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1 Helminths of the Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana (Mammalia: Didelphidae) in Mexico Author(s): Anne Monet-Mendoza, David Osorio-Sarabia and Luis García-Prieto Reviewed work(s): Source: The Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 91, No. 1 (Feb., 2005), pp Published by: The American Society of Parasitologists Stable URL: Accessed: 18/05/ :37 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact The American Society of Parasitologists is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Journal of Parasitology.

2 RESEARCH NOTES 213 in Finland. Bulletin of the Scandinavian Society for Parasitology 2: 100. MORAND, S., AND R. POULIN Density, body mass and parasite species richness of terrestrial mammals. Evolutionary Ecology 12: OIVANEN, L., C. M. O. KAPEL, E. PozIo, G. LA ROSA, T. MIKKONEN, AND A. SUKURA Associations between Trichinella species and host species in Finland. Journal of Parasitology 88: , T MIKKONEN, AND A. SUKURA Survey of trichinellosis in wild boar farm. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica 108: OKSANEN, A., E. LINDGREN, AND P. TUNKKARI Epidemiology of trichinellosis in lynx in Finland. Journal of Helminthology 72: PozIo, E Trichinellosis in the European Union: Epidemiology, ecology and economic impact. Parasitology Today 14: Factors affecting the flow among domestic, synanthropic and sylvatic cycles of Trichinella. Veterinary Parasitology 93: , A. CASULLI, V. V. BOLOGOV, G. MARUZZI, AND G. LA ROSA Hunting practices increase the prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves from European Russia. Journal of Parasitology 87: , G. LA ROSA, P. RossI, AND K. D. MURRELL Biological characterization of Trichinella isolates from various host species and geographical regions. Journal of Parasitology 78: PRESTRUD, P., G. STUVE, AND G. HOLT The prevalence of Trich- inella sp. in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29: ROBINSON, H. A., AND O. W. OLSEN The role of rats and mice in the transmission of the porkworm, Trichinella spiralis (Owens, 1835) Raillett, Journal of Parasitology 48: 589. RONEUS, O., AND D. CHRISTENSSON Presence of Trichinella spiralis in free living red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Sweden related to Trichinella infection in swine and man. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 20: SCHAD, G. A., C. H. DUFFY, D. A. LEIBY, K. D. MURRELL, AND E. W. ZIRKLE Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem: Transmission under natural and experimentally modified on farm conditions. Journal of Parasitology 73: SHAW, D. J., AND A. P DOBSON Patterns of macroparasitic abundance and aggregation in wildlife populations: A quantitative review. Parasitology 111: S111-S133. SMITH, G., AND J. GUERRERO Mathematical models for the population biology of Ostertagia ostertagi and the significance of aggregated parasite distribution. Veterinary Parasitology 46: SMITH, H. J., AND E. K. KAY Role of rats in the transmission of Trichinella spiralis to swine. Canadian Veterinary Journal 28: 604. SPSS INC SPSS 10.0 for Windows. SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, 233 p. ZARLENGA, D. S., M. B. CHUTE, A. MARTIN, AND C. M. O. KAPEL A multiplex PCR for unequivocal differentiation of six encapsulated and three non-encapsulated genotypes of Trichinella. International Journal for Parasitology 29: ZIMMERMANN, W. J., AND E. D. HUBBARD Trichiniasis in wildlife of Iowa. American Journal of Epidemiology 90: J. Parasitol., 91(1), 2005, pp C American Society of Parasitologists 2005 Helminths of the Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana (Mammalia: Didelphidae) in Mexico Anne Monet-Mendoza, David Osorio-Sarabia, and Luis Garcia-Prieto*, Laboratorio de Helmintologra, Instituto de BiologFa, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico, AP , 04510, Coyoacan, D.F., Mexico; *To whom correspondence should be addressed. unam. mx ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to provide further information about helminth parasites of Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792 from Mexico. During routine faunal investigations between 1958 and 2001, 101 opossum were necropsied. Nineteen taxa of helminths were collected, representing 13 genera from hosts in 27 localities from Mexico. There are 58 new locality records, with 6 species recorded