LETTER FROM THE DIRECTOR. Spring 2009 INSIDE THIS ISSUE 14 FACULTY 23 SPOTLIGHT: BOOK RE VIEW 28 CONTACT US

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1 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER LETTER FROM THE DIRECTOR Dear Friends, The fall semester was a busy one at the Program in Latin American Studies. I was appointed program director on July 1, 2008, and since then I have been working on a number of projects, most of which are now completed. First of all, we launched a new PLAS Distinguished Speaker series, designed to invite an outstanding intellectual from Latin America to spend a few days at Princeton, deliver a public lecture, and lead a seminar-style discussion for the program s faculty. Our first distinguished speaker was Mario Vargas Llosa, who visited in spring 2008, followed by Elena Poniatowska in September. Elena s visit was a remarkable success: her lecture about testimonial literature given in Spanish drew an audience of more than 100 students. Our most recent distinguished speaker was Ernesto Zedillo, former president of Mexico, who visited Princeton in March. Last fall we kicked off our first lecture series on Art, Literature, Film: Latin American Perspectives, featuring an all-star lineup of novelists Jorge Edwards from Chile, Mario Bellatin from Mexico, Alan Pauls from Argentina as well Ernesto Neto, one of the most active young artists in Brazil, and critics Antonio Saborit and Raúl Antelo. The Tuesday lunch seminar series concluded last semester after many years of existence. It was replaced by a new initiative: the Work-in-Progress Lunch Seminars, led by Princeton faculty on selected Mondays. This semester a dynamic group of faculty members will present their current research projects: Mario Gandelsonas (Architecture), Eduardo Cadava (English), Alexandra Vazquez (English, African American Studies), Bryan Just (Art Museum and Art and Archaeology), Vera Candiani (History), and Edward Telles (Sociology). All seminars are open to the public. This year the Visiting Fellows Program brought to Princeton three very different intellectuals: Marcos Cueto, a Peruvian expert on health issues; Juan Pablo Luna, who taught a course in the fall on democracy in Latin America; and Cuban novelist José Manuel Prieto, who taught courses on Cuban literature in and out of the island. Finally, a few words about other changes in the program: we launched a new, completely redesigned website in October 2008; we worked with the Office of Communications to devise a new graphic identity for PLAS and produce the colorful designs you now see on our posters and announcements; and we created a new brochure. This major overhaul of our publicity materials could not have been done without the creative input provided by the program s staff: Michael Stone, executive director; Rose Rivera, program manager; and Jillian Lenihan, program assistant. Please help spread the word about PLAS s many exciting events, undergraduate and graduate funding opportunities, and the Latin American Studies certificate among your students, colleagues, and friends. I look forward to seeing you at the next event! Sincerely, Rubén Gallo Director, PLAS Spring 2009 INSIDE THIS ISSUE 2 HIGHLIGHTS 14 FACULTY 16 FELLOWS 18 STUDENTS 22 ALUMNI 23 SPOTLIGHT: BOOK RE VIEW 28 CONTACT US

2 HIGHLIGHTS PLAS DISTINGUISHED SPEAKER ELENA PONIATOWSKA INTRODUCTION BY RUBÉN GALLO This fall PLAS welcomed Mexican novelist Elena Poniatowska as a distinguished speaker. After a lecture on testimonial literature, she met with students and faculty to discuss her views on politics, literature, and culture. Poniatowska closed her presentation by reading two poems from her new book. Es un honor recibir a nuestra invitada de hoy, la escritora Elena Poniatowska, una de las figuras más importantes de la literatura mexicana del siglo veinte, que ha tenido la gentileza de viajar a Princeton para dar una conferencia sobre La literatura que sube de las calles. Elena Poniatowska es una figura única en la historia de la literatura: a lo largo de una carrera literaria que lleva más de cincuenta años, ha logrado combinar géneros tan diversos como el periodismo, la crónica, el testimonio, la novela, la biografía novelada, la poesía, la literatura infantil e incluso las rondas ese género tan musical que cantan todos los niños mexicanos y al que Elena le rinde homenaje en su último libro: Rondas de la niña mala. Todos conocemos a Elena Poniatowska como la autora de dos grandes clásicos que se enseñan en todos los departamentos de literatura de las universidades estadounidenses: La noche de Tlatelolco (1971), un collage de testimonios sobre la masacre estudiantil del 2 de octubre; y Nada, nadie, las voces del temblor (1988), que recoge las historias de los sobrevivientes del terrible sismo de Estas dos obras maestras cambiaron el panorama de las letras latinoamericanas: no solamente pusieron en primer plano la literatura de testimonio, ese género tan fecundo en las últimas décadas del siglo veinte, sino que también demostraron que la literatura puede influir sobre la vida política. En el caso de México, los dos libros de Elena Poniatowsksa impulsaron el desarrollo de la sociedad civil. Elena es autora de una serie de deliciosas novelas que retratan la vida en México: La flor de lis, un texto autobiográfico que cuenta las peripecias de una niña francesa criada en el México de los años cuarenta; Tinisima, la mejor novela sobre la vida de la fotógrafa y activista política Tina Modotti; Querido Diego te abraza Quiela, una colección de cartas noveladas de Rubén Gallo and Elena Poniatowska respond to questions at a reception with PLAS faculty and students at Palmer House Angelina Beloff a Diego Rivera, y muchos otros títulos que dan fe de la enorme capacidad creativa de Elena Poniatowska. Elena se inició en el medio cultural como periodista. Corría la década del cincuenta, México vivía el sexenio de Miguel Alemán, cuando una jovencita llena de vida y de curiosidad comenzó a publicar entrevistas con grandes figuras de la vida Mexicana. Elena entrevistó a Diego Rivera; conversó con Luis Barragán; discutió con Alfonso Reyes y Fernando Benítez. También viajó al extranjero, en donde entabló diálogos con Regis Debray, André Malraux e incluso Grace Kelly, a quien entrevistó en su polvoriento palacio de Mónaco. Y desde esos primeros textos se definía la prosa lúcida, ágil y luminosa de Elena Poniatowska. Octavio Paz dijo alguna vez que la escritura de Elena elevaba el vuelo como los pájaros: un vuelo que despegó durante esas primeras entrevistas y ahora surca los cielos del valle de México. En los últimos años Elena ha mantenido un ritmo de trabajo intenso. En el 2005 publicó El tren pasa primero, una novela sobre la huelga del sindicato de ferrocarrileros en México; En el 2007 dio a la imprenta Amanecer en el Zócalo: los cincuenta días que confrontaron a México, una crónica sobre el plantón LA COLONIA RUBÉN JARAMILLO POR ELENA PONIATOWSKA Elena Poniatowska read a selection from her book Fuerte es el silencio, and then discussed her use of spoken language in her work. Ricardo Piglia asked if she uses a tape recorder and Elena replied: Never! Toda la asamblea de la Jaramillo aplaudió, hombres, mujeres se abrazaban en una fiesta, varios subieron en tropel al presidium y, tomando por sorpresa a los guaruras, levantaron a Mares en hombros. Los gritos de alborozo hacían que los hombres aventaran al techo sus sombreros de palma, los aplausos iban en aumento y estaban por iniciar una porra cuando el Güero saltó frente al micrófono y empezó a gritar con rabía: No den las gracias, no den las gracias hasta que silenció los aplausos y ante la perplejidad de los colonos y el temor de los funcionarios consternados por semejante reacción siguió gritando tenso, los brazos en alto: No den las graciaaaaas, no deeeeeeen las graciaaaaas, no deeen y lo repetía como si esto fuera lo único que pudiera salir de su boca. En medio del silencio, el Güero les dijo a los colonos en voz casi baja, terriblemente cansada y por lo tanto en dulce contraste con los gritos de cólera que lo hicieron parecer un energúmeno, que aquello que les enviaban de la capital no era un regalo sino el producto de años, que todo eso, el agua, la luz, los postes, los desayunos escolares ya estaban pagados de antemano, que eran la sangre de sus abuelos, el polvo de los huesos, el mástil de sonajas de la mazorca, el grano lanzado en los surcos: que sólo entraban en posesión de lo que debió ser suyo hace mil años, que al que tenían que dar el crédito era a su corazón porque la tierra era su casa. Al finalizar, el Güero recuperó la furia del grito inicial: La tierra es suya por legítimo derecho, no son huérfanos, son mexicanos, aquí los sembraron y aquí tienen que crecer, sembrarse en sus hijos, la tierra es suya, la mazorca, y la flor azul que se enlaza con la flor roja, suya es la luz, suya el agua, suya, suya porque los han expulsado, no vivan agradecidos, nada tienen que agradecerle a nadie, nada, nada, nadaaaaa salvo a si mismos y a su trabajo. Los visitantes nunca habían visto el entusiasmo despertado por un dirigente popular y nada podía destantearlos tanto. Tras el micrófono, los hombros encorvados, organizado en apoyo a Andrés Manuel López Obrador después de las controvertidas elecciones del En este año 2008, Elena ha publicado Rondas de la niña mala, un libro de poemas y rondas infantiles ilustrado con dibujos de Leonora Carrington; y Jardín de París, una antología de los primeros textos y entrevistas parisinas de los años cincuenta. No puedo dejar de mencionar el gran cariño que el pueblo de México le tiene a Elena Poniatowska. En México, como en todos los países, hay escritores queridos y otros malqueridos. Siempre me divierte hablar con los taxistas, con los ambulantes, con los policías y preguntarles qué opinan de tal o cuál figura del medio literario. Así aprendí que Octavio Paz, ese gran poeta y premio Nobel, nunca fue querido. A Carlos Monsiváis, en cambio sí se le quiere. Y a Elena Poniatowska? A Elena el pueblo no la quiere: la adora. La sola mención de su nombre provoca sonrisas de oreja a oreja, flores, piropos, alabanzas y hasta porras del tipo chiquiti bum a la bim-bom-bá. Creo que no es ninguna exageración afirmar que Elena ha sido y sigue siendo la escritora más querida en la historia de la literatura mexicana. Tan querida es, que el pueblo le ha impuesto el diminutivo y la ha bautizado, con sencillez y cariño, Elenita. (CONTINUED ON PAGE 25) Photo by Michael Stone TWO POEMS BY ELENA PONIATOWSKA ESQUINADAS Dos niñas iguales pelean a la mitad del mundo. Puta, grita mi hermana. Putota, putísima, respondo. Nos puteamos en Ia esquina a mochilazos. Qué puta eres, le digo. Más puta que tú no hay. Putaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa! Ahora todos lo saben, oyeron seguro, hasta Obrero Mundial, Gabriel Mancera, Insurgentes, Medellín, el puente de La Morena. Calzones de resorte, tobilleras blancas, delantales de mascota, trenzas tejidas terminadas en puta, kikirikí, no quiero flojos aquí! No anden parándose en las puertas, parecen putas. La voz de Victorina es aguda. Por que se quedan en la calle? Sólo las putas. Putitas, es lo que son. Tan chiquitas y ya andan puteando. La bicicleta no, les digo, en la bicicleta no. Duérmanse pronto, hoy no les toca El Monje Loco por putas. Treinta años despues regresamos mi hermana y yo, húmedas de amor de madre, húmedas de amantes, vientres, caderas, muslos, rodillas, saladas de por vida, al crucero de los cuatro putos cardinales. Recomienza la ronda, tomadas de la mano, volvemos a lo mismo. Dos hermanas niñas, cresta blanca erizada, viven su amor más grande a la mitad del mundo. MI HERMANO Queremos un hermano, le decíamos Kitzia y yo, saltábamos en rueda, un hermano, un hermano. Niñas, su papá está en la guerra. No importa; tú dale la sorpresa. Papa regresó, lo tuvimos al año. Desprendido creció, sus ramas en el aire. Como jóvenes madres, abríamos la puerta con él entre los brazos. Un día a los veintiuno, mamá le preguntó: Te importaría morir? Y contestó: No mucho. Mis padres lo mandaron a la calle sin más arma que sus ojos azules. Desde lo alto de su fiera inocencia él le ordenaba a Magda: Tráeme unos dulces de la miscelánea. Con qué dinero, niño? No importa, tu di: Son para el príncipe. Oh mi niño, mi hermano, te desenvuelvo el dulce, te traigo tan adentro que lo chupamos juntos. De tu muerte, algo vive, ése es nuestro secreto, tus buenas manos blancas encima de las mías. Ríes y si te oigo se me nubla la vida. 2 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 3

