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2 Welcome Letter 3 Acknowledgments 4 Abstract Reviewers 5 Plenary Speakers 6 Workshop Invited Speakers 7 Special Panel Invited Speakers 8 Schedule 9 Presentation Abstracts 13 Invited Workshop Abstracts 39

3 3 Estimado hispanista, Me complace darle la bienvenida al primer simposio de español como lengua de herencia que organiza Texas Tech University. Este ciclo inaugural de ponencias es fruto de una necesidad, la de crear un nuevo foro de discusión sobre una materia de suma importancia en el campo de los estudios del español en Estados Unidos, y no nace sólo con una clara vocación de continuidad sino que, además, lo hace con la firme intención de convertirse en un referente dentro de su ámbito. Entre hoy y mañana, tendrá la oportunidad de conocer de primera mano los diversos avances que tanto investigadores como profesores y estudiantes han realizado (o están realizando) partiendo de una base teórica y práctica. Confío plenamente en que este encuentro le resulte muy provechoso, en el sentido de que le permita conocer nuevos puntos de vista y de que le ofrezca la posibilidad de entablar o estrechar relaciones con otros hispanistas. Así mismo, le invito a participar en el taller que tendrá lugar el sábado, en el que se tratará de explorar las mejores y más efectivas prácticas a la hora de enseñar español a aquellos estudiantes que tienen éste como lengua heredada. El principal objetivo de esta actividad es proveer a los presentes de las herramientas necesarias para impulsar la diversidad tanto en el ámbito social y cultural, como en el lingüístico. Con la esperanza de que su estancia en Lubbock y en Texas Tech University sea de su agrado, reciba un cordial saludo. Fdo. Diego Pascual y Cabo, Ph.D. (on behalf of the organizing committee)

4 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This event would not have been possible without the support and involvement of many people and organizations. First, we are grateful to all graduate students and staff from the Classical & Modern Languages & Literatures department: Ana Acevedo, Lloyd Allred, Dora Aranda, Maria Arciniega, Santiago Arias, John Baron, María Luz Bateman, Isaac Billalobos, Yesenia Blanco, Alejandra Cerdas-Cisneros, Omar Corral, Janie Covarrubias, Rolando Díaz, Jeff Farmer, Geazul Hernández, Daniel Hopkins, Yuriko Ikeda, Rubén Galve, Sonia Loza Fuentes, Sabrina Laroussi, Mónica Fernández, Theresa Madrid, Michael Martínez, Irina Mozuliova, Rodrigo Pereyra, Alberto Pérez, Julio Pérez Méndez, Ashley Philbrick, Juan Morilla, Jesús Ramírez, Rosa Adriana Rodríguez, Trilce Ruiz, Laura Valentín Rivera, Edlyn Romero, Ricardo Schmidt, Claudia Simon, Alfredo Torres, Rubén Varona, Susana Villanueva, Heath Wing, and David Villarreal. The is sponsored by Pearson as well as the following units at Texas Tech University: The Department of Classical & Modern Languages & Literatures, The College of Arts & Sciences, The Division of Institutional Diversity, Equity & Community Engagement, The Graduate School, and The Language Learning Laboratory and Resource Center. In addition to support from the University, this program was made possible in part with a grant from Humanities Texas, the state affiliate of the National Endowment for the Humanities. We are extremely grateful for their contributions. Without these funds, this event would not have been possible. Special thanks to Stephanie Santos is also in order. She has been of invaluable assistance in the organization of every facet of this event. Stephanie, thank you! We could not have done it without your help!

5 5 The following individuals generously donated their time and expertise to the abstract reviewing process: Mark Amengual Hillary Barnes Ewelina Barski Jennifer Cabrelli Amaro Marta Fairclough Joshua Frank Inma Gómez Soler Verónica González Lillian Gorman Florencia Henshaw Katherine Honea Delano Lamy Ana de Prada Pérez Marta Tecedor Julio Torres Valerie Trujillo Kim Potowski Laura Valentín Furman University College of Charleston College at Brockport, SUNY United States Air Force Academy University of Houston University of Texas at Austin University of Memphis Arizona State University University of Illinois at Chicago University of Illinois Austin Pea University Universidad de Puerto Rico University of Florida Texas Tech University University at Albany, SUNY University of Florida University of Illinois at Chicago Texas Tech University

6 6 PLENARY SPEAKERS Dr. Marta Fairclough, University of Houston Marta Fairclough (Ph. D. University of Houston, 2001) is Associate Professor of Spanish Linguistics and Director of the Heritage Language Education in the Department of Hispanic Studies at the University of Houston. She previously served as Department Chair and Director of Undergraduate Studies. Her research focuses on Heritage Language Education, Language Acquisition, and Sociolinguistics with an emphasis on U.S. Spanish. She has published Spanish and Heritage Language Education in the United States: Struggling with Hypotheticals (Iberoamericana, 2005) and a co-edited volume Spanish as a Heritage Language in the United States: State of the Field (Georgetown UP, 2012), as well as numerous book chapters and articles in journals. Some of her recent publications appeared in Language Testing, Hispania, and Foreign Language Annals. Dr. Kim Potowski, University of Illinois at Chicago Kim Potowski is Associate Professor of Hispanic linguistics at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her research includes three principal areas of inquiry related to Spanish in the United States: (1) Spanish in society, including intergenerational transmission vs. shift, language mixtures in commercially produced Spanglish greeting cards, and outcomes of dialect contact among Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Chicago; (2) Connections between language and identity among immigrants and their descendants, such as within quinceañera celebrations, and (3) The role of language within educational contexts, including K-8 dual immersion schools, the teaching of heritage speakers, and the challenges faced by U.S.-raised Mexican youth upon integrating into Mexican schools. She has published five books, including the edited volumes Language diversity in the USA and Bilingual youth: Spanish in English-speaking societies. She has also authored four Spanish textbooks: one for beginners, one for heritage speakers/advanced composition, one for teachers about working with heritage speakers, and one about Spanish in the United States.

7 7 WORKSHOP INVITED SPEAKERS Joshua Frank, ABD & Jesse Abing, ABD. University of Texas at Austin Educating today s bilingual students and tomorrow s bilingual leaders Lillian Gorman, ABD. University of Illinois at Chicago Creating spaces for Identity, Latinidad, and Sociolinguistic Awareness in the Spanish for Heritage Learners Classroom Greta Gorsuch, Ed.D. Texas Tech University The Role of Fluency in Second Language Reading Comprehension: Building Input and Language Experience for Adult Learners of Heritage Languages Florencia Giglio Henshaw, Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The best of both worlds? Advantages and disadvantages of L2-HL peer collaboration Kelly Lowther Pereira, Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Greensboro Incorporating Community Engagement in the Curriculum: Service-Learning for Spanish Heritage Speakers Joseph Price, Ph.D. Texas Tech University Heritage Speakers on the Northern Border of the U.S.: Same issues, different language Julio Torres, Ph.D. University at Albany, State University of New York Flipping the Spanish Heritage Classroom: A Focus on Writing.

8 8 SPECIAL PANEL WITH PARENTS, STUDENTS & EDUCATORS Moderator: Dr. Marta Tecedor Cabrero, Texas Tech University Participants: Dora Aranda Belinda Pacheco Sonia Loza María Arciniega Laura Cook Laura Luna

9 9 Friday February 21, :30 Light Breakfast & Registration 8:15 Opening remarks: Dr. Diego Pascual y Cabo (on behalf of the organizing committee) Dr. Erin Collopy, Chair of Department of Classical & Modern Languages & Literatures at Texas Tech University Dr. Juan Muñoz, Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education and Senior Vice President for Institutional Diversity, Equity, and Community Engagement 8:30 9:00 SENATE ROOM CLASSROOM RESEARCH Session Chair: Joshua Frank Lexical creation: Spanish Heritage Learners exploitation of the Spanish and English derivational systems. Flavia Belpoliti (University of Houston) & Encarna Bermejo (Houston Baptist University). Competencia léxica y comprensión de lectura en los estudiantes de español como lengua de herencia. Edna Velásquez, University of Houston. LUBBOCK ROOM PERCEPTIONS & ATTITUDES & MOTIVATION Session Chair: Lillian Gorman Percepciones de los hablantes de herencia y de los instructores en la clase de español. Adrián Bello, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Hispanic families attitude towards their heritage language in Houston and its suburbs. Edgar Vargas, University of Houston. 9:30 Semantic transparency in the interpretation of N+N and V+N Spanish Compounds: Age of onset of bilingualism effects. Patricia González, St. Mary s University. Motivación, persistencia y estrategias de padres bilingües que enseñan a sus hijos español como idioma de herencia en Texas. Kenny Montgomery, University of Houston. 10:00 The Personal Essay and Academic Writing Proficiency in Spanish Heritage Language Development. Lina Reznicek-Parrado, University of California, Davis. Issues of Linguistic Tolerance: Addressing Dialect Diversity in Los Angeles Public Elementary Schools. Belén Villarreal, UCLA. 10:30 REFRESHMENT BREAK

