was determined. The standardization of the acoustic methodology used by the different countries in the research campaigns was suggested, to facilitate comparison of the results and the conduct of joint assessments (acoustic and daily egg production MPDH (método de producciόn diaria de huevos). Disparities in the sardine and anchovy catches in Moroccan GSA03 compared to those in GSA01 (nearly double those in GSA03) were presented, stressing the fact that the total economic output is similar in both sub-areas. As in GSA01, the overexploitation of anchovy was confirmed. The need to use standard scientific methods by participants in CopeMed II, AdriaMed and other relevant Mediterranean regional projects was stressed. The need to initiate a deep study of these resources was also stressed; in particular, the adaptation of the fleets to new target species, including the adjustment of the fleets and markets to new species according to their abundance. The need to apply the ecosystem approach to fisheries to studies for abundance estimation and distribution of small pelagic species in the Alboran Sea was recognized The Adriatic Sea experience in small pelagic fishery management (E. Arneri). Mr. Arneri, Coordinator of the FAO-AdriaMed project, presented the main features of the project supporting the Adriatic Sea small pelagic fishery management plan, joint studies and cooperative analysis. Since its inception, AdriaMed has provided support for the identification and monitoring of shared small pelagic stocks. After more than thirty 5

13 years of gathering data and fisheries monitoring in the Adriatic Sea it was only recently, and in the framework of the AdriaMed project, that coordinated surveys, joint data collection and data analysis involving the experts from all the participating countries were initiated (Summary in Appendix IX). Discussion: Length-frequency distribution sampling of sardines in the Adriatic Sea landings were compared with those in the Moroccan fish landings. More biological data on the abundance of small pelagic species landed, mainly along the east coast, in the Adriatic Sea are required to improve joint stock assessments. Fishing fleet management is the responsibility of the fleets country of origin. The EU demands joint management plans and does not restrict the mobility of the fleets. All the participants stressed the importance of the management measures implemented in the Adriatic Sea and their possible application to the Alboran Sea. 3. Scientific issues relevant to small pelagic fishery management in the Alboran Sea 3.1. Progress in research on the post-larval ecology of small pelagic species in the Bay of Málaga nursery grounds: recruitment implications (A. García). Results, progress and conclusions of the investigation of the larval stages of small pelagic fish species in the nursery areas of the Bay of Málaga, carried out by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography s (IEO) Oceanographic Centre of Málaga, were presented (Summary in Appendix X). This investigation demonstrated that such fry habitats should fall in the category of sensitive habitats, because they are crucial for well-being and growth during the early life stages of small pelagic fish species, as well as other species of commercial and ecological interest, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainability of fish resources Critical habitats for breeding, fry concentration and recruits in the southern Alboran Sea (O. Kada). The main features and results of the research conducted by the INRH on small pelagic fish larval stages in GSA03 (southern Alboran Sea) and the different problems of the purse-seine fishery sector in Morocco were discussed (Summary in Appendix XI). Discussion: The need to perform joint studies on the larval stages between Morocco and Spain and the importance of the participation of Algeria in them was emphasized. It was recalled that the IEO-INRH joint studies on larvae and environment in the past have produced interesting results on the distribution and abundance of sardine eggs and larvae in GSAs 01 and 03. Interaction between dolphins and the purse-seine fishery in Morocco was stressed. In order to reduce it, the INRH has launched a pilot acoustic programme to stop the dolphins. With the presentation of a possible new species of anchovy, found in the Nador Lagoon, several hypotheses arose to explain this finding. A scientific publication on this issue is being drawn up. 6