3 PRINCETON DOCUMENTARY FILM FESTIVAL FILMMAKERS Last fall PLAS co-sponsored the most recent edition of the Princeton Documentary Film Festival. Some of the most important directors from Latin America visited Princeton to discuss their films with students. Following are excerpts from the film festival program, and a transcription of the lecture given by Luis Ospina to introduce his film Agarrando pueblo. The Princeton Documentary Festival was created to call attention to the current creative explosion of documentary filmmaking in Latin America and Spain. Through public screenings, commentary, and discussions, the festival surveys exceptional films that rarely reach large audiences. The aim is to help craft a more comprehensive vision of the cultures from which this work springs, while encouraging an informed debate on the specific series topic and on the current state of documentary production. The debate about where to draw the line or whether there is a line to be drawn between fact and fiction is not exclusive to the documentary. The crucial question of what to believe about the images that we see, whether in a film or on the evening news, becomes the starting point for the work of certain filmmakers whose films negotiate that uncertain frontier where documentary and storytelling meet. Edgardo Cozarinsky (Argentina), José Luis Guerín (Spain), Luis Ospina (Colombia), and Eduardo Coutinho (Brazil) are four modern masters of the form. Their often unclassifiable work is at the forefront of a renewal in the practice of both fiction and documentary, in a tradition that draws as much on the influence of Jorge Luis Borges as it does that of Robert Flaherty. The sponsors were the Department of Languages and Cultures, PLAS, University Center for Human Values, Council of the Humanities, Shelby Cullom Davis Center for Historical Studies, and the British Arts and Humanities Research Council. All films were screened in the original language with English subtitles, and all screenings and festival activities were free and open to the public. FILMS SCREENED AT THE FESTIVAL Agarrando pueblo (Luis Ospina and Carlos Mayolo, Colombia, 1978) A team of committed Colombian filmmakers goes out on the streets of Cali to make a searing exposé of the Colombian underclass for German TV or is it exploitation? A much-discussed but rarely seen alternative classic of Latin American cinema. Jogo de cena (Eduardo Coutinho, Brazil, 2007) An ad in the Rio newspaper brings in women from all walks of life to talk about their experiences, but are they telling the truth? The latest fascinating experiment from the Brazilian master. One of the director s subjects faces the camera in a still from Eduardo Coutinho s Jogo de cena La desazón suprema: retrato incesante de Fernando Vallejo (Luis Ospina, Colombia, 2003) Fernando Vallejo, the great Colombian novelist, invites filmmaker Ospina into his home for an unsparing self-portrait. Together, they unravel the writer s love-hate relationship with his native country, which is at the creative root of an astonishing autobiographical oeuvre. La guerre d un seul homme (Edgardo Cozarinsky, France, 1981) The wartime diaries of writer Ernst Junger, sensitive observer of human behavior and at the same time military governor of Nazi-occupied Paris, serve as a departure for Cozarinsky s enthralling reflection on personal responsibility and collective guilt. Made in exile, this remains a groundbreaking work of Latin American documentary. Unas fotos en la ciudad de Sylvia (José Luis Guerín, Spain, 2007) The quest to find a young woman met long ago in a foreign city allows Guerín to virtually reinvent the possibilities of cinema by a paradoxical process of subtraction: no movement, only photographs, and no sound, only words written on the screen. The result a new kind of literature, according to the filmmaker is absolutely spellbinding. Photo courtesy of Eduardo Coutinho Photos courtesy of the named individuals Edgardo Cozarinsky s pioneering film essay, La guerre d un seul homme ( One Man s War ), combined newsreels from the Nazi occupation of Paris with extracts from the diaries of the writer Ernst Junger, who at the time was military governor of the French capital. The effect is both disturbing and illuminating as to the kind of constructions and truthclaims involved in the newsreel and the diary. Made in exile in France, during the harshest period of the military dictatorship in Cozarinsky s native Argentina, the film s ethical and political implications go well beyond what happened in France during World War II. Cozarinsky himself is also an important writer, an author of essays and novels hailed by Susan Sontag and Guillermo Cabrera Infante. Recently published in English are The Bride from Odessa and The Moldavian Pimp. He has also made forays into the theater, both as director and actor, most notably in the autobiographical Cozarinsky y su médico, directed by Vivi Tellas. His films Guerreros y cautivas, Les Boulevards du Crepuscule, Citizen Langlois, Fantomes de Tanger, Le violon de Rothschild, Ronda nocturna, among others almost always include a strong documentary component, with original research, but at the same time, they range disquietingly, back and forth, from fact to myth. José Luis Guerín has headed the profound regeneration of the documentary in Spain, although his films are stubbornly unlike anyone else s. En construcción, featured at the first Edgardo Cozarinsky Princeton Documentary Festival, drew great acclaim and sparked a discussion about the legitimacy of reenactments in the documentary. Los motivos de Berta, Innisfree, and Tren de sombras are all unclassifiable films that have acquired cult status. His latest work has taken three distinct yet related incarnations: 1) the feature film En la ciudad de Sylvia; 2) an installation commissioned by the Venice Bienale called Las mujeres que no conocemos, with material shot for the same film; and 3) the radically innovative film presented here, Unas fotos en la ciudad de Sylvia ( Photos in the City of Sylvia ). Put together solely with photographs and written texts, this entirely silent film veers between autobiography and the documentary record of a real city (Strasbourg), while unfolding the story of the narrator s quest for a woman he met there more than 20 years ago. The mesmerizing result leaves us wondering what it is precisely that we are seeing. Luis Ospina is one of the pioneers in the alternative tradition of Latin American documentary. Born in Cali, Colombia, and trained in the United States, Ospina was also one of the first filmmakers to embrace video as a medium and TV as a site for radical experimentation in the shape and range of the documentary genre. His landmark 1978 Agarrando pueblo was and remains a searing exposé of the pretension and hypocrisy behind the truth claims of so much Third World filmmaking. In his more recent José Luis Guerín La desazón suprema: retrato incesante de Fernando Vallejo, Ospina seems to have found his match in the great Colombian writer, whose love-hate relationship to his native country is perhaps equal only to the filmmaker s own. Ospina has a vast body of work, which includes many shorts and TV documentaries, and two feature films, Pura sangre and Soplo de vida. His latest featurelength documentary is the award-winning Un tigre de papel. Eduardo Coutinho has long been acknowledged as the most important documentary filmmaker in Brazil, although his international status as one of the undisputed masters of the genre has been surprisingly late in coming. Coutinho s new film, Jogo de cena, is a return of sorts to his classic from the 1980s, Cabra marcado para morrer. Liberally mixing documentary record and artifice, Coutinho put 23 women on the stage of a theater to tell their own stories to the camera. This footage was then combined with the record of actresses replaying some of their stories on the same stage. The result is exhilarating, making us question many of our assumptions about truth-telling and fiction. Coutinho s special art lies in his ability to redefine testimony as the heart of the documentary enterprise, as is evident in his previous experiment, O fim e o principio, screened two years ago at the festival. Other films by Coutinho include Boca do lixo, Santo Forte, Babilonia 2000, Edificio Master, and Peões (also screened at Princeton). Luis Ospina 4 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 5

4 DEVELOPING FILMS OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT A TALK BY LUIS OSPINA OCTOBER 3, 2008 In 1987, the Parisian newspaper Libération did a survey among several hundred filmmakers from all over the world. We were asked: Why do you make films? This was my reply: Why do I make films? Because I m too nervous to be a thief. Because I like to hide my shyness behind the camera. Because I m stubborn; persistence of vision comes naturally to me. Films are a fixation of an emotion on an emulsion. Filmmaking means development from the negative to the positive. To make films you need faith; before the film is developed you have to believe in what you have not seen. Films are a Joyful Mystery. They re alchemy. Filmmaking is one of the 20th century s dark practices. To make films you need an almost monastic vocation; it s habit forming. Filmmaking is an act of creation and recreation. In brief, filmmaking in the Third World entails developing images of underdevelopment. My dad loved the movies; he was crazy about Gary Cooper and the Mexican comic actor Cantinflas. He made home movies too, and in the garage of our house in Cali he would project 16-mm films for the delight of our family and neighbors. It was at these The first time I held a camera in my hands and actually filmed something was during a family picnic when my father handed me his camera and said: It s your turn now. Just to be smart, I filmed everything upside down. And from that moment on I knew that filmmaking was my vocation. sessions that I first saw moving images on a screen. He showed us cowboy serials and adventure films. This was before television came to Colombia in the mid- 50s thanks to military dictator Gustavo Rojas Pinilla. The second most important aider and abettor of my nascent addiction to the movies was our nanny. Every weekend she would take my brother Sebastian and me to see double features in cinemas whose names are engraved on my memory like primal myths: Bolivar, Cervantes, El Cid, Colón. In the company of our hired help I first saw Douglas Sirk melodramas like Imitation of Life and Magnificent Obsession, as well as The Wizard of Oz, the films of Sabu and Tarzan, and my first documentary, Walt Disney s The Living Desert. I remember I was so thrilled to see a documentary that I hid in the bathroom of the theater so I could see it again. As a pre-adolescent, before I went out with girls, I discovered the dark and solitary pleasure of going to the movies alone. When the pictures I wanted to see were classified for adults only, I would try bucking the censors. I was tall for my age, and would dress up in a coat and tie. Then I d put on dark glasses and, with a cigarette hanging out of my mouth, I would approach the box office. I can still recall being terror stricken when I found myself at the head of the queue for the first showing of Psycho in Cali. I had to wait an hour to get in to see Janet Leigh s black bra, which the censorship board had deemed permissible only for grownups. When I wasn t able to pull the wool over the eyes of the doormen at the first-run movie houses, I would have to wait until the picture I wanted to see came around to a neighborhood theater, or to some second-rate flea pit where the censorship bloodhounds usually turned a blind eye. Thus I got to see Sirk s Written on the Wind, Elia Kazan s Splendor in the Grass, Max Ophuls s Lola Montes, and the first films of the French New Wave. The first time I held a camera in my hands and actually filmed something was during a family picnic when my father handed me his camera and said: It s your turn now. Just to be smart, I filmed everything upside down. And from that moment on I knew that filmmaking was my vocation. So, in 1964, at 14 years of age, I began to make Via cerrada ( Dead End ), my first movie. Luckily for me, this initial short cinematographically speaking, my first communion was only shown once, at my friend Carlos Mayolo s film club Cine Estudio 35. With Mayolo, I was to make several films in the 70s. In May 1968 I finished high school in Boston. There, I got to see pictures by directors unknown to me. Then I went to USC in Los Angeles to study architecture, but before the first day of classes, I switched to film. After savoring the brief spring of anarchy that was May 1968, the conservative atmosphere at the USC film school was too much for me. So I transferred to the UCLA film school plenty of sex, drugs, and rock and roll, as well as lots of films and political activism. My first project was Acto de fe ( Act of Faith, 1970), an adaptation of Sartre s Erostratus, a sort of Taxi Driver avant la lettre, which like Buñuel s Chien Andalou was a passionate, a desperate appeal to murder. UCLA was paradise for a film freak like me. Any time of day you could find someone showing the classics, or underground flicks, or documentaries. Whatever. In the corridors, where the editing rooms were, the students talked films as passionately as they talked politics. We even took over the university s film equipment during a student strike after the invasion of Cambodia. We all gave up our personal projects to march for the cause. In fact, we weren t so much Marxists as marchers. And march we did, but much to our dismay, most of our so-called militant films were boring pamphlets of the sound of marching, charging feet, and the fury of jerky camera movements. Some of the films I saw at UCLA left a deep impact on me and would influence the course of my future occupation. Dziga Vertov s Man with a Movie Camera, for example, was a total revelation to me, as a synthesis of all the techniques available to the documentary filmmaker. After that first screening, I decided I would become a documentary filmmaker. My first stab at a documentary was Oiga vea ( Look and Hear, 1972), co-directed with Carlos Mayolo. We made it in black-and-white and 16-mm to counter the official 35-mm feature-length documentary on the Sixth Pan-American Games. Our film showed things from the viewpoint of those who couldn t get in to see the sporting events. While I studied at the UCLA film school, the television department was located on the first floor. Film students entered the building and quickly ran up to the second floor without looking back, without looking down. Video at the time was cumbersome, heavy, and conventional. Cassettes had not yet been invented; the only portable equipment was the hefty Sony Portapak with its black-andwhite half-inch tape and open reels. Not to mention the students in the television department they were nerds before nerds existed. We avoided them like the plague. They spent their time lighting sets for talk shows and sitcoms. And if you asked them about the Korean Nam June Paik, you might as well have been speaking Chinese. Agarrando pueblo was our attempt to make film criticism on film. Deliberately detached from Third World leftist cinema, we launched our film manifesto as an answer to what we called pornomiseria ( poverty porn ) films, which were so much in vogue at the time, disguised as sociological and political statements. My first encounter with video was in 1972, when my friend Carlos Mayolo and I pulled a prank. We were working for an ad agency that had the only Portapak in Cali. We d just finished making Oiga vea and wanted to copy it to video. So we grabbed the first tape we could lay our hands on and used that. Unfortunately, we taped over the wedding of one of the agency employees, who never spoke to us again. When I got back to Colombia I was introduced to writer and film critic Andres Caicedo, the director of the Cine Club de Cali. It was at a screening of Fellini s 8½. We became friends at once; in fact we had been going to see the same movies in the same cinemas for ages without ever meeting. We struck a friendship that lasted several years, during which time I joined the Cine Club and, with Andres Caicedo, co-founded the magazine Ojo al Cine. Then, at the age of 25, Andres committed suicide on the very day his first novel, Que viva la música, was published. Over the past 30 years, both the author and his works have achieved cult status. That same year, Mayolo and I made Agarrando pueblo ( The Vampires of Poverty, 1978). We used the ad agency s Portapak to record rehearsals and improvisations. We would first record on tape and then, when we were ready, we would shoot on film so as not to waste film unnecessarily. 6 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 7