10 10 Friday February 21, 2014 SENATE ROOM LUBBOCK ROOM 10:45 11:15 PHONOLOGY Session Chair: Valerie Trujillo Voice onset time of /p, t, k/ among heritage speakers of Spanish: Two phonological grammars? Earl Brown & Mary Copple, Kansas State University. Adquisición de las oclusivas sordas por trilingüés: /ptk/ en el ingles y el francés (L2/L3)de hablantes de herencia hispanos en Canadá. Luz Patricia López-Morelos, Raquel Llama, & Myriam Lapierre, University of Ottawa. CLASSROOM RESEARCH Session Chair: Kelly Lowther Pereira The Alchemy of (HLL/SLL) Learner-Learner Interactions. Jesse Abing, University of Texas at Austin. Reframing Authority in Spanish Heritage Language Classroom Interaction. Rachel Showstack, Wichita State University. 11:45 Emergence of the voiced labiodental fricative segment [v] in Texas Spanish. Adriano Trovato, University of Texas at Austin. La clase como comunidad local/global: Latina/o Spanish Heritage Language Classes in the Mid-Atlantic. Evelyn Canabal-Torres & Ana Patricia Rodríguez, University of Maryland. 12:15 Lunch break 1:15 FORMAL APPROACHES Session Chair:Earl Brown Code-switching effects on naturalistic code-switching. Diana Pedraza & Whitman Suárez, University of Texas at Austin CLASSROOM RESEARCH Session Chair: Florencia Giglio Henshaw Pedagogical implications of research into the language experience of college-age heritage speakers in communities with low vitality for Spanish. Isabel Velázquez, University of Nebraska. 1:45 The Effects of Language Contact on Variable Phenomena: The case of clitic climbing in Spanish-English heritage bilinguals. Ana de Prada Pérez 1, Adrián Rodríguez Ricelli 2, Kelly Woodfine 1 & Sarah Rogers 1 (University of Florida 1 & University of Texas at Austin 2 ). 2:15 La importancia del proceso selectivo de ubicación en las clases de español para hablantes de herencia. Efraín Garza, University of Northern Colorado. Corrígeme bien : Spanish Heritage Speakers as Peer Assessors. Julia Oliver-Rajan & Christine Shea, University of Iowa. 2:45 Refreshment Break

11 11 Friday February 21, 2014 SENATE ROOM LUBBOCK ROOM 3:15 3:45 FORMAL APPROACHES Session Chair: Whitman Suárez A comparative analysis of two heritage speaker populations. Valerie Trujillo, University of Florida Structure overlap effects in SPAN/ENG bilinguals: Evidence from the syntax-semantics interface. Joshua Frank, University of Texas at Austin OUR HERITAGE Session Chair: Belén Villareal Herencias hispanas encontradas: historias orales en fronteras artificiales. Òscar Oliver Santos-Sopena, West Texas A&M University. The Inherited Past in Present Day Spanish: The Case for LA Spanish. Armando Guerrero, UCLA. 4:15 Ambiguity resolution in Spanish heritage speakers: Target structure makes a difference. Bill VanPatten (Michigan State University), Gregory Keating (San Diego State University) & Jill Jegerski (University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign) Spanish Music as a Heritage Language Tool Jóse López (Ralls ISD 5:00 SENATE ROOM Special panel with parents, students, and educators 6:15 SENATE ROOM Plenary I : Title: 7:30 Reception at the Matador Lounge Marta Fairclough, University of Houston Can Second Dialect Acquisition Principles Contribute to Understanding the Learning Process of Adult Spanish Heritage Language Students?

12 12 Saturday February 22, 2014 Workshop on teaching Spanish as a Heritage Language SENATE ROOM 7:30 Light Breakfast & Registration 9:00 Plenary II : Title: Kim Potowski, University of Illinois at Chicago U.S. Spanish: Myths and facts 10:15 Creating spaces for Identity, Latinidad, and Sociolinguistic Awareness in the Spanish for Heritage Learners Classroom. Lillian Gorman, University of Illinois at Chicago 11:10 Incorporating Community Engagement in the Curriculum: Service-Learning for Spanish Heritage Speakers. Kelly Lowther Pereira, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 12:05 Lunch 1:00 Flipping the Spanish Heritage Classroom: A Focus on Writing. Julio Torres, University of Albany, State University of New York. 1:55 2:25 The Role of Fluency in Second Language Reading Comprehension: Building Input and Language Experience for Adult Learners of Heritage Languages. Greta Gorsuch, Texas Tech University. The Best of Both Worlds? Advantages and Disadvantages of L2-HL Peer Collaboration. Florencia Giglio Henshaw, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 3:20 Refreshment break 3:30 Educating Today s Bilingual Students and Tomorrow s Bilingual Leaders. Joshua Frank & Jesse Abing, University of Texas at Austin. 4:25 Heritage Speakers on the Northern Border of the U.S.: Same issues, different language. Joseph Price, Texas Tech University. 5:00 Closing Remarks

13 13 The Alchemy of (HLL/SLL) Learner-Learner Interactions Jesse Abing University of Texas at Austin As the number of Spanish heritage language learners in US university Spanish language classrooms increases, so does our need for a better understanding of heritage language development within these contexts. Previous interaction-driven SLA research has shown that interaction is particularly effective for promoting development of the second/foreign language. This has been shown to be the case in the context of classrooms (Ellis & He, 1999; Loewen, 2005; Ohta, 2000; Mackey & Silver, 2005; Swain & Lapkin, 1998; 2001), laboratories (Ellis, 2006; Gass & Varonis, 1994; Leeman, 2003; Long, Inagaki & Ortega, 1998; Mackey & Philip, 1998), and beyond (Ding, 2012), as well as in interaction with both native speakers (Gass, 1997; García-Mayo & Pica, 2000; Long, 1996) and other second language learners (Ellis & He, 1999; LaPierre, 1994; Leeser, 2004; Swain & Lapkin, 1998; Williams, 2001). Only recently, however, have researchers begun to investigate the effects of language and cultural background on the processes and outcomes of learner interactions (Abing, 2012; Blake and Zyzik, 2003; Bowles, 2011; Bowles, in press, as reported on in Bowles, 2011; Henshaw, 2013). While previous work on HLL-SLL interactions has largely taken a quantitative approach to comparing differences and similarities in language related episodes, this study qualitatively analyzes the role of learner background on 40 form-focused episodes related to adverb placement occurring throughout 12 sets of learner-learner interactions (4 HLL-HLL; 4 HLL-SLL; 4 SLL-SLL) on a sentence-scramble learning task. Adverb placement provides a fertile ground for analysis as it is language specific, varies based on semantic type and, in some but not all cases, can have multiple acceptable possibilities. Our qualitative analysis of the interactions finds that the combination of learner backgrounds affects learnerlearner interactions in interesting ways. The results evidence that while pair work can be beneficial for learners of any background in all combinations, HLLs tend to give more than they receive in mixed dyads. Moreover, LHHs initiate and resolve more initiations than SLLs in mixed pairs, and mixed pairs resort to English more frequently, resolve initiations less effectively and accept less ambiguity overall than matched pairs. While we value linguistic diversity in our language classrooms, these results highlight the importance of understanding how the alchemy of diverse backgrounds in various combinations can play out in learner-learner classroom actions. The results have pedagogical implications with respect to productive classroom activities and strategic pairing considerations for mixed HLL-SLL classrooms.