14 4. Putting the management of small pelagic fisheries in the northern Alboran Sea into practice: the Spanish fishery administration 4.1. Management of small pelagic fisheries in the northern Alboran Sea: the Spanish fishery administration (A. J. Martín de la Fuente). The representative of the Spanish fishery administration reviewed fishery management in the European Union and Spain, fishery management regulations and technical measures at the Spanish national level. The main objective was to achieve a more effective fishery management, which ensures the protection and conservation of the marine environment and the improvement of the economic, social and environmental aspects of coastal areas, such as those in the Alboran Sea, where fishing is an essential economic activity (Summary in Appendix XII). Discussion: The fishing industry s difficulty in the implementation of certain EU fishery management measures over areas of minimum seafloor depth (Regulation 1967/2007) was discussed. The importance of the ecosystem approach and the need for a good relationship between the fishery sector and the fishery administration to facilitate their incorporation into fishery management, and thus fulfil EU legislation, was recalled. Reduction of fishing effort in Spain, in accordance with the integrated management plan for the Mediterranean, was pointed out. It was recalled that the inclusion of new species in the approved list of species, and their catch periods, with a view to regulating the purse-seine fishery fleet in the Mediterranean, is being discussed in a draft law. The EU Common Fisheries Policy, with regard to fishery discards, their reduction and the marketing of products based on them was also recalled. The restrictions on the mobility of fishing fleets in Spanish waters, in contrast to that in the GSAs of the Adriatic Sea, were analysed. The importance of exchanging information among different countries on the implementation of fishery regulations was noted. The possibility of improving the visibility of the Alboran Sea eco-region fisheries in the Mediterranean context and the need to collect statistical data for the Alboran Sea was evoked Management of small pelagic fisheries in the northern Alboran Sea. Junta de Andalucía regional administration (D. Acosta). The regulations applicable to these fisheries, the characteristics of the purse-seine fleet and the marketing of small pelagic species in Andalucía, and major fishery management measures in the northern Alboran GSA applied by the Junta de Andalucía, were reviewed. The use of the Location and Tracking System of Andalusian Fishing Vessels (SLSEPA) and its relation to the records of the Andalusian fish markets supplied by the Andalusian fish markets information system (IDAPES), allows the analysis of the fishing effort, the location of stocks and calculation of the fishing yield, as well as monitoring the failure to comply with the applicable regulations, and seems to be an effective tool for inshore fishery management which could be applied in other countries (Summary in Appendix XIII). 7

15 Discussion: Evolution of the fleet in the GSA01, confirming a significant reduction in fishing effort, was pointed out. There was a debate on aid beneficiaries of temporary stoppages in the purse-seine fleet, taking into account the unfeasibility of carrying out these stops nowadays, for lack of EU funds and the conflicts that have arisen. The importance of SLSEPA and its possibilities was underlined; it allows sending location data at a high frequency and low cost, by using the same system as mobile phones; installation of SLSEPA in Andalucía is optional, depending on the fishery, and it is funded (100%) by the Government of Andalucía. The results obtained by the SLSEPA have shown the situation of the red seabream fishery in the Strait of Gibraltar. It was acknowledged that this system is very effective for vessels operating in the Alboran Sea for short periods of time and short distances, unlike other location systems (blue boxes). It was agreed to introduce this system as an example of a valuable fishery management instrument at the next Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) meeting of the GFCM hosted by the European Commission. The importance of this tool to identify fish stocks and their production, by species, estimation of CPUE, by fishery and by year, as well as economic performance, was emphasized. The grid system, with fishery information being developed by the DGPA in Andalucía to implement the new EU regulations on production areas, was discussed. The possibility of analysing data using other tools in the information system of the Junta de Andalucía and the GMS data (blue boxes) was commended. Control of resources for suitable fishery management purposes and how this instrument could be implemented in other coastal fleets was discussed. Experts from Morocco and Algeria were very interested in knowing the SLSEPA system. 5. Putting the management of small pelagic fisheries in the southern Alboran Sea into practice: Algerian and Moroccan governments In the absence of a representative of the Algerian fishery administration and of a document on the subject, no presentation was possible Small pelagic fishery management plan of the Moroccan Department of Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture (F. Z. Hassouni and N. El Monfaloti). Representatives from Morocco presented the management plan for small pelagic fisheries in Morocco. The Halieutis Plan of the fishery sector in Morocco, articulated around three axes, was also explained: Sustainability: a resource exploited sustainably for future generations. Performance: an industry well organized for an optimal landing quality for marketing Competitiveness: products well recovered and competitive in the fastestgrowing markets. And five solid ideas based on the fishery sector strategy: 1. Fishery resource; natural and sustainable heritage. 2. Aquaculture, a strong growing opportunity. 3. Fishing ports well structured and equipped for the sector service. 4. All catches valued on land. 8