5 Agarrando pueblo was our attempt to make film criticism on film. Deliberately detached from Third World leftist cinema, we launched our film manifesto as an answer to what we called pornomiseria ( poverty porn ) films, which were so much in vogue at the time, disguised as sociological and political statements. Our film was probably the first Latin American mockumentary; it mixes staged and real scenes of opportunistic filmmakers who shamelessly exploit ghastly poverty in order to win prizes at international film festivals and to ease the bad conscience of First World audiences. Needless to say, our provocative and anarchist film won us plenty of enemies amongst our colleagues. And some awards, as well. In 1982 I directed my first feature film, Pura sangre ( Pure Blood ), a modern-day vampire story inspired by a local urban legend. It also had blood transfusions from American B-movies and from George Franju s Eyes Without a Face. From a financial viewpoint Pura sangre was a disaster; it left me with a bloody bank balance in the red and vastly in debt with the Colombian film office. As a result, I was practically blacklisted and As a documentary filmmaker, I sometimes do not know whether it is I who chooses the subject or vice versa. unable to direct a film for several years. I made up for this by editing other people s movies, sometimes under an assumed name. Finally, in 1986, with film archivist Jorge Nieto, I co-directed En busca de María ( In Search of María, 1985), a documentary about the famous lost film María (1921), the first silent feature made in Colombia. Although only four fragments of the film survived, we nevertheless found the main actress and people who witnessed the filming. You could say that En busca de María was, in a way, my swan song vis-à-vis filmmaking; I didn t shoot another frame of film until almost 15 years later. From 1986 onwards, all my work has been on video. For me this new medium has become a sort of painless form of filmmaking, especially since the demise of FOCINE, the Colombian film office, which had been our only official source of finance. Still, I would say that the best work I ve done is on tape and not on film. Over the past 25 years I have put across my ideas, without any concessions, by directing some 30 low-budget documentaries in which I have been able to give expression to the three main themes I consider fundamental in my work: Death, Memory, and the City. I began with the feature-length documentary Andres Caicedo: unos pocos buenos amigos ( Andres Caicedo: A Few Good Friends, 1986), followed by Antonio María Valencia: música en camara ( Antonio María Valencia: Music on Film, 1987), about the tragic life of a local composer. I also made Ojo y vista: peligra la vida del artista ( Eye and Sight: The Artist s Life in Danger, 1988), a sort of followup to Agarrando pueblo. Along with these documentaries on my native city, I ve made videos that mean a lot to me: Nuestra pelicula ( Our Film, 1993) and Capítulo 66 ( Chapter 66, 1994). The former is a feature-length documentary about the last days of artist Lorenzo Jaramillo, who was dying of AIDS. The latter is a sort of gothic soap opera codirected with renowned Chilean filmmaker Raoul Ruiz during a workshop he taught in Bogota. Cinematographic maverick par excellence, Raoul captivated all of us with his wisdom and generosity, so much so that I felt no bones about suggesting we take the workshop out of the theoretical and into the practical world. The result was Capítulo 66, a black-and-white fiction video recorded on 3/4 inch video in two days. This Chapter 66 of an imaginary gothic soap opera directed by two filmmakers simultaneously as if it were a surrealistic cadavre exquis was written on the fly and with no knowledge of the story s beginning or end. Facing the steadily growing influence of drug trafficking in Cali, and my growing disenchantment with the turn the city had taken, I took on a long-winded documentary project: Cali: ayer, hoy, y mañana ( Cali: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow, ), a series of 10 monographic chapters about the city, its people, and its history. Cali, which to me had always been a continuous source of inspiration, was now a lost paradise that needed to be recovered before it slipped from my hands. After completing this job I felt empty; I pulled up stakes and headed for Bogota to make my second feature film. In 1997, 16 years after my first feature Pura sangre, I directed Soplo de vida ( Breath of Life ), which would become the first Colom-bian film noir, based on an original screen-play by my brother Sebastian. In Colombia we have all the ingredients for film noir: organized crime, drug traffic, police corruption, gang wars, political assassinations, guerrillas, paramilitaries, terrorism, (CONTINUED ON PAGE 24) Photos by Michael Stone NEW YORK S BRAZILIAN CHORO ENSEMBLE PERFORMS AT PRINCETON BY MICHAEL STONE, PLAS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Choro ( crying, lament ) is an instrumental music that emerged in Rio de Janeiro in the late 19th century, coming into full flower in the 1930s. It drew on European salon and military orchestra music, and such popular imports as polka, schottische, tango, and waltz, all generously infused with an Afro-Brazilian rhythmic feel. Rooted in the music of carnival, choro s affinity with samba is manifest, but strains of Portuguese fado, the morna of Cape Verde, and early New Orleans jazz (Dixieland, minus the brass) are also audible. One of few choro practitioners in the United States is the Choro Ensemble, formed in New York in the late 1990s when São Paulo native Pedro Ramos (cavaquinho, tenor guitar) met Anat Cohen (clarinet, saxes), a Tel Aviv native, Israeli Air Force Band alum, Berklee College of Music grad, and one of jazz s rising young talents. The ensemble has been a fixture at Greenwich Village s Zinc Bar (82 West Third, Thompson and Sullivan). The group has toured Brazil twice, and has appeared at Carnegie Hall, Lincoln Center, the JVC Jazz Festival, and the Apollo Theater. Joining Ramos and Cohen for their October 10 performance at Princeton s Richardson Auditorium in Alexander Hall were Carlos Almeida (seven-string guitar) and Zé Mauricio (pandeiro, zabumba, surdo). Produced by the Program in Latin American Studies, the concert was co-sponsored by the Princeton University Concerts Committee, the Department of Languages and Cultures, and the Davis International Center. Nosso Tempo ( our time ), their recent release, essays mostly archetypal choros (Pixinguinha s Ingênuo ; Jacob do Bandolim s Gostozinho, Noites cariocas, Orgulhoso, and De coração à coração ; Radamés Gnattali s Zanzando em Copacabana and Serenata no Joá ; and Waldir Azevedo s Brazileirinho ). These inventive new arrangements respect the roots while moving into modern sonic territory, augmented with original compositions by each of the ensemble members. Cohen, the only non-brazilian in the group, captures choro s airy woodwind feel with her lyrical clarinet lines. Shifting from jazz, she says, entailed a demanding technical study to master choro s lightning runs and expressive melodic structure, prerequisites to improvisation. The precision interplay of strings is delicate yet robust, carried forward on Zé Mauricio s driving yet restrained percussive swing. In this collective effort, each player enjoys ample room for invention, achieving an overall effect whose sparseness is evocative of the music s past as well as its promise in the hands of the Choro Ensemble. 8 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 9

6 MARTÍN SOLARES Mexican novelist Martín Solares, author of the best-selling novel Los minutos negros, visited Princeton in October and read the following two fiction pieces. Mexican novelist Martín Solares MANIFIESTO POR UN NEOCORRIDO Un día mis papás regresaron. Yo estaba en la esquina de Revolución y Barranca del Muerto, esperando un taxi. Llovía, y una pareja de novios fingía besarse a un lado de mí. Por fin un taxista se detuvo. En cuanto abrí la puerta el chofer desvió el rostro. Debí sospechar. En el momento en que entraba sentí un golpe en la nuca: los enamorados, hombre y mujer, se sentaron conmigo, uno de cada lado. Me pegaron con una macana. Iba a reclamarles cuando los reconocí: eran mi padre y mi madre. Algo cambiados, pero esencialmente eran ellos. Sentí que iba entrando en un espejísmo. Mi madre había adelgazo un poco, mientras que mi papá usaba el mismo bigote y el mismo copete. La misma brillantina. Sus modales eran un poco más rudos, acaso por las presiones del oficio. Esto es un asalto, ordenó, Quieto y cooperando. Como nunca hubo buena comunicación entre nosotros terminé por quedarme callado: mi padre era así. Siguiendo una orden de mi progenitora (que siempre tomó las decisiones importantes) el taxista tomó una via rapida y le dimos la vuelta a la ciudad. Entretanto mi madre apoyaba un cuchillo muy afilado debajo de mis costillas. Un cuchillo para limpiar peces, siempre le gustó cocinar. Extrajeron mi cartera y mi padre rugió: Quinientos pesos? Sólo cargas quinientos pesos, cabrón? A continuación me aplicó una técnica correctiva que no sé de dónde aprendió. Cuando vivíamos juntos jamás fue tan violento, es más: nunca me pegó. El tercer o cuarto golpe me dió en un parietal (vi un resplandor negro) y estuvo a punta de hacer que perdiera el sentido: Qué no sabes que uno no debe salir a la calle con tan poco dinero? Para que yo aprendiera la lección fuimos a un cajero a sacar mis ahorros. Y qué le iba a reclamar? A un padre se le escucha y respeta. Y ahí vamos, paseando de noche por el Périferico, deteniendonos en diversos cajeros automáticos para saquear mis ahorros. Luego tomamos Viaducto. Daban las doce y seguíamos paseando, Mamá, Papá y yo, como una familia feliz. Ah, que nostalgia me da! Para entonces yo tenía la impresión de que un banco de niebla me impedía ver directamente la realidad. Como apenas si podía sentarme derecho comprendieron que no intentaría nada y la vigilancia se relajó. Pero llegó un momento en que nos estacionamos junto a otro cajero automático y mi padre dejó la puerta entreabierta. Reconocí la calle Insurgentes, a la altura del eje 3; vi una parada de metro que me esperaba con los brazos abiertos y la niebla se retiró, animándome a dejar el vehículo. Cuando me preparaba para saltar me encontré con los ojos del taxista, que me examinaba por el Photo courtesy of Martín Solares retrovisor. Sin dejar de mirarme estiró un brazo, cerró la puerta y colocó el seguro: Ya se iba este compa y mi madre se rió: Qué se iba a ir, si aquí está como en casa. Entonces el conductor subió el volumen de la radio y oí claramente un corrido. Uno de narcos. Respiré hasta diez, pero la canción era eterna, y mi padre no tenía para cuando volver del cajero. Todo tiene un límite. Pero el corrido no. Carajo, me pregunté, pusieron un corrido para asaltarme o me asaltaron para ponerme un corrido? Y como mi padre no regresaba me aclaré la garganta y pregunté si podían sintonizar otra cosa. Supongo que toqué algún punto sensible, porque el taxista se dio media vuelta y me apuntó con un desarmador. (Jura que palabras más, palabras menos, traté de explicarle lo que sigue. Y que me fui enervando a medida que hablaba. Le dije: No es que no me gusten los corridos, tan solo los que fueron compuestos en octosílabos. Y los de narcos, sobre todo los que tratan de narcos. Entre el corrido y el narcocorrido me quedo con el primero. En lugar de narcocorridos predecibles y mal escritos necesitamos un neo-corrido más inventivo y perdurable. Quien ha escuchado un narcocorrido los ha escuchado todos: la realidad está en otra parte, y el narcocorrido no la refleja por completo. En cambio el Corrido esta allá, en una esquinita del Bar del Universo: cuando tiene algo qué decir, cierra los ojos e imagina su propia y pequeña realidad. De ocho en ocho sílabas la va soltando, apoyada por tuba o acordeón, bajo sexto y bataca: Un domingo estando errando/ se encontraron dos mancebos/ metiendo mano a sus fierros/ como queriendo pelear. Año de mil novecientos/ muy presente te tengo yo/ en un barriá de Saltillo Rosita Alvárez murió./ Su mamá se lo decía:/ Rosa esta noche no sales/ Mamá no tengo la culpa/ que a mi me gusten los bailes. Volaron los pavorreales/ rumbo a la sierra mojada/ mataron a Lucio Vázquez/ por las mujeres que amaba. Voy a cantar el corridor/ del salteador del camino/ que se llamaba Porfirio/ llamado El ojo de vidrio/ Lo tuerto no le importaba/ pues no fallaba en el tiro. Salieron de San Isidro/ proceden- tes de Tijuana/ traían las llantas del carro/ repletas de yerbamala/ eran Emilio Varela/ y Camelia la tejana. Si algo bueno tiene el corrido es que no pierde tiempo en reflexionar sobre los sentimientos de sus personajes: los muestra en acción y se burla de ellos. Piporro: Cuando un hombre derrama lágrimas/ es porque está llorando. A lo mejor es por eso que los corridos se escuchan mejor en carreteras y cantinas, cuando uno está a punto de hacer un viaje de ida o uno de vuelta. A veces, en ciertas circunstancias, nada acompaña mejor que un corrido. En cambio, los narcocorridos son la cosa más limitada y aburrida que existe: Los oirán los sicarios en horas laborales? En mi opinión, se necesita una renovación de sus contenidos. Temas que no ha abordado el narcocorrido: 1. El fin de la historia. 2. Nociones de narratología. 3. La vida en tiempos del liberalismo. 4. Mímesis. 5. Falacias patéticas. Manual para ninos de 5 a 12 años, y monstruos de 300 a 800 kilos Por el doctor Rufus Karol, catedrático de la Universidad Internacional Transilvana (en horario nocturno) Traducido al español por Martín Solares 1. Como todo el mundo sabe, los monstruos salen por la noche. 2. Cuidan mucho su aspecto y suelen ser elegantes. En algunas noches oscuras de Transilvania se han registrado hasta sesenta y seis monstruos vestidos de esmoquin en un mismo jardín. 3. A los monstruos les gusta esconderse en los lugares oscuros y asustar a los niños. A Susanita McKluskey, de Boston, la acechaba un monstruo de dos metros de alto cada vez que deseaba ir al baño. Imagínate como sufría. 4. Es difícil engañarlos, pues los monstruos tienen muy buen oído y lo escuchan todo. No hay que olvidar el caso de Carlitos Ochoa, argentino: Sus papas lo mandaron a buscar una caja de cereales al final del pasillo. Un monstruo oyó las instrucciones; esperó a que LOS MONSTRUOS Y TÚ 6. La posmodernidad explicada a los niños. 7. Existe un pensamiento propio de la novela? 8. La metafísica hoy. 9. Calentamiento global. Abajo los corridos machacones, y los narcocorridos que no descubren un territorio artístico novedoso, que cuentan la misma historia de siempre. Rechacemos el mal corrido. Narración efectiva, no distracción. Larga vida al neocorrido. Haga suya nuestra causa.) Cuando el taxista se quitaba el cinturón de seguridad mi padre volvió del cajero. No le gustan los corridos, dijo mi madre. Mi padre me miró con disgusto. Mi madre lo secundó (siempre se apoyaron entre ellos). Pensé que iban a reprenderme como hacían en mi infancia, cuando rechazaba la sopa, y ellos insistían por mi bien: Escúchelo. No me gusta. (CONTINUED ON PAGE 25) Carlitos saliera, y Pum! Se lo comió con todo y botas. Luego regresó el cereal a los papás de su víctima, alegando que no le gustaba porque tenia pedazos de nuez. 5. Los monstruos pueden volar, caminar, correr, reptar, flotar, arrastrarse e incluso hacerse invisibles, lo cual ha impedido registrar su existencia. Se sabe que en todas las casas hay monstruos, pero desaparecen en cuanto alguien enciende la luz. 6. Por lo general están escondidos detrás de la puerta, y esperan a que un ser humano se quede solo para asustarlo. Y sobre todo, vigilarlos. Les encanta vigilarlos. Examinen la técnica de este monstruo, que gusta de asustar a los que se ven obligados a atravesar largos pasillos sin la iluminación adecuada. 7. Algunas personas dicen que esto es falso, y que los monstruos son producto de la imaginación. Pero, como se ha podido comprobar, los monstruos sí existen. EI problema es cómo librarse de ellos. 8. Este manual enseña cómo deshacerse (CONTINUED ON PAGE 26) 10 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 11