14 14 Percepciones de los hablantes de herencia y de los instructores en la clase de español Adrián Bello University of Illinois Las percepciones son creencias personales acerca de: a) las prácticas de enseñanza que alumnos e instructores creen más eficientes, b) la frecuencia en que perciben ciertos comportamientos que ocurren en el salón de clase y, c) el grado de efectividad en que perciben el desempeño de los instructores (Brown, 2009). Estas percepciones están directamente relacionadas con los tres componentes básicos de la motivación propuestos por Dörnyei (1994): a) con el contenido del curso, b) con el instructor, c) con el grupo; y están vinculadas con el grado en el que una persona procura aprender una segunda lengua, con el deseo de lograrlo y la satisfacción final. En el caso concreto de los hablantes de herencia de español HHE, la identificación y consideración de sus percepciones puede ayudar a lograr las metas instruccionales que propone Valdés (1997): mantener su lengua de herencia, adquirir y reforzar la variedad de prestigio (sin desvalorar su propia variedad), a expandir su bilingüismo, y a mejorar sus habilidades de lectroescritura, además de conocer la cultura heredada. El presente estudio busca indagar un poco más en este tema mediante tres encuestas: dos para los HHE y una para los instructores (TAs y profesores). En el caso de los HHE, se envió un cuestionario en línea que completaron 19 HHE (20% de la población registrada este semestre) de la Universidad de Illinois en Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) para conocer sus percepciones acerca de las prácticas de enseñanza que ellos creen más eficientes, el agrado por la interacción con otros alumnos, y el grado de efectividad del instructor. Otro cuestionario se envió al final del semestre para saber cómo cambiaron sus percepciones con respecto al principio del semestre y cómo afectan su preferencia por el tipo de instructor. En el caso de los instructores, se envió una única encuesta a los 36 TAs y profesores de español, de los cuales contestaron 19. Se investigan sus percepciones acerca de los HHE con la finalidad de conocer cómo piensan acerca de este tipo de alumnos y cómo puede afectar la relación y el aprendizaje en el aula. Según Horwitz,1990; Kern, 1995; Schulz, 1996: una diferencia entre las expectativas del maestro y el estudiante en cuanto a la enseñanza puede afectar negativamente la satisfacción del alumno y puede potenciar el abandono del aprendizaje de la lengua (en Brown, 2009:550). De esta manera, este estudio que ha sido inspirado por otras investigaciones previas (Potowski, 2002; Montrul y Bowles, 2008; Beaudrie, 2009), pretende aportar información nueva y relevante al incluir la opinión de los instructores acerca de los estudiantes HHE que nunca se había hecho, para conocer cómo los HHE y sus instructores se perciben mutuamente y proponer capacitación que promueva las relaciones personales, la interacción dentro del aula y los contenidos curriculares de los cursos para HHE.

15 15 Lexical creation: Spanish Heritage Learners exploitation of the Spanish and English derivational systems Flavia Belpoliti 1 & Encarna Bermejo 2 University of Houston 1 and Houston Baptist University 2 Coinage and lexical creation have been recognized as one of the distinctive components of heritage learners [HL] language abilities ( Otheguy, 1989, Silva- Corvalan, 1994; Achugar, 2003, Sánchez-Muñoz, 2009), as these learners make use of different derivational mechanism when facing a communicative task that surpasses their lexical resources in the less dominant language. Invented words as requestar, minimar, intenidad or ensuras are commonly find in both speech and writing production of Spanish Heritage Lerners [SHLs], showing the ability to manipulate the morphological Spanish system to fill a vocabulary need. SHLs at the lower end of the bilingual spectrum, in particular, tent to invent words to supply a lack of lexical items in the heritage language, while making the effort to keep communication in the less dominant language. An easier solution for the communicative pressure would be to use the form in the dominant system (this is, English); however, SHLs often recur to inventing new forms using the derivational mechanics of English and Spanish in order to convey their message in the less dominant language. Neologism so created are, oftentimes, convergent with the changes in the Spanish lexical system as part of its evolution. Lexical transformation and growth of the Spanish language by neological incorporations is based on two main kind of processes: and internal process that depends on internal rules of word formation in Spanish, and a competitive external neological process, based on structures or components that do not belong to Spanish (Fernández, 1996; Berná Sicilia, 2011). At the same time, the internal rules present competitive models that determine the final result in the evolution or incorporation of certain form (Ponce de León, 2010; Ambadiang et al, 2008; Moure Peña, 2010). In some of the examples on this study, the coinage process used by HLs closely follows one of the competitive models of the Spanish morphology, but it is the model no selected in the most standards dialects, or it is an option no longer valid in the system. This study analyzes the morphological mechanisms used by SHLs at the beginner level to create neological forms during a writing activity. The study describes and measures the type of inflectional variation in the coinage of new words based on a set of five Spanish words: privacidad (privacy), protección (protection), perfil (profile), seguridad (security) and confiar (trust). Data was collected from 120 essays that participants wrote as a part of a placement exam. The analysis includes the main wordformation processes, compares the different neologisms created with the corresponding lexical bases, (both in Spanish and English), and describes the kind of processes underlying the coinage as well as its relationships with the lexical structure of the Spanish system. A pedagogical proposal is included to guide students towards a more accurate word derivation competency in Spanish.

16 16 Voice onset time of /p, t, k/ among heritage speakers of Spanish: Two phonological grammars? Earl Brown & Mary Copple Kansas State University Differences in voice onset time (VOT) among speakers of Spanish and English have been shown to contribute to a foreign accent (cf. Alba-Salas, 2004; Knightly, 2001; Gonzalez-Bueno, 1997; Bohn and Flege, 1993). Several factors contribute to the acquisition of VOT with /p, t, k/ in the speech of native, heritage, and L2 speakers: place of articulation, surrounding phonological environment, and the length and context of exposure (e.g. home language(s), study abroad, classroom setting) to both Spanish and English (Lopez, 2012; Díaz Campos and Lazar, 2003; Knightly, 2001; Flege, Frieda, Walley, and Randazza, 1998; Yavas, 1996; Nathan, 1987). Given such findings, the different VOTs of /p, t, k/ in Spanish and English present an opportunity to analyze how heritage speakers of Spanish differentiate these two pronunciations in their own speech and if, by extension, they maintain the pronunciation of these three voiceless stops separate in their phonological grammar(s). To measure the extent to which heritage speakers of Spanish approximate what could safely be considered native pronunciations of /p, t, k/ in each language, the speech of three groups were analyzed: twenty heritage speakers of Spanish raised in the Midwest, twenty native Midwestern English speakers who speak Spanish as a second language, and twenty Ecuadorian Spanish speakers who speak English as a second language. The subjects read short passages in both Spanish and English and then engaged in conversation with a researcher. Subsequently, the VOTs of /p, t, k/ were measured in milliseconds with the phonetics software Praat, and linguistic and sociolinguistic factors were considered in the analysis. The results of a series of linear regressions detail the extent to which the phonological grammar(s) of heritage speakers of Spanish approximate the grammars of L1 English and L1 Spanish speakers. This paper contributes to the literature detailing voice onset time of /p, t, k/ in Spanish and English as well as the literature detailing the language of heritage speakers of Spanish in the United States.

17 17 La clase como comunidad local/global: Latina/o Spanish Heritage Language Classes in the Mid-Atlantic Evelyn Canabal-Torres & Ana Patricia Rodríguez University of Maryland This presentation focuses on the development of heritage language classes in a Department of Spanish and Portuguese at a major university in the Mid-Atlantic, for almost two decades. We will first give an overview of Latino demographics in the Mid- Atlantic and the linguistic and cultural hybridity of the geographic area that has historically attracted immigrants from all over Latin America and the Caribbean. While the linguistic and cultural hybridity of the area provides an exciting laboratory for the making of new interlingual exchanges, we also face many challenges in creating what Gloria Anzaldúa, in Borderlands/La frontera (1987), calls common ground. Common ground, we propose, is the classroom, where heritage language learners engage across a broad mix of interlanguages, ideologies, and social practices. At our university, we have found that best practices in the heritage language classroom combine communitybased research, community engagement or service-learning in the local context, and self-reflexivity linking the local and the global. Indeed, Carreira (2013, 2011, 2007), Parra (2013), Leeman (2011, 2006, 2005), Leeman, Rabin, Román-Mendoza (2011), Trujillo (2009), and Faltis (1990) have explored how critical pedagogy theoretical frameworks together with service-learning / community engagement practices make sense in developing curriculum for Spanish heritage language courses at the university level. Our mission is to provide critical instruction in Spanish, not only to validate the home (now interpreted as local) experiences of our heritage language learners, but also to train them to be critical global citizens already possessing an interlingual advantage. We will discuss concrete learning examples in which our HL students use Spanish as a local / global language inside and outside of the classroom.