in Mexico for the first time: Brachylaima virginiana Dickerson, 1930; Cruzia americana Mapleston, 1930; Didelphonema longispiculata (Hill, 1939); Didelphostrongylus hayesi Prestwood, 1976; Viannaia didelphis Travassos, 1914; and Viannaia viannai Travassos, This increases the number of helminth taxa previously known for this host in Mexico to 28. The opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792, occurs from southern Canada through the United States and Mexico, down to Costa Rica (Gardner, 1982). Its helminth fauna has been the subject of extensive investigation mostly in North America, where 75 taxa have been described (Potkay, 1977; Harris, 1983; Alden, 1995). However, helminthological studies of this host in Mexico are limited, making available information scarce and fragmentary (Lamothe, 1981; Prado, 1993; Cafieda, 1997; Salgado and Cruz, 2002). Thus far, 18 taxa have been reported from Mexico. The aim of this study was to compile and provide further information concerning helminth parasites of D. virginiana in several localities of Mexico. The specimens studied were collected during routine faunal investigations developed in the Laboratorio de Helmintologfa, Instituto de Biologfa, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico (UNAM) over several years ( ) and localities from Mexico. In total, 101 opossum were examined. Most of the hosts were captured using Tom- ahawk traps under permission number FAUT.0056, Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, M6xico. A few road-kills were necropsied, as well as several animals shot by local hunters. Trapped opossum were killed with an overdose of sodium pentobarbital and examined by standard procedures. Platyhelminths were relaxed with hot tap water, fixed in Bouin's fluid for 8 hr under cover glass pressure, and then placed in vials containing 70% alcohol; they were stained with Mayer's paracarmine, Delafield's hematoxylin, or Gomori's trichrome and mounted in permanent slides with Canada balsam. Acanthocephalans were placed in cold physiological saline solution to evert the proboscis. These helminths and the nematodes were fixed with hot 4% formalin and studied without the aid of a permanent mount. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Colecci6n Nacional de Helmintos (CNHE), Biology Institute, Mexico City, and in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML), Lincoln, Nebraska. Prevalence, mean intensity, and range of intensity follow the definitions outlined by Margolis et al. (1982). Nineteen taxa of helminths, including 5 digeneans, 1 cestode, 2 acanthocephalans, and 11 nematodes were collected from opossum from 10 states of Mexico. The most widely distributed species were: Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819) (in 9 states) and Cruzia americana Mapleston, 1930, and Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819) (in 4 states); these 3 species reached the highest levels of prevalence and mean abundance (Table I). There were 58 new locality records. Six species are recorded in Mexico for the first time: Brachylaima virginiana Dickerson, 1930; C. americana; Didelphonema longispiculata (Hill, 1939); Didelphostrongylus hayesi Prestwood, 1976; Viannaia didelphis Travassos, 1914; and Vian-

3 TABLE I. Helminths collected from 101 opossum Didelphis virginiana in 10 states of Mexico.* Geographic distribution Chiapas Jalisco Mexico Michoacain Nayarit (n = 7) (n = 16) (n = 14) (n = 3) (n = 4) (n = 7) (n = 6) (n = 22) %/MI %/MI %/MI %/MI %/MI %/MI %/MI %/MI Species (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) (Range) Brachylaima virginiana 50/10 (8-12) Brachylaima sp. 7.1/1 (1) Paragonimus mexicanus 19/1.6 (1-3) Rhopalias coronatus Rhopalias macracanthus 14/1.3 (1-2) Mathevotaenia sp. 14/3 (3) Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa 32/1.6 (1-3) Oncicola luehei Didelphostrongylus 14/8.5 (8-9) 4.5/0.4 (1) hayesi Cruzia sp. 7/14 (14) Cruzia americana 56/22.4 (4-70) 21/13.3 (1-23) 68.1/22 (6-94) Cruzia tentaculata 57/36.5 (7-60) 62/28.3 (5-31) 33/12 (12) Gnathostoma turgidum 7/1 (1) Turgida turgida 94/20 (7-43) 93/19.8 (4-32) 33/6 (6) 100/7 (3-11) 28/8.5 (3-14) 17/8 (8) 82/16.3 (2-54) Didelphonema longispiculata 14/1.5 (1-2) Trichuris sp. 7/5 (5) Viannaia sp. 7/1 (1) Viannaia didelphis 12.5/6 (1-11) Viannaia viannai 14/2.5 (1-4) * n, sample size; %, prevalence; MI, mean intensity; (Range), range of infection.