16 5. Controlled flow throughout the value chain. It was pointed out that small pelagics represent over 80% of the catches in the Moroccan exclusive economic zone. Concerning preservation measures for small pelagic resources, the Moroccan representatives stressed the fact that the small pelagics management plan is a flagship project of the Halieutis Plan aimed at achieving sustainable fishery resource exploitation and maximizing stock recovery. The Total Admissible Catches (TAC) system, set each year, based on the observed biomass and for each fishing area, was also explained (Summary in Appendix XIV). Discussion: There was a debate on the TAC system and fishing quotas included in the Halieutis Plan. It was recalled that TAC is set according to observed biomass and is obtained by direct methods (acoustic campaigns) by the INRH. With regard to the evaluation of Mediterranean small pelagic stocks, INRH s campaigns are not carried out regularly. Adequacy of scientific studies (INRH) to set the TAC at a higher level than the currently established one (currently is annual) was discussed. It was stressed that the management system raises the possibility of transferring quotas between vessels owners and/or intra-enterprise, with specific conditions. The small pelagic fishery management system in Morocco should have a wider implementation in the Mediterranean, so it could become a useful management and collaboration tool with the Spanish system. 6. Lessons learned, conclusions and recommendations Despite not having enough time to discuss in depth the lessons to be learned from the different monitoring and analysis systems for small pelagic resources in the Alboran Sea and the national fishery management systems, CopeMed II undertook the synthesis and their distribution to the participants. Participants underlined the need for considering fisheries, and in particular the small pelagic fisheries, an activity among various others carried out in the Alboran Sea ecoregion, so there is a need to enhance the ecosystem approach, recognizing the interests of society in the marine ecosystems of the Alboran Sea and the need to reconcile their legitimate interests with those of the fishery. Participants stressed that the creation of the Working Group by CopeMed II represented an opportunity for the three countries, Algeria, Morocco and Spain, to exchange views and discuss common issues of interest related to small pelagic fishery management and, even more, to consider the relevance of introducing the ecosystem approach to fishery management into their national legislation. All participants recognized the need for, and importance of, maintaining this forum on the Alboran Sea small pelagic species, with the support of CopeMed II, the national administrations and scientific institutions of the three countries. The organization of a permanent group in the framework of the ecosystem approach to fishery management was recommended; this will take place in 2011 with the support of CopeMed II if funding is appropriate, and draft Terms of Reference for the first meeting were proposed (Appendix XV hereto). 9

17 The Working Group acknowledged that, despite the similarity among the fleets of the three countries, the exploitation and marketing strategies and the fishery management systems applied are different and are not coordinated with those of other countries in the Alboran region. Also, the lack of a permanent scientific collaboration to jointly and periodically assess the state of small pelagic resources in GSA01 and GSA03 was pointed out. Taking into account the experience in the Adriatic Sea, where it has taken over thirty years to establish common data and standard methods, since the initial individual scientific studies of the countries involved in the AdriaMed project, it was recommended that priority be given to small pelagic fishing nations in the Alboran Sea in gathering and processing data following the same procedures, standardizing sampling protocols and assessments for resource management in the Alboran Sea. Resources being exploited in GSA01 and GSA03 are mainly sardine and anchovy. To date, there has not been an approach to the joint study of stocks of these species; nor were joint assessments conducted, so the priority should be to create different working groups, consisting of scientists and managers, to continue working on the preparation of a pilot plan for the co-management of small pelagic fisheries in the Alboran Sea. All this bearing in mind that the European Commission has responsibility for management plans with third countries. Given the shortage and unreliability of data, mainly in Algeria, it was recommended to increase cooperation among the relevant research centres of the three countries as part of the activities on shared stocks that CopeMed II supports, to review progress in the examination and assessment of small pelagic stocks. A joint review and analysis of all information and data from Morocco, Algeria and Spain in the Alboran Sea was considered necessary to prepare a report on the purseseine fishery in Algeria which complements the Moroccan and Spanish reports presented during the present meeting. Knowing that, in the Alboran Sea, there are certain areas that represent key ecosystems for the reproduction and development of the early stages of small pelagic target species, such as sardine and anchovy, and that these ecosystems are crucial to stock recovery and to the long-term sustainability of fisheries, it was recommended to take long-term measures to promote stock recovery, such as the establishment of breeding and fry protection zones in which fishing is partially or totally restricted. In countries where there is a lack of information on small pelagic species larvae and juveniles in relation to breeding and fry areas, it was recommended to strengthen scientific collaboration with those countries having more developed studies (IEO s sardine and anchovy larvae monitoring began in 1995) and to initiate studies in common, including the application of resource assessment methods, such as the method of daily egg production (MPDH). Considering that the sardine migration to the west coast of GSA03 after spawning on the eastern coast of Morocco was confirmed, it was recommended to study this migration, including the effects of environmental factors on it, and the sardine age and size distribution to improve sardine stock management. 10