18 18 Finding Language Contact Effects in Variable Phenomena: The case of clitic climbing in Spanish-English heritage bilinguals Ana de Prada Pérez 1 & Adrián Rodríguez Riccelli 2 & Kelly Woodfine 1 & Sarah Rogers 1 University of Florida 1 and University of Texas at Austin 2 In Spanish, clitics can appear attached to the non-finite verb (1) or to the main conjugated restructuring verb (2), a phenomenon known as in clitic climbing (ClC). In the syntactic- theoretical literature, two main analyses have been put forth: the Incorporation approach (Kayne 1989, 1991, 1994, Roberts 1991, 1994, 1997) and the Restructuring approach (Cardinaletti & Shlonsky 2004, Cinque 2001, 2002, Rizzi 1982). These analyses converge on (i) the restriction of ClC to restructuring predicates and (ii) the optionality of ClC. Research in the variationist tradition indicates that this optionality is differentially variable across restructuring predicates depending on their level of grammaticalization (Davies 1995, 1998). This project examines monolingual and bilingual judgments of ClCed and non-clced sentences in Spanish to further integrate variationist and syntactic-theoretic accounts of ClC. The Vulnerability Hypothesis (VH, Author, submitted) predicts that language contact targets variable phenomena, independent of the area of the grammar in question. As such, it takes into account the differential variability across restructuring verbs and predicts that restructuring verbs with different ClC frequencies should be differentially affected by language contact. To test this hypothesis, a total of 16 monolingual Spanish (MS) speakers from Valladolid, Spain, and 72 heritage speakers (HSs) completed a scalar grammaticality judgment task (GJT). The GJT tested speakers acceptability of ClCed and non-clced sentences controlled for clause type (main clauses), verb form (simple present), and predicate factuality (factual predicates), and manipulated for VERB TYPE (no ClC verb, frequent ClC, infrequent ClC), CLITIC TYPE (accusative vs. reflexive) and ANIMACY (animate vs. inanimate Cl referent), with a total of 96 tokens (4 tokens per condition). Results indicate that monolinguals are sensitive to VERB TYPE and CLITIC TYPE and they use ClC in a more restricted manner by rating ClC significantly higher with infrequent ClC verbs than with no ClC verbs and higher yet with frequent ClC verbs. Bilinguals were overall less categorical than monolinguals and differed quantitatively with no, low, and medium frequency ClC verbs (haber que, detestar, and preferir respectively) and qualitatively with high frequency ClC verb (querer). While effects for verb type were generally obscured showing no consistent pattern one way or the other, we find a reverse effect for ANIMACY and CLITIC TYPE for all verbs expect haber que. For the low frequency ClC verb detestar we find a reverse effect for CLITIC TYPE but an effect in the expected direction for detestar and haber que. For haber que, a verb that is nearly categorical with respect to disallowing ClC, we find that the VH predictions pan out as bilinguals pattern much like monolinguals. For other verb type we find only some of the

19 19 VH s predictions bare-out, although bilinguals were least monolingual-like in quantitative terms for querer as predicted by VH as this is the most variable of the predicates with respect to ClC. Lastly, for the three verb types that demonstrate variability with ClC, we see that bilinguals neutralize distinctions found in their monolingual counterparts. This outcome is also supported by the VH. This paper contributes to several fields. It helps integrate syntactic-theoretical and variationist analyses providing a better understanding of both monolingual and bilingual grammars. Additionally, it provides novel data not considered in the bilingualism literature (ClC). Lastly, it helps elucidate restrictions on the outcomes of language contact.

20 20 The effects of structure overlap in SPAN/ENG bilinguals: Evidence from the syntaxsemantics interface Joshua Frank University of Texas at Austin Surface Overlap (SO) theory considers environments where one of the two available options in language A is equivalent to the single option in language B (e.g., Hulk & Müller, 2000; Yip & Matthews, 2009). Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) will then be in the direction of the structurally similar option in language A. Yip and Matthews (2009) find evidence that overlap at the word order level (isomorphic strings), and not at the abstract strategic level (parameters), conditions CLI. In the present study I find support for this claim by investigating Spanish and English nominal compounding strategies via a written dehydrated sentence task. Spanish and English compounding strategies diverge in several significant ways. In English, compounding is recursive, right-headed, and productive (e.g., Bauer, 2009; Lieber, 2009). Contrastingly, Spanish compounds show very limited productivity and recursivity, and are left-headed (e.g., Harris, 1991ab; Liceras & Díaz, 2000, 2002; Piera, 1995; Slabakova, 2002; Snyder, 2001). I specifically consider a linguistic phenomenon that pertains to the syntax-semantics interface, the container-content relation (CCR) in nominal compounding. Given that English compounding is productive, it is not surprising that container items (e.g. drink containers) can be represented by noun-noun (NN) compounds (e.g., soda can, beer can, wine bottle, beer bottle, coffee cup; Frank, 2013). On the other hand, in order to make special reference to the content, i.e., a container that is [+full], a noun followed by a prepositional phrase modifier (N-PN) must be constructed. On the other hand, because the CCR in Spanish is not productive, NPN constructions are utilized for both the container and the content condition (e.g., copa de vino and copa de champaña, respectively; N1-P-N2). This is a demonstration of the negative relationship between compounding productivity and NPN strategy (Liceras et al, 2002; Liceras & Díaz, 2000). All data has been collected (i.e., HLL, SLL, Control) but only the results for the control and SLL groups has thus far been analyzed. Results from binary logistic regression analysis indicate a main effect for both language (SPAN and ENG) and population (L2, L1). A post-hoc analysis shows that (n=19) advanced L2 ENG (L1 SPAN) participants produce more ENG N1-P-N2 constructions than (n=16) L1 ENG (advanced L2 SPAN) participants. When tested in SPAN, these participants do not display significantly different compounding strategies. These findings support the claim that surface overlap at the word order level is predictive of L1 influence on the L2 (Table 1; Yip & Matthews, 2009). Specifically, CLI effects are present when the conditions for SO are met, and absent when they are not met. Of particular interest will be whether the HL learners behave more like the control group, the SL learner group, or as a third group unto themselves and why that may be.

21 21 La importancia del proceso selectivo de ubicación en clases de español para hablantes de herencia Efraín Garza University of Northern Colorado La expresión hispanohablante a simple vista parece dar la idea de una unidad sólida y homogénea. Sin embargo, la diversidad de procedencia de los estudiantes que ingresan a clases para hispanófilos así como también el nivel de conocimiento de su lenguaje materno crea un contexto más bien heterogéneo. Aunado a esto, su entorno cultural y socioeconómico propicia una compleja multiplicidad de niveles de dominio del idioma. El responsable de impartir estas clases se encuentra ante una diversidad no tan sólo lingüística sino también ambiental. Por lo tanto, el proceso selectivo de ubicación en clases de español para hablantes de herencia debe incluir tanto su conocimiento previo de la lengua como también los factores culturales económicos y sociales. Para poder ubicar adecuadamente a los estudiantes que ingresan a clases para hispanohablantes es de primordial importancia saber su nivel previo de conocimiento del español. Para ello, existen diferentes exámenes de ubicación. La mayoría de éstos incluyen aspectos gramaticales. No se puede negar que éste es un buen principio para empezar a conocer el nivel del estudiante. Como los que ingresan a estas clases saben español porque lo escuchan en un ambiente familiar, el hablarlo con naturalidad no representa ningún problema. Sin embargo, el tratar de leer o escribir en español sí implica un problema por la falta de destrezas de lectura y escritura. Por lo tanto, es importante incluir en un examen de ubicación un dictado para poder medir el dominio de la fonología y ortografía española del estudiante. Otro aspecto a considerar es el vocabulario que cada estudiante ha adquirido antes de ingresar a las aulas universitarias. Por lo general, estos estudiantes hispanohablantes han asistido a clases impartidas en inglés. Su exposición al idioma materno en un contexto académico si bien ha sido muy escaso, en otros casos hasta les ha sido anulado. Como resultado, al expresarse en español su vocabulario resulta muy limitado. Su conocimiento de sinónimos y antónimos es muy restringido. En ocasiones no encuentran la palabra que quieren expresar por tener más reafirmado el vocabulario del idioma inglés que el español. Para medir el nivel de vocabulario de estos estudiantes, es bueno incluir en los exámenes de ubicación una sección de vocabulario y traducción. Un gran reto resulta la enseñanza de clases para hispanófilos. Un examen de ubicación que incluya aspectos gramaticales, vocabulario, dictados y traducción es sólo el inicio en esta ardua tarea de selección y ubicación. Debe tomarse en cuenta no tan sólo su nivel cognoscitivo previo del idioma, sino también se deben considerar los aspectos culturales y socioeconómicos del medio familiar del que proviene el estudiante. La finalidad primordial de estos exámenes es poder ubicar a cada estudiante en el nivel adecuado a sus capacidades y así encausarlo hacia un exitoso rendimiento académico.

22 22 Semantic transparency in the interpretation of N+N and V+N Spanish Compounds: Age of onset of bilingualism effects Patricia González St. Mary's University This study investigates whether age of onset of bilingualism has an effect on heritage language speakers interpretation of compound words in Spanish. These speakers never completely acquired, or possibly lost, aspects of Spanish as their first language, as English became the dominant language sometime in childhood (Montrul, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2010; Polinsky, 2004, 2007; Silva-Corvalán 1994, 2003; Valdés 1995, 2000). The study is based on the semantic interpretation of two specific nominal patterns of Spanish compounding: [N+N]N (e.g., obra cumbre masterpiece, lit. work summit ) and [V+N]N (e.g., pelagatos poor man, lit. peel+cats ). Through a language use questionnaire, participants were classified according to their age of L1/L2 acquisition. This was followed by an interpretation task in which the participants selected the correct definition for 20 compound words in Spanish. To assess semantic interpretation, participants had to decide whether the literal (transparent) definition or the figurative (opaque) definition of the compound was correct, and select the answer accordingly. Each word was followed by two possible definitions, one based on an literal interpretation from the meaning of one or both compound constituents, and a second one based on a figurative interpretation where the meaning of the word cannot be derived from the meaning of the constituents. For example, for the word pelagatos poor man, lit. peel+cats participants selected either (a) persona insignificante insignificant person or (b) tijeras para gatos cat scissors, in which (a) would be the target response. Three groups of Mexican-Americans university students that speak a border dialect of Spanish and live in Laredo, Texas, participated in this study. Group A (31 late sequential bilinguals) includes L2 learners who acquired Spanish monolingually in Mexico and learned English after age 12 when they emigrated to the United States. Group B (60 early sequential bilinguals) includes speakers who acquired Spanish monolingually in Mexico or in the home but came into contact with English at approximately age 6 when they started school. Group C (154 simultaneous bilinguals) includes speakers who acquired Spanish and English simultaneously at home and for whom English has always been the language of instruction and the dominant language in most social contexts. The control group (Group D) consists of 27 native Spanish speakers living in Mexico. The results indicate that nominal compounding is an area of linguistic knowledge not vulnerable to incomplete acquisition or attrition. The bilingual speakers interpretation of the meaning of both [V+N]N and [N+N]N compounds in Spanish decreases in accuracy as a function of years of contact with English. All groups of heritage language speakers interpreted [V+N]N more accurately than [N+N]N compounds regardless of their degree of English-dominance. I discuss the significance of these findings for heritage language reacquisition and development.