4 RESEARCH NOTES 215 TABLE II. Helminthological record of the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana in Mexico. CNHE HWML Coll. Coll. Helminth Locality Georeference No. No. Reference Digenea Brachylaemidae Brachylaima virginiana* Brachylaima sp.* Paragonimidae Paragonimus mexicanust Rhopaliasidae Rhopalias coronatus* Rhopalias macracanthus* Strigeidae Duboisiella proloba* Cestoda Anoplocephalidae Anoplocephalidae gen. sp.* Mathevotaenia sp.* Proteocephalidae Proteocephalinae gen. sp.* Estado de M6xico Tequesquinahuac** 19032'30"N, 99012'02'W 3687 Laguna Tres Palos** 16049'22"N, 99043'50"W 4658 Zacatula** 18000'38"N, '42"W 4657 Coahuayana** 18044'32"N, '17"W 4650 Comala 19019'37"N, '31"W Lamothe et al. (1981) La Barragana 19023'04"N, '00"W Lamothe et al. (1981) La Esperanza 19010'20"N, '00"W Lamothe et al. (1981) Madrid 19005'11"N, '19"W Lamothe et al. (1981) Michoacin Agua Blanca 19028'52"N, '43"W Lamothe (1981) Nayarit El Guayabito 21032'00"N, '30"W Lamothe et al. (1986) El Mamey 21026'15"N, '10"W Lamothe et al. (1986) Laguna Escondida 18035'38"N, 95005'16"W Los Tuxtlas 18037'17"N, 95005'35'"W Cafieda (1997) Lamothe et al. (1997) Alvarado** 18047'05"N, 95045"35'W 4620 Ejido Lizaro Cirdenas 18036' 10"N, 95006'10"W Cafieda (1997) Laguna Escondida 18035'38"N, 95005' 16"W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 18037'17"N, 95005'35'"W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 4621 Alvarado** 18047'05"N, 95045"35'W 4622 Ejido Lialzaro Cirdenas 18036'10"N, 95006'10"W Cafieda (1997) Laguna Escondida 18035'38"N, 95005'16"W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 18037'17"N, 95005'35"W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 4625 Playa Escondida 18035' 12"N, 95003'47'W Cafieda (1997) Playa Escondida 4624 Temascal** 18016'01"N, 96024'39'"W 4623 Playa Escondida 18035' 12"N, 95003'47'W Lamothe et al. (1997) II Lamothe et al. (1981) Chiapas Lagos de Col6n** 15050'00"N, 91052'47"W 4600 Laguna Escondida 18035'38"N, 95005'f16'W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 18037'17"N, 95005'35'W Cafieda (1997) Acanthocephala Oligacanthorhynchidae Oligacanthorhynchus Chiapas tortuosa* Cascadas Agua Azul 17015'17"N, 92007'30"W Michoacin Prado (1993) Agua Blanca Morelos 19028'52"N, '43"W Prado (1993) Progreso 18053'00"N, 99009'26'"W Lamothe et al. (1997) Temascal** 18016'01"N, 96024'39"W 4497

5 216 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 91, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2005 TABLE II. Continued CNHE HWML Coll. Coll. Helminth Locality Georeference No. No. Reference Oncicola luehei* Pachysentis gethi* Plagiorhynchidae Porrorchis nickoli* t Nematoda Angiostrongylidae Didelphostrongylus hayesit Cruziidae Cruzia sp.* Cruzia americanat Cruzia tentaculatat,? Balzapote 18036'39"N, "W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 18037'17"N, 95005'35"W Prado (1993) Playa Escondida 18035' 12"N, 95003'47"W Cafieda (1997) Mixtequilla** 16032'00"N, 94034'00"W Ejido Laizaro Cirdenas 18036'10"N, 95006'10"W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 18037'17"N, 95005'35"W Prado (1993) Playa Escondida 18035' 12"N, 95003'47"W Cafieda (1997) La Esperanza 19010'20"N, '00"W Lamothe et al. (1981) Chiapas Cascadas Agua Azul 17015'17"N, 92007'30"W Salgado & Cruz (2002) Cascadas Agua Azul Prado (1993) Salgado & Cruz (2002) Balzapote 