7 ERNESTO NETO ACCLAIMED BRAZILIAN ARTIST AT PRINCETON One of Brazil s most innovative artists, Ernesto Neto has exhibited his work across the world; notably in the 2001 Venice Biennale (with Vik Muniz), in Brazil s national pavilion, and at the Panthéon in Paris. His installations feature big, soft sculptures that fill large spaces and allow viewers to touch, poke, and sometimes walk on or through them. Made of translucent pliable fabrics and filled with materials such as Styrofoam pellets or spices, these interactive installations are described by Neto as an exploration and a representation of the body s landscape from within. Neto gave a slide presentation of his work for Princeton faculty and students last fall, including images of the following projects. This page from top to bottom: The dangerous logic of wooing, 2002; Celula Nave (It happens in the body of time, where truth dances), Opposite page, clockwise from top left: Leviathan Thot, 2006; another view of Leviathan Thot; É ô Bicho! Photos courtesy of Ernesto Neto and the Tanya Bonakdar Gallery Photos courtesy of Ernesto Neto and the Tanya Bonakdar Gallery 12 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 13

8 FACULT Y NEWS AWARDS AND PUBLICATIONS (CONTINUED) NEW ASSOCIATED FACULTY COMMITTEE MEMBERS Clockwise, from top left: Eduardo Cadava, Mario Gandelsonas, Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, Bryan Just NEW FACULTY EDUARDO CADAVA (professor of English) gave a series of lectures this last year in, among other places, the Institute of Advanced Studies at the University of Western Australia in Perth, the Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas at UNAM in Mexico City, a conference on globalization and climate change in China, and the Times Center in New York. He published two essays in Spanish on the photographic work of Fazal Sheikh in the journals Acta Poética (Mexico City) and Confines (Buenos Aires). He also published an essay in Metate in relation to the four seminars on Walter Benjamin he gave at UNAM in the fall. Two more essays on Sheikh will appear, in both Spanish and English, in a book accompanying a retrospective of Sheikh s work in Madrid (forthcoming, spring 2009). He is now working on an essay on Marcelo New Princeton faculty members teaching and conducting research in Latin American studies include: ANA MARÍA GOLDANI (associate research scholar in sociology, formerly at the University of California Los Angeles) is a leading demographer on issues of gender, family, and fertility. EDWARD TELLES (professor of sociology, formerly at the University of California Los Angeles) is an award-winning scholar of race and ethnicity, social demography, development, and urban sociology. ALEXANDRA VAZQUEZ (assistant professor of English and the Center for African American Studies, formerly at Yale University) is the author of Instrumental Migrations: The Critical Turns of Cuban Music (forthcoming from Duke University Press), and with Ela Troyano, is a co-editor of a forthcoming anthology on La Lupe. She has published on Graciela, the First Lady of Cuban Jazz, in Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory; and Ivy Queen for the forthcoming Reggaetón (Duke, 2009). Vazquez is also part of the triumvirate that is Brodsky s Correspondencias, and part of his forthcoming book on love and photography will appear in Papel Alpha: Cuadernos de Fotografía. MARIO GANDELSONAS (Class of 1913 Lecturer in Architecture and professor of architecture) is an architect and theorist whose specializations include urbanism and semiotics. His work on residential, institutional, and commercial urban design projects has garnered many awards. His most recent book is Shanghai Reflections: Architecture, Urbanism, and the Search for an Alternative Modernity (2002). BRYAN JUST (Peter Jay Sharp Curator and Lecturer in the Art of the Ancient Americas, University Art Museum, and lecturer in art and archaeology) previously worked for the Yale University Art Gallery, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the National Gallery of Art, and the Walters Art Museum. His research interests include the comparative study of textual and image-based communication, the use of style to reference others, ancient and contemporary Maya textile traditions, the history of collection of ancient American objects, and the history and epistemology of pre-columbian scholarship. ESTEBAN ROSSI-HANSBERG (professor of economics and international affairs) works in the realm of macroeconomics, international trade, and urban economics. His research focuses on the internal structure of cities, the distribution of economic activity in space, economic growth and the size distribution of cities, the effect of offshoring on wage inequality, the influence of information technology on wages and organization, firm dynamics, and the size distribution of firms. Rossi-Hansberg is a research fellow in the National Bureau of Economic Research, with National Science Foundation research support. AWARDS AND PUBLICATIONS JOÃO BIEHL (professor of anthropology) won the 2008 Rudolph Virchow Professional Article Award of the Society for Medical Anthropology for his article Pharmaceuticalization: AIDS Treatment and Global Health Politics (Anthropological Quarterly 80:4 2007). Biehl also won the Diana Forsythe Prize for his book Will to Live: AIDS Therapies and the Politics of Survival (Princeton University Press, 2007). The latter was awarded on November 22 at the annual American Anthropological Association meeting in San Francisco; the prize celebrates outstanding anthropological research on science and technology, including biomedicine, and it is awarded by the Committee for the Anthropology of Society, Technology, and Computing, and the Society for the Anthropology of Work. Will to Live describes how Brazil became the first developing country to universalize access to life-saving AIDS therapies and why this policy is so difficult to implement among poor Brazilians with HIV-AIDS. Biehl is on academic leave in with a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation fellowship, during which time he is a resident member of the Center for Theological Inquiry. His new book project is titled The Valley of Lamentation: Spirituality and War in a German Community in 19th-century Brazil. Biehl is also a Global Photos (clockwise, from top left) Denise Applewhite, courtesy of Mario Gandelsonas, Brian Wilson, courtesy of Esteban Rossi-Hansberg Left: Photo courtesy of Alexandra Vazquez. Right: Photo by Denise Applewhite Photos (from left): Courtsey of Vera Candiani, Jon Roemer Health and Infectious Disease grantee under Princeton s Grand Challenges Initiative, where he leads a group of undergraduate and graduate students on a new research and teaching project that analyzes the aftermath of largescale drug rollouts in resource-poor settings in Latin America and Africa focusing on drug resistance, second-line treatment access, and judicial claims to high-cost medicines. Biehl s recent publications include The Brazilian Response to AIDS and the Pharmaceuticalization of Global Health (in Anthropology and Public Health: Bridging Differences in Culture and Society, eds. Robert A. Hahn and Marcia Inhorn, Oxford, 2008); The Mucker War: A History of Violence and Silence (in Postcolonial Disorders, eds. Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good, Sandra Hyde, Sarah Pinto, and Byron Good, California, 2008); Drugs for All: The Future of Global AIDS Treatment (Medical Anthropology 27:2, 2008); and Lifelong AIDS: Markets, Politics, Survival in Brazil (LASA Forum 39:2, 2008). He recently lectured at Duke University, Emory University, Stanford University, the University of California Berkeley, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, the Psychoanalytical Association, and the Hospital de Clínicas in Porto Alegre, Brazil. VERA CANDIANI S (assistant professor of history) upcoming works include Channeling Resources: Reading Maps and Technical Drawings of Colonial Public Works (in Mapping Latin America, eds. Jordana Dym and Karl Offen, Chicago, 2010); Water, Ecology, and Political Economy in Public Works: The Drainage of the Valley of Mexico in Its Rural Environs, (forthcoming in Hispanic American Historical Review, a special issue on Latin American and Caribbean environmental history); and Bone Dry Technology in the Making of Social and Environmental Crises: Mexico City s Drainage Project, (book manuscript). She recently lectured at the Case Western Reserve University s Urban History Symposium and at the Universidad Autónoma de México Iztapalapa. RUBÉN GALLO (associate professor of Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Cultures and director of the Program in Latin American Studies) is one of two Princeton faculty members to win Fulbright Scholar grants for the coming year. As the Sigmund Freud Professor of Psychoanalysis at the University of Vienna, Gallo will conduct research at the Sigmund Freud Museum in Vienna, in connection with a project titled Freud in Mexico: The Neuroses of Modernity. DOUGLAS MASSEY (Henry G. Bryant Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs) received the 2008 Premio de Reconocimiento de Destacado Mérito, awarded by El Consejo Cultural Mundial, México, at a ceremony held in Princeton on November 11. Massey is president of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. His current research is supported by major grants totaling $1.7M (John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Russell Sage Foundation, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development). Recent and forthcoming books and co-edited volumes include New Faces in New Places: The New Geography of American Immigration (Russell Sage Foundation, 2008); Taming the River: Negotiating the Academic, Financial, and Social Currents in America s Selective Colleges and Universities (Princeton, 2009); The Moynihan Report Revisited: Lessons and Reflections after Four Decades (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, special issue, Sage, 2009); and Continental Divides: International Migration in the Americas (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, special issue, Sage, 2010). He is the author of more than two dozen additional recent and forthcoming scholarly articles and book chapters in American Journal of Sociology, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, European Review of Sociology, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, International Migration Review, Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, Migración y Desarrollo, Social Science Research, Sociological Forum, Urban Affairs Review, Against the Wall: Poor, Young, Black, and Male (Pennsylvania), Art in the Lives of Immigrant Communities in the United States (Rutgers), Democratizations: Comparisons, Confrontations, Contracts (MIT), La Inmigración y Sus Causas (Madrid: Editorial Sistema), International Migration and Human Rights: The Global Repercussions of U.S. Policy (California), Segregation: The Rising Costs for America (Routledge), and What Matters: The World s Preeminent Photojournalists and Thinkers Depict Essential Issues of Our Time (Sterling). PEDRO MEIRO MONTEIRO (associate professor of Languages and Cultures) published The Impertinence of Belonging, Review 77: Literature and Arts of the Americas 41:2 (2008). RICARDO PIGLIA (associate professor of Languages and Cultures) published Hotel Almagro, Review 77: Literature and Arts of the Americas 41:2 (2008). ALEJANDRO PORTES (Howard Harrison and Gabrielle Snyder Beck Professor of Sociology and director of the Center for Migration and Development) is the recipient of the National Academy of Sciences Annual Award (2008) for Scientific Reviewing, Social and Political Sciences; and of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Senior Investigator Award ( ); he is also the Belle van Zuylen Visiting Chair, University of Utrecht ( ). Recent publications include Institutions and Development in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis, Studies in Comparative and International Development 43 (with Lori D. Smith, 2008); Exceptional Outcomes: Achievement in Education and Employment among Children of Immigrants, special issue, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 620 (with Patricia Fernández-Kelly, co-editor, 2008); and No Margin for Error: Educational and Occupational Achievement among Disadvantaged Children of Immigrants, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 620 (with Patricia Fernández- Kelly, 2008). He recently lectured at Queen Mary University and London Institute of the Americas; the Ramon Areces Foundation and Complutense University of Madrid; University of California San Diego; Cornell University; Center for Advanced Study, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Carnegie Mellon University, Qatar campus; the American Sociological Association; and the Society for the Advancement of Socioeconomics (San José, Costa Rica). He is the recipient of recent research grants from the Spencer Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies. MICHAEL STONE (PLAS executive director) wrote the introduction to a tribute to Andy Palacio ( ), the Garifuna traditional musician and Belizean cultural ambassador. Palacio was instrumental in fostering UNESCO s 2001 declaration of Garifuna language, music, (CONTINUED ON PAGE 27) 14 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 15