23 23 The Inherited Past in Present Day Spanish: The Case for LA Spanish Armando Guerrero, Jr. University of California Los Ángeles There is no doubt that Spanish is spoken throughout the United States (Beaudrie & Fairclough 2012). However, little research has been done comparing the vernacular Spanish spoken in this country with that spoken by speakers outside of its borders. In much the same way that the Spanish spoken in the Americas ventured on its own evolutionary path from peninsular Spanish, Spanish in the US may be initiating this same process. The Spanish in the Americas was once considered simply an habla like many other varieties of Andalucian Spanish during the colonial period (Menéndez Pidal 1962). However, these were only the first steps to what would become Mexican Spanish, Chilean Spanish, Colombian Spanish, etc. (Frago Gracia 1990). The Spanish spoken in the Southwest has a very special history and political climate that directly links it to rural Mexico; the inheritance of this past is very present and alive in Los Angeles, and it is not only lexical (Guerrero 2013). The present study analyzes the naturalistic speech of four Mexican speakers, three immigrants and one US born; these samples were obtained through participant observation to inhibit any accommodation to the researcher ten hours were recorded and coded. Preliminary results demonstrate that the Spanish spoken by working-class native and heritage speakers is very similar to the Spanish spoken in rural Mexico and by the clase popular throughout the Americas, an observation made by Parodi (2009, 2011). The similarities are independent from the direct influence of English on the Spanish spoken in Los Angeles, which indicate the distance between this Spanish and any abstract or spoken Standard in the Americas. More importantly yet, it illustrates the vernacular s connection to very eclectic varieties that have received little attention in the field, in the United States and abroad.

24 24 Adquisición del español californiano en la primera generación bilingüe español-inglés Covadonga Lamar Prieto University of California Riverside Con frecuencia pensamos en la adquisición de lenguas en contacto en términos contemporáneos, mientras que son menos las ocasiones en la que consideramos esos conceptos como fenómenos históricos. Para el caso del español vernáculo de California, distinguimos por lo tanto entre español californio, la variante histórica del fenómeno, y español contemporáneo de California. En el presente trabajo -que forma parte de un proyecto más amplio sobre la historia del español en California- analizamos los primeros tiempos del contacto entre el español y el inglés en el territorio, desde la anexión a los Estados Unidos, en Estudiamos la forma en que las políticas lingüísticas y sociales condicionaron, desde ese momento hasta 1880, la adquisición del español y del inglés por parte de los niños y jóvenes californios. Para ello, examinamos documentos contemporáneos a los hechos de variada índole, desde prensa a autobiografías, pasando por la legislación o correspondencia personal. De todos ellos podemos concluir las líneas maestras de la política de implantación de la lengua inglesa en el territorio hispanohablante de California, al tiempo que apuntamos las consecuencias contemporáneas de esas medidas.

25 25 Spanish Music as a Heritage Language Tool José López Many students learn Spanish as a heritage language having it passed down from one generation to the next. Along with that Spanish comes the rich culture and traditions that families have participated in for decades. Part of that inherited tradition and culture is music. My presentation will focus on how Spanish music is a gateway to further learning and retaining the Spanish language. It does not matter if you listen to country, rock, or hip-hop because there is a Spanish equivalent of it. Most students think Spanish music is nothing but guitars and accordions and lose interest in wanting to learn the language because they don t want to be associated with that stereotype. By introducing students to different styles of Spanish music, then they will start getting rid of the misconceptions and stereotypes they may have of the language and the music. Having students memorize lyrics helps them with their fluency and pronunciation and helps retain vocabulary in their long term memory because of the constant practice and repetition of the words. Playing and validating the music they bring to class creates an acceptance of their language and an interest to share it. Playing songs in Spanish that they recognize from their first language also facilitates learning the language because they already somewhat know the lyrics. Spanish music has helped me pass down my heritage to my students and has helped them conserve the language.

26 26 Motivación, persistencia y estrategias de padres bilingües que enseñan a sus hijos español como idioma de herencia en Texas Kenny Montgomery University of Houston El hecho de que una persona sea bilingüe no necesariamente indica que sus hijos van a ser bilingües. Muchos estudios exponen que ya para la segunda y la tercera generación la lengua de herencia empieza a desaparecer. Sin embargo, Hoy en día hay muchos padres bilingües que tratan por diferentes medios de que este patrón no siga, al menos en sus familias. Las siguientes son declaraciones de padres bilingües que indican sus reacciones cuando se comunican en español con sus hijos: -Yo hablo inglés pero le digo: Háblame en español ya te he dicho que quiero que me hables en español. -Claro que mi hija entiende, pero cuando le hablo en español, solo se hace la tonta porque entiende todo. - Le digo a mi hija: Qué bien que hablas conmigo en español, porque es el mejor regalo que te puedo dar como padre. -I gave up. Yo le hablo en español y él me habla en inglés y así nos comunicamos para que al menos entienda y hable un poco el español. Pues nada, mi hija y yo rezamos en español y vamos a misa en español. -Todo es muy natural, yo le hablo en español y mi hija me responde en español y cuando le hablo en ingles ella me habla en inglés. A través de la historia de Texas, este estado se ha caracterizado por poseer un gran número de personas bilingües, en inglés y español, sobre todo debido a los lazos que aún lo unen con México, con quien delimita, y por poseer un gran número de inmigrantes hispanos que hacen que este idioma se mantenga vivo. Este estudio analiza a un variado número de padres e hijos hispanos en Tejas y que de una u otra forma quieren mantener el español como idioma de herencia en sus hogares, a través de una investigación empírica con varias familias y con diferentes grupos de edades de los hijos que van desde los cuatro años hasta los veintiún años, en donde se determina que es difícil para un padre bilingüe mantener el español en el hogar debido a que en muchas ocasiones, y en especial los adolescentes, prefieren comunicarse en inglés con ellos. Sin embargo, por medio de observaciones a las familias analizadas se determina que cuando existe motivación, perseverancia y una estrategia a seguir para conservar el español como idioma de herencia en el hogar, entonces el mantenimiento del idioma prevalece.

27 27 Corrígeme bien : Spanish Heritage Speakers as Peer Assessors Julia Oliver-Rajan & Christine Shea University of Iowa Research on peer assessment has provided mixed results regarding learning benefits, both for assessors and assessed. Indeed, while some studies have shown that students effectively incorporate peer feedback in later drafts (Slembrouck 2011), others indicate that students are less attentive to peer comments than they are to instructor comments (Ferris 2003). Successful implementation depends on careful instruction, modeling and on familiarizing students with the characteristics of cooperative feedback. However, it is also crucial to consider the characteristics of the students who are involved in peer assessment. Indeed, it is possible that the relative success of peer evaluation may depend upon factors internal to the learner, such as proficiency, individual learner dynamics and classroom dynamics as a whole. In this study, we report on a preliminary investigation examining peer review of compositions written in Spanish by an undergraduate group of heritage speakers. Our goal is to see what type of feedback prevails in the comments and evaluations provided by this group and ultimately, shed light on how writing rubrics may (or may not) require modification for heritage language peer review. Participants were 19 heritage Spanish language speakers, with widely varying knowledge of formal written Spanish standards. Peer-evaluation data was collected from three expository essays, written over the course of one semester. Students evaluated their peer s texts using a task-based questionnaire to assess content and grammar. Evaluators also provided holistically-oriented comments on the text, with the explicit goal of improving their classmate s text. The evaluations were analyzed in terms of two aspects: 1) The nature of the comments provided (whether grammatically-oriented or holistically-oriented). 2) The follow-up and implementation of the comments on subsequent drafts. Preliminary results show that heritage language learners oriented their comments towards grammar 64% of the time while holistic comments were made 73% of the time. Thus, it appears that heritage speakers are responsive to the grammar content of their peers essays but also responsive to the content of the essays themselves. We discuss the implications of these results in light of the instructions given and the role that individual differences in terms of proficiency might play in the type of feedback provided. We are currently analyzing the data with respect to how the comments affect subsequent drafts of the same essays. The results from this preliminary study show that heritage learners do recognize that peer review is a process that can help them improve their writing skills and that in order to do so, comments must be holistically-oriented as well as grammatically-oriented.