18036'39"N, 95005'02"W Salgado & Cruz (2002) Catemaco 18024'05"N, 95006'34"W Salgado & Cruz (2002); Ejido Lazaro Cirdenas 18036'10"N, 95006'10"W Cafieda (1997) Ejido Laizaro Cirdenas Prado (1993) Las Cabafias 18036'00"N, 95003'15"W Salgado & Cruz (2002) San Andr6s Tuxtla 18027'00"N, 95012'43"W Salgado & Cruz (2002) Sontecomapan 18031' 18"N, 95001'38"W Laguna Tres Palos** 16049'22"N, 99043'50"W 4206 Taxco El Viejo** 19028'38"N, 99035'12"W 4270 Temascal** 18016'01"N, 96024'39"W 4271 Coyuquilla** 18000'33"N, '45"W 4596 ** 19013'45"N, '10"W 4593 Comala** 19019'37"N, '31"W Madrid** 19005'11"N, '19"W La Esperanza** 19010'20"N, '00"W Laguna Tres Palos** 16049'22"N, 99043'50"W 4204 La Estancia** Taxco El Viejo** 19028'38"N, 99035'12"W 4537 Mixtequilla** 16032"00"N, 94034'00"W Nizanda** 16039'30"N, 95000'25"W 4594 Temascal** 18016'01"N, 96024'39"W 4590 Las Cabafias** 18036'00"N, 95003"15"W Chiapas Cascadas Agua Azul** 17015'17"N, 92007'30"W #$ Lamothe et al. (1981) 19019'50"N, Jalisco Comala** Dos Amates** 19019'37"N, '31"W '30"W Autlin-Melaque** 20018"00'N, "00'W ND Juntas-Palmas** 20045"00'N, "00'W ND Balzapote 18036'39"N, 95005?02"W Cafieda (1997) Ejido Lizaro Cirdenas 18036'10"N, 95006'10"W Cafieda (1997) Laguna Escondida 18035'38"N, 95005'16"W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 18037'17"N, 95005'35"W Cafieda (1997) Playa Escondida 18035'12"N, 95?03'47"W 45815

6 RESEARCH NOTES 217 TABLE II. Continued CNHE HWML Coll. Coll. Helminth Locality Georeference No. No. Reference Rancho Tebanca 18024'57"N, 95000'17"W Cafieda (1997) Cafieda (1997) Yucatin M6rida** 20058'52"N, 89036'36"W Gnathostomatidae Gnathostoma sp.ll Tabasco Villahermosa 18000'28"N, 92055'58"W Lamothe (1997) Gnathostoma procyonisll Morelos Cuernavaca 18055'15"N, 99 14'33"W Lamothe (1997) Tepoztlin 18059'03"N, 99007'00"W Lamothe (1997) Gnathostoma turgidumll,# Laguna Tres Palos** 16049'22"N, 99043'50"W 4261 Temascal 18016'01"N, 96024'39"W Lamothe et al. (1998) Temascal Almeyda et al. (2000) Gongylonematidae Gongylonema mexicanum[ Physalopteridae Turgida turgidat,ll Balzapote 18036'39"N, "W Cafieda (1997) Ejido Laizaro Cirdenas 18036'10"N, 95006'10"W Cafieda (1997) Laguna Escondida 18035'38"N, 95005' 16"W Cafieda (1997) ** 19013'45"N, '10"W 4589 Comala** 19019'37"N, '31"W 3421 Dos Amates** 19019'50"N, '30"W 3419 La Barragana** 19023'04"N, '00"W 3420 La Esperanza** 19010'20"N, '00"W t Lamothe et al. (1981) Madrid** 19005'11"N, '19"W 4575 Estado de Mexico Tequesquinahuac** 19032'30"N, 99012'02"W 4585 Coyuquilla** 18000'33"N, '45"W 4586 Laguna Tres Palos** 16049'22"N, 99043'50"W 4208 Taxco El Viejo** 19028'38"N, 99035'12"W 4541 Jalisco Autlin-Melaque** 20045"00'N, "00'W Michoacin El Ortigal** 19026'30"N, '55"W 4582 Nayarit Pefiitas** 21002'00"N, '00"W 4592 Mixtequilla** 16032"00'N, 94034"00'W Nizanda** 16039'30"N, 95000'25"W 4591 Temascal** 18016'01"N, 96024'39"W 5037 Ejido Laizaro Cirdenas 18036' 10"N, 9506' 10"W Cafieda (1997) Laguna Escondida 18035'38"N, 95005' 16"W Cafieda (1997) Las Cabafias** 18036'00"N, 95003"15"W 4584 Los Tuxtlas** 18037' 17"N, 95005'35"W Playa Escondida 18035'12"N, 95003'47"W Cafieda (1997) Playa Escondida 4580 Yucatin M6rida** 20058'52"N, 89036'36"W Spirocercidae Didelphonema longi- spiculatall Taxco El Viejo** 19028'38"N, 99035' 12"W 4538 Trichuridae Trichuris sp.t Taxco El Viejo** 19028'38"N, 99035'12"W 4540