9 FELLOWS UN LUGAR PARA ESCRIBIR, NADA MÁS JOSÉ MANUEL PRIETO FROM PRIMERA REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE LIBROS (OCTOBER NOVEMBER 2008), WITH PERMISSION MARCOS CUETO My three main activities at PLAS during the term have been the teaching of a seminar, a presentation in the Tuesday seminar series, and research in Princeton s archives and library. My course, Health and Society in Latin America during the 20th Century, had the very enthusiastic participation of advanced undergraduate students with diverse interests including Latin American studies, medicine, public health, socio-medical studies, public policy, and medical anthropology. On November 4, I made a presentation of my work in the Tuesday luncheon seminar series. The title of my presentation was Disease Metaphors in Cold War Mexico: International Health and Malaria Eradication in the 1950s. I received valuable comments and criticism that will help to polish my research. My research has been related to two projects. The first is an advanced project that hopefully will be a book next year, comparing malaria eradication efforts in Mexico and Peru during the early Cold War years. For this research I collected information in Firestone Library and in Mudd Library, which holds three remarkable collections of the history of Latin America in the second half of the 20th century. These collections are the John Foster Dulles Papers, the Maurice Pate Papers, and the Henry R. Labouisse Papers. Dulles was the secretary of state during the 1950s, and Pate was the first executive director of UNICEF ( ). UNICEF is an important multilateral agency affiliated with the United Nations that spent a significant amount of money and resources on malaria and other disease control programs in Latin America. In 1965, Pate was succeed by Henry Labouisse. The materials collected complement my previous archival work done in Mexico, Peru, the national archives of Maryland, and the archives of the World Health Organization. My second research project is in its infancy: a history of public health in Latin America during the 20th century. Teaching the course and using the general resources of different libraries of the University were extremely valuable in developing an outline and a draft of some chapters. In addition, I participated in three events or presentations. On November 3 I discussed my work on malaria and the Cold War with a group of graduate students and professors specializing in the history of medicine at Yale University. On November 14, I was a commentator at the City University of New York in the launching of the book Corrupt Circles: History of Unbound Graft in Peru, written by Alfonso Quiroz, a professor of Latin American history at Baruch College. Finally, on December 4, I made an informal presentation of my work to a group of students who study medical anthropology in Latin America and other developing areas of the world under the supervision of Professor João Biehl. In terms of publications, I found time to correct the galleys of an edited book that will be published in Lima in 2009 by the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos titled El Rastro de la Salud en el Peru. I learned very much in the different events organized by the University, such as the PLAS Tuesday Luncheon Seminar Series and other presentations organized by the program, as well as the talks organized by the Department of History and the Woodrow Wilson School. I also had the opportunity to discuss my work and receive important feedback from professors Jeremy Adelman and Vera Candiani (Latin American history), João Biel (anthropology), and Angela Creager (history of science), among others. To the PLAS staff: Muchisimas gracias! JUAN PABLO LUNA Juan Pablo Luna (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile) was a visiting associate research scholar in the Program in Latin American Studies and a visiting associate professor in the Program in Latin American Studies and Department of Politics. In fall 2008, Luna taught Democracy and Development in Latin America, and carried out research and writing for his project, Political Representation and the Quality of Democracy in Latin America. His recent publications are A Lost Battle? Building Programmatic Party-Voter Linkages in Contemporary Latin America: A Comparative Analysis of Chile and Uruguay (with Adam Stubits, in New Voices in Studies in the Study of Democracy in Latin America, eds. Guillermo O Donnell, Joseph S. Tulchin, and Augusto Varas, Washington, D.C.: The Wilson Center, 2008); Dossier LAPOP 2008 (Revista de Ciencia Política, forthcoming); Latin American Party Systems (with Herbert Kitschelt, Kirk Hawkins, Guillermo Rosas, and Elizabeth Zechmeister, Cambridge University Press, forthcoming); and The Left Turns as Multiple Paradigmatic Crises (with Fernando Filgueira, Third World Quarterly, forthcoming). Luna lectured at Columbia University, the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Brown University, and the PLAS Tuesday Luncheon Seminar Series. He won the Juan Linz Award for the Best Dissertation in the Comparative Study of Democracy, conferred by the American Political Science Association at its fall 2008 convention. JOSÉ MANUEL PRIETO José Manuel Prieto, a Cuban writer based in New York, is a visiting professional specialist and lecturer with the Program in Latin American Studies and the Department of Languages and Cultures ( ). At Princeton he is working on a research project titled Cuban Literature of the 1990s: Between the Island and the Diaspora. Prieto was born in Cuba and spent 12 years training and working as an engineer in the Soviet Union before beginning a career as a writer and translator. His work includes essays, short stories, and translations, and has been published around the world. His novel Livadia appeared in the United States as Nocturnal Butterflies of the Russian Empire. He received a Latin American Fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation in 2002, and in was the Margaret and Herman Sokol Fellow at the Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Center for Scholars and Writers at the New York Public Library. At Princeton, Prieto taught Visions from Utopia: Cuban Literature of the Nineties and Distant Dialogues: Cuban Literature of the Diaspora. Photos courtesy of the named individuals Hace unos meses recibí una llamada en mi celular. Una mujer de voz agradable se presentó como de la Lannan Foundation. Si sabía quiénes eran. La llamada me tomó por sorpresa. Por unos segundos no entendí de qué me hablaban pero luego recordé que sí, que no hacía mucho había asistido a un muy interesante congreso organizado por ellos en Georgetown University Llamaban para preguntarme si deseaba pasar un mes en la ciudad de Marfa, Texas, en un programa de residencia para escritores. Aquel nombre de Marfa me sonó en chino, o para ser más exacto, en ruso. Y en efecto, una semana después, cuando recibí el folleto del programa en el correo, supe que aquel nombre de Marfa había salido de un personaje secundario de Los hermanos Karamazov, la novela de Dostoevsky que en 1883 leía la esposa de un ejecutivo ferroviario, en un tren que pasaba a 4,830 pies de altura por el Chihuahuan Desert. Su esposo le preguntó qué nombre ponerle a tal pueblo recién fundado, ella levantó la vista del libro y pronunció: Marfa Una leyenda literaria que en cierto modo me reconcilió con la idea de viajar a miles de millas de Nueva York para sentarme a escribir en medio del desierto. Aunque no me preparó para el paisaje que encontraría: de impresionante belleza, coloreadas las montañas y las dunas en morados y en violeta, como un decorado de fondo que la cinta asfaltada de la carretera divide limpiamente en dos: la sensación de total irrealidad. Llegué a la casa ya anocheciendo y la encontré muy acogedora: amplia, bien dispuesta y rodeada de un jardín, todo un lujo, pensé. Resultó, además, un excelente lugar para escribir. Lo que tiene que ver, en gran medida, con que haya sido diseñada expresamente para el programa de la residencia. Desde el excelente estudio provisto con todos los recados de escribir, hasta una extensa colección de entrevistas con escritores en video y audio, pasando por una colección no menos extensa de la obra de los otros escritores que estuvieron antes de mí. De pie junto al estante hojeo a David Foster Wallace, a Andrew Rubin, a Chris Abani, a John Balaban, a Rick Moody, a Monique Truong, y muchos otros. La larga lista me lleva a meditar sobre esto: que en mucho de lo que se escribe en los Estados Unidos subyace una fuerza invisible que en gran medida moldea la imponente producción que llena los estantes de los Barnes & Noble y los Borders. Me refiero a los apoyos privados y del gobierno, las becas y los programas de residencia como este de Marfa, que sostienen la creación literaria y atemperan la fuerza del mercado. The Lannan Foundation, en particular, mis anfitriones, son una fundación familiar privada que aporta dinero para muchos programas de artes visuales, de literatura, de comunidades indígenas y también para el programa en que estoy, de escritores en residencia. Ahora mismo, en junio del 2008, están Cyrus Cassells, excelente poeta y traductor, y Rubén Martínez, importante escritor de origen chicano con quien luego emprenderé una breve excursión a la frontera. A diferencia de otras residencias y hay un catálogo extenso de ellas que encuentro en ese mismo estante, en Marfa no se le exige a nadie comidas o cenas comunitarias, actividades colectivas. La casa contiene todo y es, pienso, una suerte de cápsula o nave espacial aislada del desierto circundante, de Aquel nombre de Marfa me sonó en chino, o para ser más exacto, en ruso. Y en efecto, una semana después, cuando recibí el folleto del programa en el correo, supe que aquel nombre de Marfa había salido de un personaje secundario de Los hermanos Karamazov. donde salgo sólo a buscar comida al Pueblo Market, el único supermercado del lugar Para alguien que viene de América Latina no deja de asombrar, repito, el grado de apoyo que tiene la literatura aquí a través de este sistema de residencias. Me pregunto si habrá o funcionará algún programa así al sur del Río Grande. Creo que vale la pena reflexionar sobre ello, sobre este sistema tan difundido aquí en Norte América que hallo de tanta utilidad para la labor del escritor, para quien por razones de trabajo o familiares encuentra imposible aislarse por un mes siquiera para sacar adelante un libro. Al tercer o cuarto día visito el pintoresco edificio del juzgado, el no menos pintoresco hotel El Paisano y un par de galerías. Pero lo que define realmente a esta ciudad, termino por entenderlo, es ese encontrarse en medio del desierto, la forma súbita con que el tejido urbano acaba de golpe, desaparece a una cuadra de mi casa en las primeras arenas del desierto. Habrás visto el fuego, me dice Cyrus Cassells unos días después. Y sí había (CONTINUED ON PAGE 27) 16 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 17

10 STUDENT NEWS PLAS-FUNDED SUMMER 2008 INTERNSHIPS SENIOR CREATIVE THESIS: LAUREN WHITEHEAD 09 BY NICK ROBINSON, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR TIGERCARD AND UNIVERSITY TICKETING Lauren Whitehead 09, a concentrator who is pursuing certificates in PLAS and theater and dance, presented her senior thesis creative production, The Beat Is Sweet: Memory of a Broken Dream, at the Matthews Acting Studio from January 9 to 11. Featuring theater, music, and dance, The Beat Is Sweet stages an imagined encounter between Langston Hughes, the famed Harlem Renaissance poet, and Federico García Lorca, the Spanish poet and playwright martyred during the Spanish Civil War. Whether Hughes and Lorca ever met is unknown, but Hughes s translation of Lorca s Blood Wedding inspired Whitehead to create her own theatrical fantasy, entailing a series of dreams and nightmares, contrasted with flashes of reality. According to Whitehead, who wrote the script and directed the play, It is a play about time. It is a play about love. It is a play about finding oneself in a contrary world. Listen to the message behind the music. Whitehead has played an active role in the Princeton arts community as an actor, director, and house manager for shows at the Lewis Center for the Arts, the Princeton Shakespeare Company, Naacho, and the Black Arts Company. PLAS-FUNDED GRADUATE STUDENT FIELD RESEARCH, SUMMER 2008 Sergio Delgado Brazilian Concrete Poetry at the Crossroads of Art, Industry, and Mass Media Edgardo Dieleke Ficción y excepción: Representaciones actuales de la violencia en Latinoamérica (Argentina, Brazil) María Echeverry Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Timing Mechanism of Breeding and Molt in Neotropical Birds (Colombia) Erin Fitz-Henry Anthropology The Militarization of Manta: Military Aid Workers and Municipal Sovereignty in Coastal Ecuador Camilo Hernández-Castellanos The Casasola Archive: Crime Representation and the Dark Side of Mexican Modernity George Laufenberg Anthropology Political Subjectivity and Compulsive Consumption in Post-Crisis Argentina Laura León Llerena Writing Conversion: Reappropriation of an Indigenous Language and Christian Conversion in 17th-Century Colonial Peru Noam Lupu Politics Party Realignment in Venezuela Griselda Christina Mora-Torres Sociology The Institutionalization of Latino Panethnicity in U.S. Media and Politics (Texas) Amy Moran-Thomas Anthropology Trajectories of Medical Care in Belize: Cultural Meanings of Pharmaceutical Circulation in the Context of Local Healing Systems Cecilia Palmeiro Para ser bella hay que sufrir: Escrituras y prácticas de la diferencia en Argentina y Brasil Elena Peregrina-Salvador Writing and Remapping the Past: Literature, Photography, and Intellectuals in Chile and Argentina after 1970 Liliana Reyes History The Education of Latin American Revolutionaries in the Patrice Lumumba Friendship University in Moscow (Cuba, Russia) Christina Riehl Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Joint Laying by Greater Anis (Panama) Luis Rosa-Rodríguez Macedonio Fernández s Diaries (Argentina) Nadezhda Savova Anthropology Community Cultural Development: Casas de Cultura and Houses of Culture in Colombia and Bulgaria Elena Schneider History After the Siege: Slavery, Commerce, and British Occupation in 18th-Century Havana Daniel Stanton Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Feedbacks between Fog and Vegetation in Desert Ecosystems (Chile, Peru, Colombia) Liza Steele Sociology A Gift from God: Adolescent Motherhood and Interpretations of Religious Norms in Rio de Janeiro Matthew Treme Performance and Cultural Politics of Peru s Grupo Cultural Yuyuchkani Photo courtesy of Lauren Whitehead ADAM BRADLOW 11 worked in Mexico City with Fúndacion IDEA, preparing and promoting a Spanish-language publication on social expenditures, while carrying out related research and data entry; he also took excursions to Cuernavaca, Tenochtitlán, Tepotzlán, and Zamora. YVONNE CHASSER 09 () interned with Child Family Health International in La Paz, Bolivia, and undertook pediatric rotations in Hospital Los Andes, Hospital Boliviano Holandes, and Servicio de los Adolescentes, an outpatient clinic, where she gained insight into anemia, malnutrition, neonatal care, tuberculosis, and a variety of related social and medical issues. She also volunteered at Alalay, a home for street children. CANDICE CHOW 09 (Woodrow Wilson School, environmental studies) worked in Agua Buena, Costa Rica, with the Finca Project, whose mission is to encourage reforestation via environmental education initiatives; the Finca Project works with a local coffee cooperative to foster a more sustainable farming regime. ANDREA CLAY 11 interned in Rio de Janeiro with Fundação Casa Rui Barbosa, where she undertook research on the Brazilian newspaper O Pasquim, and explored local sites including the Botanical Gardens, Corcovado, the Cultural Museum, and the Naval Museum. JUAN MANUEL CONTRERAS 09 (psychology) worked in La Paz, Bolivia, with the Association of Financial Institutions for Rural Development (FINRURAL); he developed a plan to incorporate a quantitative approach to studying the personal and social development of FINRURAL s partner microfinance institutions. ALISSA ESCARCE 11 (history) worked with Fortaleza de la Mujer Maya (FOMMA) in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico, preparing a publication on FOMMA s history and activities, writing staff biographies, translating documents, and providing general office support; she also visited the Mayan archaeological site of Palenque. RUTH METZEL 10 (ecology and evolutionary biology) interned with Provita in Boca de Rio, Isla Margarita, Venezuela, working on the Bioinsula project dedicated to conserving rare local parrot species commonly poached for sale as household pets. ANASTASIA OLDHAM 10 (anthropology) interned in Buenos Aires with the Center for the Implementation of Public Policies Promoting Equity and Growth (CIPPEC), where she worked as a researcher and writer. CIPPEC s Justice Program focuses on making it easier for Argentine citizens to exercise their constitutional rights by improving access to the justice system, improving civic education, and preparing a curriculum on teaching human rights in elementary schools. JESSICA POTTENGER 10 (Woodrow Wilson School) interned at the Solidarity Center, Mexico City, undertaking corporate research and confronting the practical aspects of doing social justice work. BRIAN RICE 11 worked with Esperanza y Caridad in Lima, Peru, teaching English fundamentals (basic vocabulary, songs, colors, numbers) to children ages three to five in the working-class barrio of Chorrillos. ALEX TANK 10 (molecular biology) taught English and computer classes in Rio Frio, Heredia, Costa Rica. ALEXANDRA THOMAS 09 (Woodrow Wilson School) interned at Child Family Health International in La Paz, Bolivia, working in a clinic and volunteering at Alalay, a home for street children; she also traveled to Lake Titicaca and explored the Bolivian jungle. AMANDA TOY 10 (politics) interned at Child Family Health International in Oaxaca, Mexico. She did rotations in general practice, emergency medicine surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and pediatrics in several public and private hospitals and clinics. She attended Oaxaca s main dance festival, Guelaguetza, and visited Huatulco, Llano Grande, Mitla, Puerto Escondido, San Bartolo Coyotepec, Santa Ana del Valle, and Teotitlán. PETER TZENG 11 interned with WorldTeach Ecuador Summer, and taught computing, programming, and English at the Servicio Ecuatoriano de Capacitación Profesional in Ambato. ALYSE WHEELOCK 11 (anthropology) worked at the Mexican Institute of Family and Population Research in Mexico City, made a program site visit in Oaxaca, and traveled to Cuernavaca, Puebla, and Tepoztlán. PLAS-FUNDED SENIOR THESIS FIELDWORK, SUMMER 2008 HUGO ARELLANO SANTOYO 09 (physics): Religion in La Sierra Santa Catarina Juquila, Mexico KRISTEN BADAL 09 (politics): Characteristics of Female Congressional Candidates in Latin America (working in Argentina and Chile) TOLU LANREWAJU 09 (anthropology): Health Policy Research on the U.S.-Mexico Border (working with the Pan American Health Organization) PLAS-FUNDED SIGMUND SCHOLARS, SUMMER 2008 ADRIAN GALLEGOS 11 (Spanish and Portuguese) examined the process of internal migration and urbanization in Mexico, interviewing residents and undertaking a photographic documentation of El Colecio, an agricultural town north of Zamora, in Michoacán. TOMMY LÓPEZ 10 () undertook a research project titled A New Generation of Social Memory: Using Modern Art and Dance to Remember the Past, in Argentina and Uruguay. 18 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 19