18 Concerning the high biomass and the catches of species of no commercial interest, it was recommended to minimize discards, improve the selectivity of fishing gears and the harvesting strategy. Regarding the large fluctuations in abundance of these species, owing to natural factors, which cause great instability in the catch and therefore in revenue, it was recommended to conduct studies and research aimed at establishing patterns of abundance of different pelagic species so as to improve fishery performance, sustainability of the economic, social and environmental coastal zone of the Alboran Sea, where fishery is an essential social and economic activity. Considering the emergence of the Location and Tracking System of Andalusian Fishing Vessels (SLSEPA) as a powerful tool for coastal fishery control and monitoring, it was recommended to test its implementation in other countries as a tool for small coastal pelagic fishery management. It was also recommended that CopeMed II convey the information to the organizers of the next VMS meeting of the GFCM hosted by the European Commission. Concerning the inadequacy of the implementation of management measures and the specific regulation of Alboran Sea small pelagic resources, it was recommended to improve communication and coordination among the governments of the region and the adoption of a common approach to the development of management tools and procedures that lead to the sustainability of small pelagic resources in the Alboran Sea. Regarding the need to improve the effectiveness of management measures in order to achieve the sustainability of small pelagic resources in the Alboran Sea, better communication and coordination among the governments of the region, and the adoption of a common approach to the development of management tools and procedures, were recommended; all this, bearing in mind again that the European Commission has responsibility for management plans with third countries. Considering that cooperation among countries is essential to advance to the joint management of small pelagic fisheries, and bearing in mind the importance of applying the ecosystem approach to fisheries, the creation of a permanent working group under CopeMed II to move towards the management of the small pelagic fisheries of the Alboran Sea was recommended, following the example of the Adriatic Sea and improving, in the medium-term, the issues concerning cooperation in an ecosystem approach to fishery management. To this end, it was agreed that representatives of fishery administrations will send a proposal to CopeMed II supporting the organization of a working group on common management issues, which CopeMed II could organize. The draft Terms of Reference of the second working group will be prepared by CopeMed II, at the request of interested parties. 7. Closure of the Working Group session Following expression of the gratitude of participants to CopeMed II for having organized the meeting and of the hope that the project will continue and provide a new opportunity for experts from the three countries to meet, the CopeMed II Coordinator thanked the participants for their participation and their contributions to the discussions and for the friendly atmosphere of cooperation shown by all. He restated CopeMed II s intention to support the organization of a new meeting if the CopeMed project is 11

19 extended. He also informed the participants of the preparation of a first draft of the report of the present meeting as soon as possible, for review by the participants. In accordance with the Terms of Reference of the Working Group (Appendix XV) CopeMed II, in collaboration with the proposed new coordinator, Mr. Francisco Álvarez (Spain), will make a proposal for the next meeting to be circulated to the participants. The venue and date will be agreed by the parties involved, after the 4 th CopeMed II Coordination Committee Meeting. The CopeMed II Coordinator closed the present session of the CopeMed II Working Group on Small Pelagic Fisheries Management in the Alboran Sea under the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. 12

20 Appendix I: List of participants ALGERIA Samia BEN SMAIL CNRDPA 11, boulevard du Colonnel Amirouche, Bou Ismail, Tipaza, Algeria Tel: Fax: MOROCCO Omar KADA Institut Nationale de Recherche Halieutique B.P 493 Nador, Morocco Tel: Fax: Mohammed NAJIH Institut Nationale de Recherche Halieutique B.P. 493 Nador principal Nador, Morocco Tel: Fax: Fatima Zohra HASSOUNI Département de la Pêche Maritime Direction de la Pêche Maritime et de l'aquaculture Division de la Protection des Ressources Halieutiques Rabat, Morocco Tel: Fax: Najat EL MONFALOTI Département de la Pêche Maritime Direction de la Pêche Maritime et de l'aquaculture Division de la Protection des Ressources Halieutiques Rabat, Morocco Tel: Fax: Samira EL MARHOUME Département de la Pêche Maritime Direction de la Pêche Maritime et de l'aquaculture Division de la Protection des Ressources Halieutiques Rabat, Morocco Tel: Fax: SPAIN Jorge BARO Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) Puerto Pesquero s/n Fuengirola, Málaga Tel: Fax: Ana GIRÁLDEZ Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) Puerto Pesquero s/n Fuengirola Málaga, Spain Tel: Fax: Alberto GARCÍA Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) Puerto Pesquero s/n Fuengirola Málaga, Spain Tel: Fax: Federico ÁLVAREZ Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) Moll de Ponent s/n 07015, Palma de Mallorca. Illes Balears, Spain Tel: Fax:

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