7 218 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 91, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2005 TABLE II. Continued CNHE HWML Coll. Coll. Helminth Locality Georeference No. No. Reference Trichuris didelphist,? Viannaiidae Viannaia sp.* Viannaia didelphis* Viannaia viannai* Laguna Escondida 18035'38"N, 95005'16"W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas 18037' 17"N, 95005'35"W Cafieda (1997) Rancho Tebanca 18024'57"N, 95?00' 17"W Cafieda (1997) Laguna Tres Palos** 16049'22"N, 99043'50"W 4205 Balzapote 18036'39"N, "W Cafieda (1997) Los Tuxtlas** 18037'17"N, 95005'35"W 4652 Playa Escondida 18035' 12"N, 95003'47"W Cafieda (1997) La Esperanza** 19010'20"N, '00"W 4651 Madrid** 19005'11"N, '19"W 4649 Taxco El Viejo** 19028'38"N, 99035'12"W 4543 * Intestine. ** New locality record. t Lungs. #4 Locality not specified. #4 Recorded by Prado (1993) and Cafieda (1997) as Longisoma marsupialis Prado, 1993, specific name only published in a Bachelor thesis. CNHE, Accession number to Colecci6n Nacional de Helmintos; HWML, Accession number to Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology; ND, voucher specimens not deposited. $ Caecum. )I # Stomach. Liver. [ Esophagus.? Rectum. naia viannai Travassos, 1914, increasing the number of helminth taxa known for this host in Mexico to 28 (Table II). It was not possible to identify 5 of the 19 helminth taxa found in this study because of several reasons, i.e., the poor conditions of the material (Cruzia sp., Brachylaima sp.), the small number of specimens collected (Viannaia sp.), or immaturity (Mathevotaenia sp.). Trichuris sp. is similar in some ways to the 5 species described in American marsupials, i.e., Trichuris minuta Rudolphi, 1819; Trichuris marsupialis Foster, 1939; Trichuris urichi Wolfgang, 1951; Trichuris reesali Wolfgang, 1951; and especially Trichuris didelphis Babero, However, the analysis of paratypes of this species (USNPC ) showed that our specimens could not be assigned to T. didelphis because of the shape of the spicular sheath (tubular in our material vs. pear shaped in Babero's [1960] specimens) and the egg size ( X vs x , respectively). Records of Paragonimus rudis (Diesing, 1850) from Mexico, attributed by Alden (1995) to Lamothe (1981) and Lamothe et al. (1986), are erroneous. In both records, the specimens were assigned originally to Paragonimus mexicanus Miyazaki & Ishii, Moreover, P. rudis is now considered as species inquirenda (Tongu et al., 1995). The Mexican helminthological record for D. virginiana, constituted by 28 taxa (10 recorded in this study and 18 reported previously), reflects the same trend as the one reported by Alden (1995); thus, nematodes are the most prevalent group of helminths in both studies (15 and 38 taxa, respectively). Digeneans are the second most prevalent group represented in both regions (22 taxa in Alden's study vs. 6 from Mexico); in North America, the other 2 groups (cestodes and acanthocephalans) comprise 9 and 7 taxa, respectively, whereas in Mexico these possess 3 and 4 taxa. The helminth parasites recorded in this host from Mexico add 7 taxa to the helminth fauna of D. virginiana in North America: Duboisiella proloba Baer, 1938 and Rhopalias coronatus (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea); Mathevotaenia sp., (Cestoda); Porrorchis nickoli Salgado and Cruz, 2002, Oncicola