11 DÍA DE LOS MUERTOS VIGIL The Latino Graduate Student Association and the undergraduate Chicano Caucus installed an altar in front of Frist Campus Center on November 3 to commemorate Día de los Muertos, a holiday celebrated throughout Latin America. The objective was to put into practice one of the most emblematic of Latin American cultural traditions, linking its original symbolism to issues relevant to the Princeton community at large. The altar sought to call attention to the great loss of human life incurred at the U.S.-Mexico border since 1994, following the implementation of Operation Gatekeeper. The altar was dedicated to a group of unidentified migrants buried at Terrace Park Cemetery in Holtville, California. Photos courtesy of the Latino Graduate Student Association; for more images, see Photo by Juan Miguel Ogarrio 11 Photo by Soobin Sunwoo PRINCETON TANGO FESTIVAL BREAKOUT PRINCETON CIVIC ACTION TRIP Over fall break, PLAS supported the Pace Center in sending 13 students on a studentled civic action trip to engage the issue of U.S. border immigration in Arizona as part of the Breakout Princeton program. While in Arizona, the students worked with two humanitarian groups, Humane Borders and No Más Muertes, and toured a U.S. Border Patrol station. They also attended a miniconference organized by several Phoenix-area Princeton alumni who work in immigration law. Breakout Princeton civic action trips are week-long opportunities for students to learn about and take action on important public issues with a group of their peers. The Arizona trip was made possible in part by support from PLAS. Andrew Nurkin, senior program coordinator at the Pace Center Juan Miguel Ogarrio 11 co-led the trip with Mariko Nakayama 11, and offers the following reflection: When Mariko Nakayama contacted me about helping her lead a trip dealing with immigration issues in Arizona, I accepted with a very simple reason in mind: Why not? The truth is that I hadn t previously given much thought to immigration. I come from a middle-class family in Guatemala, am wellversed in Austrian economics, and despise crime. The idea of people violating a national boundary for personal gain, a criminal offense, was as troublesome to me as that of borders The second annual Princeton Tango Festival, held from November 21 to 23, took place at various campus locations, including the Mathey and Rockefeller college common rooms, Whitman and Wilson college dance studios, and the Friend Center. The festival brought five Argentine tango instructor couples and 200 dancers from East Coast universities to Princeton for the weekend. Workshops at the intermediate to advanced levels were held during the day, interspersed with deejayed prácticas where dancers could try out their new moves. Evenings found everybody gathered in the dance halls where the milongas (tango dance parties) and performances were held. In addition, a free boot camp for beginners taught more than 30 Princeton students the basics of tango, and also exposed them to many aspects of the thriving tango community in the United States. Organized by the Princeton Tango Club, the festival was co-sponsored by the Program in Latin American Studies, the Department of Languages and Cultures, the Program in Theater and Dance, and the Graduate Student Government. For more information about the Princeton Tango Club and its activities, visit edu/~tango. being closed for the sake of protecting national markets. I thought going to Arizona would give me answers. Indeed, I heard and saw many things. We spoke with Border Patrol officers and with humanitarian organizations, and even attended a lecture on immigration policy at a law firm in Phoenix. I concluded that to expect a clear-cut solution would overlook the complexity of clashing social, political, and economic values as they play out in the issue of undocumented immigration. I was greatly moved by the work of humanitarian groups devoted to providing food, water, and medical care to people crossing the desert. The name of one, No Más Muertes, epitomizes the most important impression I gained from the trip: those who for basic economic reasons cross the border without documentation (not to mention their families at home) pay a very high price under a border security and control policy that produces hundreds of unnecessary deaths each year, without addressing the underlying socioeconomic issues that drive the phenomenon. 20 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 21

12 ALUMNI NEWS SPOTLIGHT: BOOK REVIEW MICHAEL SOLIS 07 NAMED MITCHELL SCHOLAR ALLEN TAYLOR 03 Allen writes from New York City, where he works as Program Director of Search and Selection for Endeavor Global. I ve been hooked on Latin America since studying abroad in Buenos Aires during my junior spring semester. In the fall of my senior year, I started a post-graduate fellowship organization called Princeton in Latin America (PiLA), together with my Princeton roommate Daniel Pastor 03 (now a senior communications officer at Google). First as an unpaid volunteer and then eventually as a paid director, I spent the first 15 months following my graduation stomping around Latin America seeking out partner organizations and supporters for PiLA. My travels took me to more than a dozen countries in the region, and cemented my commitment to service work, international development, and all things Latin American! I spent the next two years studying, living, and working in Europe: first as a Fulbright Scholar in Berlin, and later supporting program expansion for the London-based NGO Guidestar International. In the summer of 2006, I joined the New York office of Endeavor, an amazing international development organization dedicated to transforming the economies of emerging markets by identifying and supporting what we call high-impact entrepreneurs. Today I serve as the director of Endeavor Global s worldwide search and selection program, overseeing a team of more than 30 Michael Solis 07 has been named a George J. Mitchell Scholar and will spend a year studying international human rights law at the National University of Ireland, Galway. The Mitchell Scholarships are awarded to 12 U.S. students each year by the Washington, D.C.-based U.S.-Ireland Alliance. Winners are selected from 300 applicants from more than 150 colleges and universities nationwide. Solis, who is from Ledgewood, N.J., majored in the Woodrow Wilson School and earned certificates in Latin American studies and. Currently, he is a Princeton-in-Latin America fellow in Santiago, Chile, with Human Rights Watch and the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences. Solis is conducting research for both institutions on human rights, political discrimination in Venezuela, global security, arms control, and conflict resolution. After graduating from Princeton, Solis was a Luce Scholar, working in Seoul for the National Human Rights Commission of Korea. associates in Endeavor s 11 countries of operation (including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Uruguay) and spending about 30 percent of my time traveling to these inspiring and challenging places. My work with Endeavor is truly awesome and has led me to cross paths with some of the most inspiring entrepreneurs and individuals I could ever have imagined, in places ranging from Chiapas, Mexico, to Amman, Jordan, to the Western Cape of South Africa. In addition to my work with Endeavor, I am lucky enough to still have the opportunity to serve on the board of PiLA. EMILY WOODMAN- MAYNARD 05 Emily writes from New York City, where she is studying clinical psychology after a year abroad. At Princeton, I concentrated in Spanish and Portuguese languages and cultures, with a certificate in Latin American studies. After graduation in 2005, I spent half of the following year in Beijing, China, with Kyle Meng ( 05), now my husband. I spent the rest of the year in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, on a Fulbright fellowship to study colonial Latin American history. Returning to the U.S. in 2006, I moved to New York City and started a master s program in clinical psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. I became interested in psychology, in part, because of my exposure to psychoanalytic theory in my literature courses at Princeton. While pursuing my master s, I started to work as a research assistant at the HIV Center at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. I worked on a research project that explored the use of a new HIV prevention technology, a microbicide gel, among adolescent women in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. My role on the study was as a bilingual interviewer, but while I was at the HIV center I also collaborated with researchers from Argentina, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Portugal, and Cuba. In September 2007, Kyle and I were married in New York. He attends Columbia University as a Ph.D. student in the School of International and Public Affairs. In fall 2008, I started a Ph.D. program in clinical psychology at Fordham University in New York City. Apart from my schoolwork, I am currently working as a research assistant on a study at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, comparing two types of group therapy for patients with advanced cancer. In the last few years I have become very interested in public health, especially issues related to mental illness, chronic disease, and Latin America (in keeping with my studies at Princeton). As a clinical psychologist, I hope to combine clinical practice with Spanish- and Portuguesespeaking populations in the U.S. with public health research in Latin America. But for now I m doing my best to keep up with coursework and get settled into being a full-time student again. Photos courtesy of the named individuals Photo by Carol Clayton Long-lost field recordings made in Brazil during the late 1940s by Princeton s Stanley Stein, the Walter Samuel Carpenter III Professor of Spanish Civilization and Culture, Emeritus, and professor of history, emeritus, are the subject of a recently published compilation by leading Brazilian historians and ethnomusicologists; a review of the Brazilian volume follows. Review of Memória do Jongo: as gravações históricas de Stanley Stein (Eds. Silvia Lara and Gustavo Pacheco. São Paulo: Folha Seca, 2008). By Elizabeth Travassos From O Estado de São Paulo, Caderno CULTURA, p. D5, ano 149, no (Sunday, August 17, 2008), with permission Não faz muito tempo, somente colecionadores e estudiosos que conheciam os meandros dos acervos públicos e privados escutavam gravações históricas. A edição de CDs com pelo menos parte desse material permite a um público mais amplo ouvir a história da música brasileira. Felizmente, não só a música gravada para distribuição comercial tem recebido atenção nas edições recentes. A tendência alcançou os registros sonoros, geralmente feitos por pesquisadores, da música que nunca interessou à indústria cultural. Memória do Jongo pertence a essa vertente editorial que floresce com o apoio de patrocinadores, pela via da Lei de Incentivo à Cultura. Mas a coleção que o livro divulga é singularmente pequena: os 81 fonogramas que o historiador norte-americano Stanley J. Stein gravou em Vassouras, em 1949, têm ao todo pouco mais de meia hora. A proporção entre material sonoro e anotação inverte-se nessa publicação, que apresenta textos extensos dos historiadores Silvia Hunold Lara, Hebe Mattos, Martha Abreu e Robert Slenes. O núcleo da coleção é constituído pelos 60 pontos de jongo, forma de expressão vocal criada pelos escravos das fazendas de café e cana-de-açúcar do Sudeste. Registrado pelo Iphan em 2005 como Patrimônio Imaterial nacional, o jongo foi, durante um bom tempo, assunto que só despertava a curiosidade de folcloristas e um ou outro sambista. Na última década, vem recebendo atenção dos historiadores e cientistas sociais. O antropólogo Gustavo Pacheco (coorganizador do livro) relata na introdução as peripécias para obter a gravação original em fio de arame e transcrevê-la em um suporte moderno. Um texto do próprio Stanley Stein situa as gravações no contexto da pesquisa que desenvolveu no Brasil, há 60 anos. Interessado na economia e relações sociais na plantation de café, não atribuiu muita importância às suas gravações. Não guardou o nome das pessoas que cantam e tocam nem o lugar onde gravou os sambas da coleção. O jongo foi gravado por acidente (pág. 37), foi fruto do acaso (pág. 40) de uma conversa sobre a Abolição com dois afro-brasileiros idosos, na feira, em Vassouras. Reiterando o vínculo entre jongo, memória da escravidão e da libertação, os interlocutores de Stein reagiram à sua pergunta cantando um ponto de jongo. Silvia Hunold Lara comenta o livro de Stein (Vassouras: a Brazilian Coffee County, ), publicado originalmente em Particularmente interessantes são suas observações sobre a flutuação dos modos de ler essa obra. As mudanças na leitura sucederam-se, afinadas com as inclinações teóricas e as agendas políticas dos historiadores, e culminaram na impressão contemporânea de pioneirismo : Stein teria feito como que uma micro-história avant la lettre. No contexto de interesse pelas práticas cotidianas e de empenho no registro de narrativas orais de descendentes de escravos, Stein despontou como um precursor. Hebe Mattos e Martha Abreu fazem, passo a passo, a revisão das descrições do jongo por estrangeiros, folcloristas, músicos e cientistas sociais, desde o século 19 até os nossos dias. Como bem observam, a discussão atual sobre a transformação do jongo em espetáculo para consumo de não-jongueiros deve levar em conta que é velho o afã com que os brancos olham as danças dos negros, objeto de atração e reprimenda. O conteúdo dos cantos, entretanto, escapou e escapa aos observadores. É provável que do jongo só tenham visto a face pública; outras subtraíram-se (e subtraem-se) à observação, mas o que delas se entrevê sugere que o canto de jongos, a dança e todos os elementos associados contribuíram para articular as relações internas às comunidades de escravos e seus descendentes, relações abrangendo comunidades vizinhas e antepassados. O ensaio de Robert Slenes penetra nesse mundo. Apoiando-se no conhecimento da história e cultura centroafricana, Slenes analisa os registros de Stein e dos folcloristas, especialmente os de Maria de Lourdes Borges Ribeiro, a quem faz justa homenagem. A partir da hipótese de reelaboração, na plantation, da visão de mundo das populações centro-africanas, especialmente as da zona litorânea, Slenes investe na etimologia do vocabulário jongueiro e na exegese dos elementos enigmáticos do jongo: o ponto que se ata e desata, a conexão com a umbanda, o poder mágico das palavras. No CD, há 60 jongos cantados, alguns com menos de 10 segundos, a maioria encerrada por um pronto! e pronto, é isso aí! dito pelo jongueiro ao interlocutor. (Curiosamente, quem usa as interjeições jongueiras cachoeira! e machado! nesse livro são os pesquisadores.) A impressão de estarmos ouvindo fragmentos deve-se ao contexto da gravação em que um ou dois jongueiros, sozinhos, rememoraram pontos sem o estímulo da interação com os tambores e com o coro de companheiros(as). Nas gravações de Vassouras, encontram-se versões de pontos que estão em circulação entre os jongueiros contemporâneos, alguns deles anotados e comentados por outros pesquisadores (como o antológico Tanto pau no mato / Embaúba é coroné ). Outros pontos nunca foram registrados antes, pelo que sei. Isso sugere um equilíbrio entre surgimento de pontos novos e sedimentação na memória do repertório compartilhado. Os jongueiros de Vassouras entoam o ponto no estilo parlando que ainda é bastante comum no canto-solo dos jongueiros, acompanham-se com palmas e usam interjeições iniciais (aê!, ô!), como as que Darcy do Jongo, por exemplo, usava com desenvoltura nas cantigas do Jongo da Serrinha. Ouvem-se no CD variantes de pontos cantados nos dias de hoje, como o da faixa 28, que diz: Eu sou mineiro mau/ Não bule comigo não e que ecoa a ameaça sutil do Não mexe com pinto/ Galinha assanha, cantada pelo pessoal do Quilombo São José da Serra, em Valença). Finalmente, há a presença de temas inconfundíveis: onde mais, nas tradições orais dessa região, senão no jongo, se canta do tatu que cavuca a terra? Este e outros tropos jongueiros, corajosamente interpretados por Robert Slenes, podem ser apreciados no livro e no CD. Elizabeth Travassos is a professor of anthropology at the Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio, and author of Modernismo e Música Brasileira (Porto Alegre, Brazil: Traça Livraria e Sebo, 1999). 22 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 23