28 28 Code-Switching effects on Naturalistic Code-Switching Diana Pedraza & Whitman Suárez University of Texas at Austin Most of the literature on the production of voiceless occlusive stops consistently agree that bilinguals are able to produce almost native-like voice onset time (VOT) values in monolingual contexts (e.g. Antoniou et al., 2010, Flege & Eefting 1987, Bullock & Toribio, 2009). On the other hand, the effects of code-switching on the production of VOT values differ considerably across studies revealing (i) dominance of the first language (L1) over the second language (L2) (Antoniou et al., 2011), (ii) a bidirectional effect of the two languages either by convergence (Bullock & Toribio, 2009) or divergence (Flege & Eefting 1987), and (iii) no crosslinguistic effects (Grosjean & Miller 1994). One possible explanation for the different results in the previous literature, which we explore here, might be the heterogeneity of the participant groups. The present study examines and analyzes the speech production of the voiceless stop /k/ by a group of highly proficient US-Spanish heritage speakers. These informants, referred to here as naturalistic code-switchers (NCS) due to the nature of their bilingualism, regularly engage in spontaneous code switching interactions. Their linguistic behavior is ideal for the investigation into how the bilingual mind deals with language (de)activation and the implication of language interaction in their phonetic realizations. To study the effects of code-switching on the phonetic realization of /k/, 10 participants completed a reading task (1) and a story-retelling task in English/Spanish monolingual mode and in code switching mode. Their results were compared with those of Spanish and English L1 dominant speakers. The analysis consisted of five independent variables, a) language, b) speaker type, c) mode, d) switch site (pre, during, post), e) task, and one dependent variable, VOT. Results showed that NCS VOT values resemble those of their L1-dominant counterparts in both English and Spanish. Statistical analyses also revealed that code-switching did not significantly affect the production of VOTs regardless of the position of the switch. While there was no significant difference between tasks in Spanish, both controls and NCS produced shorter VOTs in reading than in retelling in English. The fact that the methodology combined both controlled and spontaneous speech allowed us to find this outcome. The findings suggest that NCS may have better control of their phonetic realizations than other bilinguals who do not regularly engage in code-switching. Initial analyses of the full data set are in line with this trend. The different type of population recruited could explain the results from previous studies (e.g. Grosjean & Miller, 1994 and Bullock et al. 2006).

29 29 The Personal Essay and Academic Writing Proficiency in Heritage Language Development Lina Reznicek-Parrado UC Davis Traditionally, Spanish Heritage Language university courses focus on developing advanced literacy skills in order to equip students with broader writing repertoires as a way of complementing the levels of oral command of the language that they already bring into the classroom. Building on the fundamental interconnectedness of language use and the social context, previous research has used Systemic Functional Linguistics (Colombi, 2003, 2006) as well as other explicit writing strategies (Potowski, 2010) as tools for the development of academic writing. These have been used to analyze and teach a variety of common academic genres such as reports, critical analyzes, and the expository and argumentative essay in the Spanish HL classroom. Little work has been done, however, in analyzing the academic role of the personal essay as a functional component of courses for HL speakers at the university level. Researchers such as Pavlenko & Lantolf (2000) have advocated for the use of first-person narratives as a legitimate complement to more observational/experimental and traditional SLA research methodologies. They echo what psychologist Pennebaker (1990, 2004) calls the reconstruction of self, that is, the reconstruction of life experiences that represent some level of significance to the language learner, who is, above all, deeply situated in social activity. Drawing on Gee s theory of Discourses (1990), this paper suggests that the functional incorporation of journaling and of the personal essay as academic practices can inform the teaching of advanced literacy in the HL classroom, bringing into the foreground the concept of advanced literacy not as merely the mastery of traditional academic registers, but also as a reconstructive social tool necessary for the incorporation of the HL voice, which I suggest is crucial in the development of the HL field.

30 30 Reframing Authority in Spanish Heritage Language Classroom Interaction Rachel Showstack Wichita State University Students in Spanish heritage language (HL) classrooms are often exposed to a dominant ideology that lends prestige to a superior standard variety of Spanish, positioning elite speakers in monolingual regions as experts and delegitimizing the multilingual practicesof the HL learners. Research suggests that students orientations to this ideology can have a profound effect on their identities as Spanish-speakers (Potowski 2002). Classroombased research has begun to explore how Spanish HL students respond to dominant language ideologies by representing themselves and others as certain kinds of language users (e.g. Lowther Pereira 2010). However, there is a need for further research to understand the ways in which HL students construct and negotiate their own expertise through interaction in the classroom (Potowski 2012). Taking a view of identity as a set of social relations that emerge in interaction within the limits of an existing social structure (Bucholtz and Hall 2004), this case study investigates how students in one university Spanish HL classroom reflect and challenge the relations of authority ascribed by the institutional context in peer-group interactions. Following He (2004), the study borrows the notion of repair from Conversation Analysis to understand how the students position themselves as experts and novices while interacting with their peers. The study data demonstrate that while the students construct expert and novice stances based on their knowledge of Standard Spanish in some moments, they negotiate these positions of authority in interaction, and relations of alignment or disalignment are never static. At times, speakers use non-verbal cues that frame their participation in repair sequences as performances, thus reframing the relations of authority ascribed by the institutional context. In addition, the students do not always validate the positions of authority represented by others or take up the positions ascribed to them. By challenging the assumption that one must speak Standard Spanish to be an expert, the students create opportunities for further classroom learning. It is important for HL instructors to be aware that these instances of creativity can occur in seemingly mundane moments of classroom interaction, so that they can encourage their students to develop symbolic competence, the ability not only to appropriate or approximate someone else s language, but to shape the very context in which the language is learned and used (Kramsch and Whiteside 2008: 664).

31 31 Emergence of the Voiced Labiodental Fricative Segment [v] in Texas Spanish Adriano Trovato University of Texas at Austin The objective of this study is to document the production of a voiced labiodental fricative consonant (/v/) in the speech of Spanish speakers in West Texas, more specifically in the El Paso area. Possible phonological patterns and specific linguistic environments for the appearance of this feature will be illustrated as well. Furthermore, this research will try to establish correlations between the emergence of the analyzed phone and sociolinguistic factors such as level of literacy, familiarity with Spanish language orthography, age and gender. Another factor that will be taken into account is the influence of English language and its phonemic repertoire, especially considering the bilingual status of most Spanish speakers living in the state of Texas. The distinction of the voiced bilabial /b/ and the voiced labiodental /v/ phonemes, originally present in Old Spanish (Martínez-Gil 1998), is nowadays neutralized extensively throughout the totality of Spanish speech communities in favor of the bilabial phoneme, realized either in an approximant [β] or in an occlusive [b] allophonic version (Hualde 2009). Therefore, the re-emergence of a voiced labiodental fricative sound must be considered a very relevant phenomenon in contemporary Spanish phonological system. Moreover, the phenomenon analyzed in this study, given its geographical exclusivity, also represents a unique feature of the local variety of Spanish currently spoken in West Texas. This study is based on linguistic data which are part of the Spanish in Texas corpus (Bullock & Toribio 2013), a large collection of video interviews gathered by scholars of the University of Texas at Austin.

32 32 A comparative analysis of two heritage speaker populations Valerie Trujillo University of Florida This study compares copula choice variation among two populations; students of Mexican heritage from Arizona State University and students of Cuban heritage from the University of Florida. Although copula choice variation is well-documented in Mexican Spanish (Silva-Corvalán, 1986, 1994; Gutiérrez, 2003, Salazar, 2007) data on Cuban-American Spanish is sparse. This study aims to contribute to the nascent body of knowledge on Cuban-American performance in this area and provide a point of comparison among similarly-proficient students of Mexican heritage in a differing community. In addition, this study compared the degree of language anxiety experienced by the two heritage speaker groups, as measured by the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) developed by Tallon (2009) and modeled after Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope (1986). The evaluation of the answers provided by students on the FLCAS allows for further comparison between two groups of heritage speakers of Spanish that may appear, on the surface, to have little in common. All participants in this study were enrolled in courses specifically designed for heritage speakers in their respective universities. The results of this study show very little difference in performance between the two groups in both the copula choice task and the FLCAS.