13 DEVELOPING FILMS OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 8) LA COLONIA RUBÉN JARAMILLO (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 3) MANIFIESTO POR UN NEOCORRIDO (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 11) and impunity. Every day in Colombia we live film noir. Hence, my brother and I thought the time was right to gather the rotten fruits of that red harvest and adapt a classical American film genre to our national cinema, albeit in hybrid form, mixing thriller with melodrama. The film was a box-office failure, in part due to the fact that the distributor did not believe in the film and released it in the wrong cinemas. Nevertheless, it traveled well in the festival circuit and was released in France, where more people saw it than in my native country. As a documentary filmmaker, I sometimes do not know whether it is I who chooses the subject or vice versa. In the case of La desazón suprema: retrato incesante de Fernando Vallejo ( The Supreme Uneasiness: Incessant Portrait of Fernando Vallejo, 2003), I think it was a happy coincidence. I was approached by a colleague who told me a French producer was interested in finding a director to make a documentary about Fernando Vallejo. My friend suggested me as a possible candidate and told me to get in touch with the producer. I wrote a proposal and sent it. My letters went unanswered. Then I tried to obtain local financing with no success. Colombia is in the midst of its worst political and economic crisis; funding for documentary films is practically non-existent at the moment. Nevertheless, I did not give up, and called Barbet Schroeder to ask him if he was going to finish his documentary about the writer. He told me he wasn t and offered me all the material he had shot. Counting on this and with a camera I just bought, I decided to make the documentary by myself. In April 2001, with no means, I traveled to Mexico with my mini-dv camera and stayed at the writer s house for 20 days. My objective was to record him without the interference of a large film crew. This permitted me to register not only his daily life, but also some very intimate and revealing moments. To my surprise, Fernando Vallejo was not the monster the media had created. Thanks to my camera I captured what hid behind his public persona. He turned out to be a very soft-spoken and gentle person, who has led a quiet and solitary life in his Mexican exile for more than 30 years, a lover of animals and music, with a profound sense of loss for his country. Fernando Vallejo is the most controversial Colombian writer. A few years ago, before the publication of his novel La Virgen de los sicarios ( Our Lady of the Assassins ) in 1994, hardly anything was known about him. Nevertheless, there were a few scattered facts. He had published in Mexico an obscure grammatical treatise called Logoi. He had directed three feature films in Mexico, two of which were banned in Colombia. In Mexico he had also published, by his own means, an excellent biography about the Colombian homosexual poet Porfirio Barba Jacob. Between 1985 and 1993, in his Mexican exile, he wrote a fivevolume autobiographical novel called EI rio del tiempo ( The River of Time ), an irreverent and revealing work read by a chosen few. As for his image, only a couple of photographs existed of him. Everything changed in 1994 when Our Lady of the Assassins became a bestseller in Colombia. Then it was translated into French and obtained rave reviews from the European literary establishment, who compared him to other politically incorrect authors like Celine, Drieu La Rochelle, Genet, and Thomas Bernhard and promoted him as a welcome alternative to magical realism. Then, in 2000, Barbet Schroeder s adaptation of La Virgen de los sicarios was released worldwide and became a succes de scandale in Colombia, where it caused a public uproar. Some people even proposed that the film should be banned because it showed a bad image of our country. Fernando Vallejo suddenly became a household word. In conferences and interviews he came out of virtual anonymity and took the opportunity to denounce everything: God and country, the Pope and García Marquez, Simon Bolivar and Fidel Castro, liberals and conservatives, guerrillas and paramilitaries, mothers and procreation, the poor and the ugly. Fernando Vallejo ceased to be the ghost of his books and became the spokesman for the conscience of a country destroyed by years of internal strife. Vallejo dared to say the things nobody in Colombia wanted to admit. What for Vallejo was once a paradise, the Colombia of his childhood and adolescence in Medellin, is now irretrievably gone, a lost paradise without hope or redemption, perhaps the most violent country in the world, due to years of political corruption, drug trafficking, and uncontrolled urbanization. In 1996, art students Lucas Ospina, François Bucher, and Bernardo Ortiz discovered Pedro Manrique Figueroa, the precursor of collage in Colombia. Since then, several exhibitions of his work have been shown both in Colombia and abroad. When I heard of this unknown artist, I thought that his life story offered a splendid opportunity to make a film about the 1960s and 1970s, examining the relationship between art and politics, between truth and falsehood, between documentary and fiction. So much has been said about that period that we no longer know how much of it is believable; the 60s and 70s have been so mythologized and fictionalized that those times have assumed an almost mystical aura. Still, in what now appear to us as far-distant times, people had ideals and genuinely aspired to attaining a collective utopia. Indeed, it may have been the last time human beings thought they could change the world. Now we simply conform ourselves to save the planet. Now that there are no ideologies left for us to believe in, we hanker after our lost illusions. Were we fooling ourselves? Was it all just a dream? Was it real? One of the aims of Un tigre de papel ( A Paper Tiger, 2007) is to confront the real with the make-believe in light of so much contradictory evidence about those years. The 1960s and 1970s constitute a reality that we ought either to justify or criticize dispassionately now, from our present distance in time. In times of confusion like our own, a film like Un tigre de papel helps us to develop reflective strategies. It should not be seen as the opposite of fiction, but as a signpost to reality, forming part of a historical dialectic that is nourished by both truth and falsehood. Pedro Manrique Figueroa serves as a figure to spark discussions about the past, but in the present tense. Deciding to make this film about an artist who was a typical product of art and politics in Colombia during the period in question, I sought to call into doubt the portrayal of the historical happenings documented. I intended to project a systematic suspicion about the technical, practical, and institutional practices used to create realities that are blindly accepted as authentic and undeniable. I wanted, in fact, to question their very credibility. la cabeza ladeada, por el rostro sensible y el cuerpo esmirriado del Güero pasaban ráfagas que aún lo estremecían y lo afeaban. Su boca enchuecada por la tensión estaba cubierta de saliva. Por más que la limpiaba con la manga de su camisa, la boca no regresaba a su estado normal, seguía colgada, húmeda, roja, impúdica. Parecía extraño que una figura tan endeble fuera un conductor de masas. Micaela corrió a su lado: Qué barbaridad, Güero, qué barbaridad Guerito! repetía, sin saber si era por el discurso o por el estado en que éste lo había dejado. Elena, la secretaria, lloraba sin intentar siquiera enjugar las lágrimas que corrían a lo largo de su cara como sus brazos caían a lo largo de su cuerpo. Jesús, María y José, que el Güero vuelva en si. Lo veían como a la santa tierra que el les había entregado y, con solo mirarlo ahora, intuían que moriría. Si el Güero desaparecía les quitarían de nuevo la tierra y a la tierra se viene a vivir, carajo, no a morir, y volverían a la muerte de antes, a la vecindad, a la pocilga ajena. Qué barbaridad, Guerito!, Micaela no se atrevió a abrazarlo hasta que él mismo dio un paso y ella lo recibió sobre su regazo ancho de mujer deseada. Mañana vamos a hacer mole le dijo como a un niño mañana será día de fiesta. Que lo escuche, le digo. No quiero. No se levanta hasta que escuche el corrido. Pero en lugar de eso mi padre me miró como diciendo: Pinche hijo tan fresa, nomás para eso te mandé a una escuela privada, para que renegaras de tus orígenes. Y volvió a sacar la macana mientras mí madre me sujetaba las manos. El taxista arrancó. Me corrigieron con amor y firmeza, como debe hacer un padre con su hijo. Hasta el taxista participó. En eso estaban cuando nos alcanzo una patrulla. Agáchate, agáchate, me decía ella. No, levántate, me ordenó él. Me agacho o me levanto?, les pregunté yo. No puedo hacer las dos cosas. Como cada vez que les planteaba una pregunta incómoda, mis padres guardaron silencio y el taxista se estacionó. El policía bajó de su patrulla y se asomó por la ventana. Meneó la cabeza y les dijo: Qué pues? No les dije que no quería verlos aquí? Es nuestro hijo, oficial; dijo ella: Lo estamos sacando a pasear. Sí, cómo no, dijo el policía. Nomás traía esto... Mi padre le extendió el dinero que habían conseguido quitarme hasta ese momento. El policía se lo guardó en el pantalón y les dijo: A chambear a su zona. El taxista arrancó. Pasado el susto, mi padre sacó la macana y volvió a pegarme: Todo esto fue por culpa tuya, cabrón; nos traes mala suerte. Estaban muy enojados. Me ordenaron cerrar los ojos. Entonces mi padre sacó una hoja de papel y la apoyó sobre mi muslo derecho. Allí escribió: Dónde lo tiramos?. Luego le paso el papel a mi madre, que escribió sobre mi muslo izquierdo algo que no supe descifrar. La rabia desfiguraba su letra, por lo general muy cuidada. Dieron una instrucción al taxista, que aceleró. El estéreo tocaba El hijo desobediente. Me acuerdo como si fuera ayer: esa historia de horror extrañísima, el relato de una tragedia que se ve venir pero no puede impedirse, contada como si el cantante disfrutara de ese horror inmenso. Me dije: Esta canción es lo último que voy a oir. Escuché que mi padre le quitaba el se- guro a su pistola y sentí que ahora sí me iba a desmayar. Todos los que van a morir escucharán una melodía como ésa? Teoría: cuando van a matar a alguien primero le ponen El hijo desobediente. El taxi entró a una calle oscura y desierta. Ordenaron: Bájate. Chíngatelo, dijo mi madre. En la puerta había un dibujo de La Santa Muerte. Bájese. Quise obedecer pero me temblaron las piernas. Entonces mi padre me apuntó con la pistola, y dejé el núcleo familiar. El hijo desobediente estaba por terminar. Caminé con las manos en alto hasta que llegué frente a una pared. Adiós papá, adiós mamá. Ya con ésta me despido. En eso oí un arrancón y abrí los ojos. Estaba en la colonia Guerrero, refugio de ladrones y robacoches. Frente a un taller mecánico, entre charcos y manchas de aceite. Pensé: No lo puedo creer, me abandonaron mis padres. Al caminar hacia la avenida encontré el papel con que intentaron ponerse de acuerdo. Pensé en hacer algo con él, quizas una carta al padre o una denuncia de mi madre y sus actividades ilícitas. Denunciar a papá o a mamá? Hice las dos cosas, aunque ellos me advirtieron que tomarían represalias. Soy un hijo desobediente. Ayer vi una foto de mi madre en los diarios. El titular indicaba que era una de las criminales más buscadas y peligrosas. No me extraña ni tantito. Donde quiera que esté, le deseo mucha suerte. Mi santa madre. De vez en cuando mi, padre me llama y me dice: Te vas a morir, cabrón delator. Yo hago lo que haría un hijo maduro y sereno: finjo que no lo he escuchado, cuelgo y enciendo la tele. Entonces me pongo a pensar quiénes me han asaltado en el último año: un carterista, dos ex policías e incluso mis padres: hay que ver qué bajo ha caido el país. 24 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 25