33 33 Ambiguity Resolution in Spanish Heritage Speakers: Target Structure Makes a Difference Bill VanPatten 1 & Gregory Keating 2 & Jill Jegerski 3 Michigan State University 1, San Diego State University 2 and University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign 3 The linguistic tuning account of language parsing (e.g., Cuetos et al., 1996) states that comprehenders initial interpretations of ambiguous sentences reflect the success of past experiences, which differ crosslinguistically. For example, when reading complex NPs followed by RCs, as in (1), Spanish monolinguals tend to interpret the RC as referring to the first NP (el criado), whereas English monolinguals show preference for the second NP (la actriz). (1) Alguien disparó contra el criado de la actriz [ RC que estaba en el balcón.] Similarly, when confronted with the pronominal ambiguities depicted in (2), speakers of null subject languages tend to link the null pronoun in (2a) with the antecedent in SpecIP (María), and the overt pronoun in (2b) with the antecedent in object position (Carmen) (e.g., Filiaci, 2010). English requires overt pronouns regardless of the syntactic position of the antecedent. (2a) María llamó a Carmen [CP cuando pro estaba en la oficina.] (2b) María llamó a Carmen [CP cuando ella estaba en la oficina.] This study examines the extent to which Spanish heritage speakers (HSs) are tuned to the syntactic preferences of Spanish when reading sentences containing the syntactic ambiguities depicted above. Monolinguals residing in Mexico (n = 46) and proficiencymatched HSs in California (n = 29) participated in a clause-by-clause self-paced reading task. Twenty-four sentences contained RCs that were pragmatically biased for and against the Spanish NP1 bias, and 32 sentences contained null and overt pronouns that were semantically biased for and against antecedents in SpecIP. Similar to monolinguals, HSs preferred NP1 attachment of RCs and also preferred antecedents in SpecIP for null pronouns (Fig. 2a). Unlike monolinguals, they had no preference for the overt pronoun. We discuss the findings in terms of (1) the effects of amount of exposure to Spanish over time, and (2) the differential relationship of each structure to other structures in Spanish and how knowledge and past experience processing other structures might influence the structures under question.

34 34 Hispanic families' attitude towards their heritage language in Houston and its suburbs Edgar Vargas University of Houston The following study explores the attitudes of Colombian and Mexican families towards Spanish in Houston and its suburbs. Through onsite family observation, surveys, and interviews with the members of the family, the researcher examines and explores how these attitudes towards the heritage language of Spanish lead to a shift from the minority language to English or a preservation of Spanish. The data collected shows that there are similarities and differences among the families from the two countries. The results showed that the majority of the families have positive attitudes about the preservation of Spanish in their houses. Based on these findings, the constant migration of new Hispanics to the city, communication, and travelling to the native countries of the parents are some of the reasons why this interest continues. Although parents presented an integrative motivation towards teaching their children Spanish, they had a stronger instrumental motivation arguing that Spanish provides beneficial advantages in the job market in the city. The role of the mothers was of vital importance in preserving the Spanish language. The researcher found that the person who stays at home with their children the majority of the time, often the mother, also made more decisions about what the children did inside or outside of the house. Based on the data, Colombian families tend to avoid sending their children to bilingual education because parents feel that this type of education delays the learning of Spanish. Therefore, Colombians primarily chose to teach Spanish only at home. On the other hand, the majority of the Mexican families register their children in bilingual schools. This study also found some families did not want their children to learn Spanish because of past experiences in their life.

35 35 Competencia léxica y comprensión de lectura en los estudiantes de español como lengua de herencia Edna Velasquez University of Houston La importancia del estudio del vocabulario durante la adquisición de L2 ha sido objeto de numerosos estudios. En particular se ha desarrollado una buena cantidad de estudios sobre la relación entre el conocimiento léxico y la comprensión de lectura, primordialmente para el caso del inglés como primera y segunda lengua. Algunos de estos estudios han sido replicados para otras L2, pero son escasos los estudios con el español. Además, se han realizado estudios paralelos para el caso del inglés como lengua extranjera (EFL), en varios países. En el campo más reciente de lenguas de herencia (LH) se ha empezado a explorar la competencia léxica de estos hablantes y su incidencia en el proceso de (re)adquisición de la lengua y su enseñanza, pero el número de estudios es aún muy limitado y la investigación se encuentra aún en un estadio muy incipiente. Schmitt et al (2011), en su estudio con hablantes de inglés como L2 demuestran que el tipo de relación existente entre el porcentaje de palabras conocidas en un texto académico y su comprensión es lineal. Es decir, que a más palabras conocidas mayor es la comprensión. Encuentran, como Hu & Nation (2000) que el porcentaje de vocabulario necesario para comprender un texto es de 98%. Para el español como L2, Davies (2005), encuentra que con un vocabulario de 1000 palabras, el estudiante de español como L2, estaría en capacidad de reconocer entre 75% y 80% de todos los lexemas en el español escrito y un 88% de los lexemas en el discurso oral. Además, concluye que se aplica la ley de rendimientos decrecientes, ya que extender el vocabulario a partir de ese punto no significa un crecimiento de cobertura textual proporcional, lo que sugiere el tipo de curva que mejor describiría esta relación sería, una función logarítmica y no una recta como lo que propone Schmitt. 53 estudiantes matriculados en dos cursos de español como lengua de herencia en la Universidad de Houston realizaron una prueba de comprensión de un texto académico con un puntaje máximo de 100 puntos, luego de subrayar el vocabulario desconocido. Se buscaba comprobar el porcentaje de cobertura propuesto por Schmitt era válido también para el español y si la función descrita por la relación era lineal o por el contrario obedecía a la ley de rendimientos decrecientes planteada por Davies. Se encontró, al igual que en el trabajo de Schmitt, que con un 98% del vocabulario pudieron demostrar la comprensión del texto (con un puntaje de 70 sobre 100). La relación entre el porcentaje de léxico conocido y el resultado de comprensión no resultó lineal sino que fue semejante a una función logarítmica, lo cual parece apoyar la conclusión de Davies (2005). Se sugiere que la incidencia de otros factores tales como la capacidad de inferir y el manejo de la estructura discursiva ayudarían a explicar que el tipo de relación entre estas dos variables no sea directamente proporcional.

36 36 Pedagogical implications of research into the language experience of College-age heritage speakers in communities with low vitality for Spanish Isabel Velázquez University of Nebraska The question of how to provide effective Spanish language instruction in university classrooms that include both heritage (HL) and second language (L2) learners is a matter of growing concern within the profession. The relevance of the family for HL maintenance and, for L2 learners, their reduced exposure to speakers beyond campus, points to the potential of integrating community funds of knowledge (González, Moll & Amanti, 2003), into joint class activities and projects. Additionally, it suggests the need to rethink instructional delivery to provide both types of students with increased opportunities for interaction in Spanish with peers, and greater exposure to formal varieties in real-world professional contexts. The issues of how to access community resources and how to incorporate them effectively into classroom activities are further complicated for instructors working in areas with low vitality for Spanish. This paper discusses pedagogical implications of the main findings of a research project that explores the language experience (Martínez, 2006), of 71 U.S.-raised bilinguals residing in three Midwestern communities with low vitality for Spanish and recent Latino settlement. Respondents were university students between the ages of 19 and 29, who participated in an initial interview that was intended to collect data about Spanish competence, demographics, and language acquisition history. They were then asked to respond to a four-part, 39-question online survey. Results discussed in this paper include reported interlocutor in Spanish classified by relationship, gender, generational cohort and domain, Spanish language media consumption and social media use, and reported reading and writing in Spanish analyzed by type, complexity and reported frequency of literacy event. Results of this project are particularly rich for a discussion about instructional delivery in mixed HL/L2 classrooms, because, unlike other studies of HLL, in this study results were compared with two control groups: native speakers, and L2 learners belonging to the same cohort and attending the same institutions. Ideas for classroom activities and instructional units are presented as well as a rationale for their inclusion in intermediate and advanced courses.

37 37 Issues of Linguistic Tolerance: Addressing Dialect Diversity in Los Angeles Public Elementary Schools Belén Villarreal University of California Los Ángeles As a center of Hispanic immigration, Los Angeles is home to speakers of dialects of Spanish from a wide variety of countries, the most strongly represented of these being Mexico and El Salvador. Since the arrival of Central American refugees beginning in the late 1970s, ethnic enclaves that were formerly completely Mexicans have become home to large groups of Salvadorans, Guatemalans, Hondurans, and Nicaraguans. Despite this relatively new wave of immigration, which has been considerable, Mexicans to predominate, as does the primarily Mexican Spanish that they speak. When examining the linguistic consequences of the dialect contact that occurs between Mexicans and Central Americans, Parodi (2003, 2004, 2009, 2010b) and other scholars note that the latter report being ridiculed and made fun of for the way they speak, particularly with respect to their use of voseo, the use of the 2nd person singular informal pronoun tú and its corresponding verb forms, and some regional lexical items. The observations that Spanish speakers who were born in Los Angeles or arrived there at a young age stigmatize Central American Spanish, voseo in particular, suggest that these attitudes are most likely acquired during in their youth. The phenomenon of dialect contact as it occurs among Spanish-speaking children in this area is a topic which has received little attention in the literature. Results from dissertation research on dialect contact among child speakers of the Los Angeles Vernacular Spanish, the primarily Mexican variety that is spoken, and Central American Spanish has yielded data regarding children s lexical use and dialect preferences that has been previously unknown. It also demonstrates that these children are aware of the dialect differences that they encounter and have already begun to develop language attitudes that demonstrate a preference for the LAVS dialect over Salvadoran Spanish. This presentation will discuss the need for addressing the issue of dialect diversity in LA public schools in light of the findings provided by the dialect contact study described above. It will also examine dialect awareness curricula that have been developed for regional and non-standard dialects of English in order to see how these may be adapted to fit the needs of young heritage Speakers of Spanish. Finally, it will offer examples of activities that can expose children to these dialect differences. These will be developed based on the results of the aforementioned dialect contact study in order to ensure that they are relevant to children and incorporate the features that they use themselves (lexical, morphological and phonetic). While the immediate goal of these activities will be to raise schoolchildren s awareness of the diversity of Spanish in LA and help them understand that no dialect is better than the other, its ultimate aim is to promote the type of linguistic and, consequently, cultural tolerance that is crucial in a large, urban multicultural setting like Los Angeles.

38 38 INVITED WORKSHOP ABSTRACTS Educating today s bilingual students and tomorrow s bilingual leaders Joshua Frank & Jesse Abing University of Texas at Austin The composition of a university heritage language classroom is not necessarily representative of the heritage speaker population as a whole; i.e., they are a self-selected and a university-educated group. With this in mind, the presenters will engage the audience with a rough and ready original heritage Spanish classroom activity. The primary goal is to provide tomorrow s bilingual leaders with the type of instruction that allows them to take advantage of their unique linguistic skillset for the benefit of Hispanic and non-hispanic communities alike. The secondary goals are to promote a strong sense of Hispanic identity and an overall acceptance of linguistic variation. This task was designed for, and piloted in, a heritage language classroom at the University of Texas at Austin. As an interactive demonstration, this presentation is also designed to facilitate discussion amongst all workshop attendees. A comprehensive packet of other prototype classroom activities will be provided at the conclusion. Creating spaces for Identity, Latinidad, and Sociolinguistic Awareness in the Spanish for Heritage Learners Classroom Lillian Gorman University of Illinois at Chicago In this presentation I will utilize my current research on the case study of mixed Mexican- Nuevomexicano identities to consider the implications of Latinidad and mixed Latino/a identities in the Spanish for heritage learners classroom. My research explores the multiple and contradictory invocations of identity that flow throughout interviews with 15 Mexican-Nuevomexicano intra-latino subjects. I explore the specific and explicit ways that the Mexican-Nuevomexicano subjects choose to identify themselves and how these identities reveal linguistic hierarchies and tensions between nationality, citizenship, ethnicity, and regional identity. The interviews illustrate the key role that Spanish language proficiency plays in constructing identity categories. I use this data to highlight the ways in which the heterogeneity in our Spanish for heritage learner classrooms may be valued and integrated into our curriculum. Essentially, this presentation emphasizes that identity matters in the Spanish for heritage learners classroom and underscores ways in which to create a space for identity and sociolinguistic awareness.

39 39 The Role of Fluency in Second Language Reading Comprehension: Building Input and Language Experience for Adult Learners of Heritage Languages Greta Gorsuch Texas Tech University This interactive presentation explores the increasingly salient role of reading fluency in second language education programs. Reading, and working with reading fluency, can provide critical language input and language experience for adult learners of heritage languages. In many respects, adults who use a heritage language can also be seen as second language (L2) learners who may consciously choose to expand their experience and skills with their heritage language through formal instruction. In this respect, reading L2 texts may comprise a significant means of input and language experience for heritage language users/l2 learners. Such learners can use reading to obtain information from a variety of written sources and to interact as full interlocutors with other users of the language. Yet many with limited experience reading L2 texts read slowly and laboriously, likely because of poor word recognition skills. For these and for other reasons, the development of reading fluency has taken a position of growing importance in L2 reading research, and has emerged as a significant pedagogical issue. One method thought to increase reading fluency is extensive reading (ER), in which learners self-select moderately easy texts and engage in sustained silent reading. Yet another method is repeated reading (RR) in which learners repeatedly read a 500-word text with an audio model in order to automatize lower level comprehension processes, and thus free learners attentional resources to invoke higher order comprehension processes. RR has been shown to increase L2 learners reading fluency and comprehension in studies in Japan and Vietnam (with English), and in the U.S. (with Japanese). Points of discussion are: 1. What reading fluency is; 2. What its role in reading comprehension is; 3. How to work with reading fluency in classrooms with adult learners; 4. How to find materials suitable for reading fluency development, and 5. How to implement reading fluency methodologies into language education programs.

40 40 The best of both worlds? Advantages and disadvantages of L2-HL peer collaboration Florencia Giglio Henshaw University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Over the last two decades, foreign language educators have been faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of heritage language (HL) learners. This is especially the case in Spanish language courses, where increasingly more HL learners are enrolling in the same classes as second language (L2) learners. Despite this reality, research on L2- HL interaction has been scarce (Blake & Zyzik, 2003; Bowles, 2011). This talk presents the results of a study comparing L2-L2 and L2-HL dyadic interactions in terms of not only learning gains but also self- and peer-perceptions. Findings are discussed with respect to the implementation of classroom practices and program policies that are most beneficial for both types of learners. Incorporating Community Engagement in the Curriculum: Service-Learning for Spanish Heritage Speakers Kelly Lowther Pereira University of North Carolina at Greensboro This workshop focuses on how to integrate a very effective pedagogical tool in the heritage language curriculum: service-learning. Participants in this workshop will discover how engagement in activities that benefit community needs can enhance learning for heritage students specifically. This workshop will walk participants through the essential components of service-learning and course design and will provide participants with tips and strategies on how to successfully prepare a heritage language course with a service-learning component, how to integrate critical reflection with course content and learning objectives, how to create opportunities for student leadership and civic responsibility and how to build effective community partnerships. Heritage Speakers on the Northern Border of the U.S.: Same issues, different language Joseph Price Texas Tech University When one speaks of Heritage Speakers in the United States, it is typically in terms of Spanish-English bilingualism, and with good reason: Americans of Spanish-speaking descent represent an important and growing segment of American society, and many parts of the country - particularly in the Southwestern United States are distinguished by intense English-Spanish contact. In this context, there are many individuals whose exposure to Spanish is incomplete and whose competence in the language bears the classic characteristics associated with Heritage speakers, despite the presence of strong social, demographic and geographic factors promoting the acquisition and

41 41 maintenance of Spanish. However, a similar yet often neglected situation exists in the Northeastern corner of the United States, specifically on the border between Maine and New Brunswick, Canada. Here, individuals living on the US side of the border grow up with intense exposure to regional Canadian French (78% of residents are francophone) and directly across the Saint John River from a Canadian city which is 98% francophone, yet many young people acquire French imperfectly if at all. In this regard, young heritage speakers of French on the Northern border are much like Spanish speakers in the Southwest, and many efforts, especially in the domain of education, have been undertaken to attempt to help encourage the acquisition and use of French by young people in the community. This talk will have two parts. In the first part, I address the context of acquisition and exposure, briefly discussing the historical, social and linguistic context of French in one selected community, Madawaska, Maine. Following this, I discuss some of the characteristics of language maintenance and revitalization efforts in Northern Maine, focusing on a series of failed attempts at bilingual immersion programs as well as efforts undertaken at the level of community and social organizations to promote the acquisition of use of French among young people. In this regard, I hope that the similarities of the issues faced by young heritage speakers of French in the Northeastern US and by members of their communities can offer some additional insight into questions on the role of education and the nature of language revitalization efforts in the United States focusing on heritage speakers of Spanish. Flipping the Spanish Heritage Classroom: A Focus on Writing Julio Torres University at Albany, State University of New York In this presentation, I will share some techniques for promoting heritage learners writing skills following the dimensions of writing-to-learn and learning-to-write. First, I will cover the use of a correction guide that provides students with explicit feedback on common errors as well as follow-up activities to help learners integrate the new information into their writing. The second part of the presentation will be dedicated to the use of the flipped classroom approach to help learners with writing principles (e.g., thesis statement) for composing argumentative essays. The flipped classroom approach consists in taking out the lecture component from the classroom. Students learn information through video clips on writing principles for homework and apply the information through collaborative work in class. I will discuss how flipping the classroom allows for more opportunities for peer collaboration and learners evaluation of their own writing.

42 42 This program was made possible in part with a grant from Humanities Texas, the state affiliate of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

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