14 LOS MONSTRUOS Y TÚ (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 11) UN LUGAR PARA ESCRIBIR, NADA MÁS (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 17) de sus miedos y enfrentar a los monstruos. Primero, estudiemos su naturaleza y costumbres. 9. La historia demues tra que hay monstruos buenos, monstruos no tan buenos, monstruos malos y monstruos muy malos, malísimos. En la antigüedad el hombre se llevaba muy bien con monstruos como el Centauro Quirón, que daba cursos de filosofía y enseñaba tiro al blanco con arco y flecha. 10. O las Ondinas, que vivían en los lagos y se enamoraban de los hombres. 11. También está el fantasma de Canterville, que terminó por hacerse amigo de la familia a la que debía asustar. 12. Desgraciadamente, estas son excepciones. Por eso este libro habla de los monstruos malos, o muy malos, de cómo controlarlos y comportarse ante ellos. 13. Según tratados muy antiguos, al momento de nacer a cada persona le asignan tres monstruos para que lo acompañen durante toda su vida. Estos monstruos varían de acuerdo a cada persona, pero siempre son tres: hay que aprender a enfrentarlos. 14. Textura: la piel de los monstruos puede adoptar diversos colores y caracteristicas. Aquí tienes algunos ejemplos: a) piel gelatinosa y mojada; b) piel muy peluda; c) pegajosa; d) rasposísima; e) fría y aguada. 15. Sus extremidades también suelen ser muy desagradables. Tienen patas, garras, dedos escamosos, o simples sábanas, como los fantasmas. Aquí tienes uno que nunca se corta las uñas. Ve nomás qué cochinada. 16. Dramaturgia: los monstruos aman la actuación. Algunos se saben de memoria las principales obras de Shakespeare, pero siempre sobreactúan. Los monstruos son muy exagerados. 17. Biología: si escuchas una respiración muy fuerte cerca de tu oído, y no hay nadie a la vista, puedes estar seguro de que hay un monstruo cerca de ti. 18. No es posible escapar de ellos: aunque viajes, huyas al espacio exterior o salgas de tu casa disfrazado de luchador, tus monstruos siempre están a un lado de ti y aguardan el peor momenta para manifestarse. Es im-posible engañarlos. Lo único que se puede hacer es enfrentarlos a mano limpia. Algunas personas nunca lo intentan y cargan con sus monstruos toda la vida. 19. Lo principal, lo único que puede derrotar a los monstruos es demostrarles que no se les teme. Si esto no es posible, se recomienda fingir indiferencia. Compórtese con naturalidad. Recuerde el caso de Valentino Hernández, un niño mexicano: cada vez que un monstruo le decía Te voy a comer, Valentino fingía que no lo habia escuchado, y preguntaba: Cómo dijiste?. Que te voy a comer!, repetía el monstruo. Mas fuerte, insistía Valentino. QUE TE VOY A COMER!, gritaba el monstruo. Qué raro, decía Valentino, de veras que no oigo nada, me lo puedes repetir otra vez? Y así seguían hasta que el monstruo se iba, cansado de tanto gritar y enfermo de la garganta. No hay que temerle a los monstruos. 20. Otra cosa que irrita a estos seres es que se rían de ellos. Piense en el caso de las hemnanitas Kitano, de Japón, que cada vez que se encontraban a un monstruo (y en su casa había muchos), en lugar de asustarse y correr, se dedicaban a criticar su aspecto: Ya viste qué sucias tiene las manos? Parece que nunca se baña! Y ya viste qué mal aliento tiene? Debería darle vergüenza! Y ya viste su colita? Parece de french poodle! Este tipo de críticas constructivas desestabiliza mucho a los monstruos, y terminan por huir llenos de vergüenza. Hay que ser mas listo que todos los monstruos. 21. Cuando un monstruo te esté molestando, y te encuentres a punto de llorar, imagínate cómo era ese monstruo cuando tenía seis meses de edad. Si lo haces bien pronto lo verás más chico que antes. Este remedio es casi infalible, y muy divertido. Si hoy te encuentras a uno, antes de asustarte imagínate a ese mismo monstruo cuando era un bebé, en pañales. Verdad que era inofensivo? 22. Toma una hoja blanca y dibuja el monstruo que mas miedo te da. Si no puedes, usa el identificador facial de monstruos que acompaña a este libro, para que hagas un buen retrato hablado. Allí encontrarás los rostros de los monstruos mas famosos, como Dracula, el Hombre Lobo, Frankenstein, Godzilla, un Fantasma, la Momia y King Kong. Seguro que tu monstruo se parece a uno de ellos. 23. Confesión: los peores monstruos nos persiguen cuando uno hizo algo malo, está preocupado o vio algo horrible. 24. A los monstruos hay que estudiarlos atentamente y encontrar de que material están hechos. En cuanto uno averigua su secreto, los monstruos se desvanecen en el aire. Al autor de este libro de niño lo asustaba un vampiro, hasta que descubrió que estaba hecho de estambre; un dia jaló una hebra y el monstruo desapareció. Con esa hebra escribio este manual. 25. Una vez que son vencidos, los monstruos rara vez regresan, ya que son muy orgullosos. Todas las personas que conoces alguna vez lucharon con sus monstruos, y por supuesto, tu papá y tu mamá. Pregúntales si de niños les daban miedo, y cómo aprendieron a dominarlos. Aunque no te lo diga, incluso tu abuelo luchó contra sus propios monstruos. Aquí puedes ver a los monstruos que asustaban a tu abuelito. 26. Si falla todo lo anterior (y el monstruo se acerca) los manuales recomiendan dejar de escapar: detente, toma a todos por sorpresa y entra por tu propio pie en las fauces del monstruo. Fue lo que hizo Gongorito Muelas: descubrió que ahí el monstruo no podía hacerle daño, y que tenía ocho muelas picadas, lo cual explicaba su mal humor. Gongorito no solo se salvó del ataque sino que se hizo amigo del monstruo y hoy es un reputado dentista, que atiende en la calle Reforma. Allí aconseja a sus clientes: Antes de que el monstruo lo persiga, sea usted más veloz y cóbrele la consulta. 27. Con estos consejos algunas personas no sólo han conseguido someterlos, sino dominarlos, envasarlos y explotarlos comercialmente. Así, participan en espectaculos de circo, en obras de teatro, son inspiración para diferentes peliculas. Los monstruos son la materia prima de la creación artística. 28. Recuerda estos sencillos consejos y deshazte de los monstruos que están en tu casa. Lee este libro, y después, diviértete mientras los ves huir. 29. Si el libro te gustó, pon tu nombre aquí. Cuando un monstruo sepa que has leído este manual, sabrá que no puede asustarte. notado una gran humareda al día siguiente de mi arribo. El desierto ardió durante días en un frente de muchas millas de ancho y otras tantas de fondo. De pie frente al desierto, observando los arbustos chamuscados y más a lo lejos, toda la planicie negra, tengo la entera sensación de estar frente a un mar, el mismo silencio bajo un sol de justicia, que cae a plomo. El entorno de la novela que estoy escribiendo y que sucede en un Nueva Orleans tropical, húmedo y bullicioso, no puede ser más distinto de este Big sky country, como rezan los folletos que inveteradamente recojo en la biblioteca del lugar. También ahora figura eso de No Country for Old Men por la novela de Cormac McCarthy, que pasa por esta misma zona. La frontera queda a tan solo 60 millas y el tráfico de dinero y drogas es muy intenso. Un lugareño se me queja días después: si la Policía confisca un cargamento de dinero (que va de norte a sur) le está permitido quedarse con un alto por ciento (creo que dijo un ochenta por ciento). Pero para que haya ese dinero, debe entrar droga (de sur a norte). Es fácil ver en qué estarán más interesados, añadió. La zona está un tanto cargada de tensión, los controles son frecuentes en la carretera. Debo viajar con mi pasaporte y visa. En dos ocasiones me los pide el Border Patrol. Sin embargo, el pueblo es apacible, tranquilo, nada hay que temer: se puede dormir con la puerta abierta, y hasta tarde trabajo en el patio, cuando el calor amaina. Marfa llegó a tener diez mil habitantes en su época de esplendor en los cuarenta y cincuenta, y varios cines que ahora son galerías, como casi todos los edificios en la Calle Mayor. En aquella época de oro también se construyó El Paisano, el hotel más lujoso entre el Paso y San Antonio, como reza una placa junto a la puerta, y se filmó lo que constituye la mayor leyenda del lugar: Giant, con James Dean, Elizabeth Taylor y Rock Hudson. El filme corre ahora interminablemente en el pequeño lobby, un lugar que vende parafernalia de Hollywood porque hoy día Marfa se ha convertido en el lugar obligado para filmar cualquier película que pase en el desierto. Aquí también se filmó la película basada en la novela de McCarthy y la otra sacada de Upton Sinclair, There Will Be Blood, la saga del petróleo. Por años el pueblo llevó una existencia fantasma, se desmanteló la base militar en las afueras (la misma que hoy ocupa la Fundación Chinati), la población mermó a menos de la mitad y sus edificios podían ser comprados a precio de ganga: la antigua fábrica de hielo, el antiguo cine del centro, etc. Eso fue lo que hizo con absoluta visión Donald Judd, el célebre artista minimalista, que fue como el príncipe que sacó a la ciudad de su largo sueño cuando dejó Nueva York e instaló sus cuarteles creativos en pleno desierto. Y la ciudad floreció. Hoy Marfa está de moda, hay mucho dinero en el pueblo, gente de todas partes. Las cosas han cambiado y el pueblo rebosa de galerías, muchos otros artistas se han mudado para acá. Algunas de las casas, es verdad, permanecen vacías, tan solo atendidas por los jardineros que hacen trabajar los aspersores de manera silenciosa, sin que tú te enteres (en la casa donde vivo, arrancan en las mañanas y se detienen en algún momento sin participación alguna de mi parte). En cualquier caso, a pesar del arribo de tanta gente de afuera, no hay mucho que hacer por las noches. Según Douglas Humble, que es la persona de la Fundación en Marfa, la Lannan tenía primero las casas-residencia en Santa Fe, pero luego decidieron moverlas a Marfa, principalmente por que no hay tanta distracción como en la capital de Nuevo Mexico. Hay, de cierto, tan solo dos restaurantes decentes, con precios astronómicos. Newyorkinos, comenta alguien, pero no, como vengo de Nueva York insisto: astronómicos simplemente. Voy a cenar con Cyrus y Rubén, y una vez cenados no resta mucho que hacer aparte de volver a encerrarse en la burbuja climatizada de la casa y trabajar por horas. La casa en Marfa se convirtió en el mejor lugar donde haya trabajado en años: ayudaron el total aislamiento, el silencio que tan solo era rasgado, de vez en cuando, por el pitido de uno de esos larguísimos trenes de carga que atraviesan la pradera, y por el tecleo, quedo a veces, sonoro y entusiasta otras, frente a mi computadora. Pienso en cuanto más se haría en toda América Latina con un sistema así de residencias para creadores, el apoyo que significaría para nuestros escritores que deben subsistir con dos y tres trabajos. Un respiro así sería de grandísima ayuda y muy estimulante, además. Habría que entusiasmar a algunas de nuestras fundaciones con el proyecto. En México ya existen, por ejemplo, dos Casas Refugio que en su momento pertenecieron al Parlamento Internacional de Escritores. Pero su principal objetivo es proporcionar ayuda y residencia a escritores perseguidos. Estoy hablando de algo más prosaico, si se quiere: un lugar donde poder escribir durante un mes al menos lejos de las presiones del trabajo y hasta de la familia. Quizá exista ya alguna cuya existencia y funcionamiento desconozco. En cualquier caso, el tema está servido. AWARDS AND PUBLICATIONS (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 15) and dance as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Winner of the 2008 WOMEX and BBC Radio 3 world music awards, Palacio was named a UNESCO Artist for Peace in November 2007 (joining only four other musicians in the Western Hemisphere Gilberto Gil, Juan Luis Guerra, Tania Libertad, and Céline Dion). The volume, Andy Palacio (Image Factory Arts Foundation, 2008) was released posthumously in a Belize City ceremony on December 2, the singer s birthday; proceeds will further the educational mission of the Andy Palacio Foundation. Stone gave the keynote address at the Fourth Annual Garifuna Community Forum (Medgar Evers College and the Garifuna American Heritage Foundation United); spoke at the symposium Garifuna Popular Music and Arts: Contemporizing the Traditional (Georgia State University); and presented Palacio s ensemble, The Garifuna Collective, at New York s Symphony Space, co-sponsored by the Americas Society and the World Music Institute. Stone contributed liner notes to Argentine chamamé artist Chango Spasiuk s new CD, Pynandí: Los Descalzos (World Village-Harmonia Mundi, 2009); his Jazz Worldwide airs Monday evenings (8 10 p.m.) on the new Trenton-Princeton digital high-definition jazz channel, WWFM Jazz on 2 (89.1 FM, HD2, 26 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 27

15 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES Burr Hall Princeton, NJ CONTAC T US PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES TEL: (609) FAX: (609) Comments and news or information from our readers on recent activities are welcome, as are inquiries regarding the program. Please write to or contact our staff members directly. RUBÉN GALLO DIRECTOR 314 Burr Hall MICHAEL STONE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 312 Burr Hall ROSALIA RIVERA PROGRAM MANAGER 311 Burr Hall JILLIAN LENIHAN PROGRAM ASSISTANT 316 Burr Hall KAI LAIDLAW TECHNICAL SUPPORT SPECIALIST 310 Burr Hall NONDISCRIMINATION STATEMENT In compliance with Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and other federal, state, and local laws, Princeton University does not discriminate on the basis of age, race, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, national or ethnic origin, disability, or status as a disabled or Vietnam-era veteran in any phase of its employment process, in any phase of its admission or financial aid programs, or other aspects of its educational programs or activities. The vice provost for institutional equity and diversity is the individual designated by the University to coordinate its efforts to comply with Title IX, Section 504 and other equal opportunity and affirmative action regulations and laws. Questions or concerns regarding Title IX, Section 504 or other aspects of Princeton s equal opportunity or affirmative action programs should be directed to the Office of the Vice Provost for Institutional Equity and Diversity, Princeton University, 205 Nassau Hall, Princeton, NJ or (609) Produced by the Office of Communications and the Program in Latin American Studies Copyright 2009 by The Trustees of Princeton University In the Nation s Service and in the Service of All Nations Cover photo courtesy of Ernesto Neto and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York Cover photo of Rubén Gallo courtesy of Rubén Gallo 28 PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER

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