luehei (Travassos, 1917), and Pachysentis gethi (Machado, 1950) (Acanthocephala); and Gongylonema mexicanum (Caballero and Zerecero, 1944) (Nematoda) (Table II). In addition, 6 helminth species have been registered in several localities from Mexico from hosts identified as Didelphis mesamericana tabascensis (Allen, 1901): Aspiododera raillieti Travassos, 1913, C. tentaculata, Globocephalus marsupialis (Teixeira de Freitas and Lent, 1936), R. coronatus, Rhopalias macracanthus Chandler, 1932, and T. turgida (Caballero, 1937, 1951; Caballero and Zerecero, 1944; Caballero et al., 1944). Because the name D. mesamericana tabascensis has been used indistinctly for Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus and D. virginiana (see Gardner, 1973) and because there are no host voucher specimens, these records cannot be considered as part of Mexican helminth fauna of D. virginiana. Of the 28 taxa reported in Mexico, 20 were identified to specific level. The distribution of this 20 species includes 7 Pan-American species (R. macracanthus; D. hayesi; Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902; T. turgida; Trichuris didelphis; V. didelphis; and V. viannai), 6 from South America (P. mexicanus; R. coronatus; D. proloba; 0. luehei; P. gethi; and C. tentaculata), 5 from North America (B. virginiana; Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa (Leidy, 1850); C. americana; Gnathostoma procyonis Chandler, 1942; and D. longispiculata), and 2 endemic species (P. nickoli and G. mexicanum). This mixed composition can be explained on one hand by the confluence of the Nearctic and Neotropical biogeographical zones in Mexico. On the other hand, the generalist character of all 20 helminth species could promote their exchange among different hosts (other marsupials, felids, mustelids, and procyonids, indiscriminately), thereby enriching the helminth fauna of the Virginia opossum in Mexico. However, scarce knowledge regarding the helminth fauna of D. virginiana in Mexico makes both hypotheses premature. Further studies are necessary to make more accurate generalizations. The authors thank Florencia Bertoni, Elisa Cabrera, Cristina Castilla, Luis E Gopar, and Rogelio Rosas for their assistance in field work, Georgina Ortega for bibliographic assistance, and Antonieta Arizmendi, Agustin Jim6nez, Rafael Lamothe, and Berenit Mendoza for their helpful comments and corrections that improved the manuscript. was partially funded by grant IN under the Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigaci6n e Innovaci6n Tecnol6gica (PAPIIT- UNAM) to Virginia Le6n from Instituto de Biologia, UNAM, and BSR , BSR , DEB , and DBI to Scott

8 RESEARCH NOTES 219 Gardner from H. W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. LITERATURE CITED ALDEN, K. J Helminths of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, in Southern Illinois, with a compilation of all helminths reported from this host in North America. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington 62: ALMEYDA, A. J., M. D. BARGUES, AND S. MAS-COMA ITS-2 rdna sequencing of Gnathostoma species (Nematoda) and elucidation of the species causing human Gnathostomiasis in the Americas. Journal of Parasitology 86: BABERO, B. B Further studies on helminths of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, with a description of a new species from this host. Journal of Parasitology 46: CABALLERO, E. C Nemaitodos de algunos vertebrados del Valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo. Anales del Instituto de Biologifa, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico 8: Estudios helmintol6gicos de la Regi6n Oncocercosa de Mexico y de la Repuiblica Mexicana. Nematoda 6a Parte. Y algunas consideraciones en torno a los generos Onchocerca Diesing, 1841 y Acanthospiculum Skjrabin y Schikhobalowa, Anales del Instituto de Biologifa, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico 22: , M. BRAVO, AND C. ZERECERO Estudios helmintol6gicos de la Regi6n Oncocercosa de Mexico y de la Republica de Guatemala. Trematoda I. Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico 15: , AND M. C. ZERECERO Estudios de la Regi6n Oncocercosa de Mexico y de la Repiblica de Guatemala. Nemaitoda. 2a Parte. Anales del Instituto de Biologifa, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico 15: CAIEDA, G. C Parisitos de tres especies de marsupiales de la Estaci6n "Los Tuxtlas" y algunas zonas cercanas,, M6xico. B.S. Thesis. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico, Mexico City, D.E, 193 p. GARDNER, A. L The systematics of the genus Didelphis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) in North and Middle America. Special Publications the Museum Texas Tech University 4: Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). In Wild mammals of North America, J. A. Chapman and G. A. Feldhamer (eds.). John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, p HARRIS, E. A A checklist of the helminths parasites of marsupials and monotrems. British Museum (Natural History), London, U.K., 170 p. LAMOTHE, A. R Hospederos definitivos e intermediarios de Paragonimus mexicanus, Miyazaki e Ishii, 1968, en Mexico. Anales del Instituto de Biologifa, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mixico 52: Hospederos definitivos, intermediarios y paratenicos de Gnathostoma en y, Mexico. Cuadernos Mexicanos de Zoologifa 3: , H. AKAHANE, D. OSORIO, AND L. GARCiA Hallazgo de Gnathostoma turgidum en Didelphis virginiana de Temascal,, Mexico. Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Na- cional Aut6noma de Mexico 69: , J. L. ALONSO, AND R. L6PEZ Una nueva zona endemica de Paragonimiasis en Mexico. Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico 57: , L. GARCfA, D. OSORIO, AND G. PEREZ-PONCE DE LE6N Catilogo de la Colecci6n Nacional de Helmintos, 1st ed. Instituto de Biologifa, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico and Comisi6n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Mexico City, D.E, 211 p., R. PINEDA, AND O. MEAVE Infecci6n natural de Paragonimus mexicanus en Didelphis virginiana californica en, Mexico. Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico 52: MARGOLIS, L., G. W. ESCH, J. C. HOLMES, A. M. KURIS, AND G. A. SCHAD The use of ecological terms in parasitology (report of an ad hoc committee of the American Society of Parasitologists). Journal of Parasitology 68: POTKAY, S Diseases of marsupials. In The biology of marsupials, D. Hunsaker II (ed.). Academic Press, New York, p PRADO, A. D Estudio taxon6mico de 10 especies de acantoc6falos (Acanthocephala Rudolphi, 1801) de vertebrados de Mexico. B.S. Thesis. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico, Mexico City, D.E, 86 p. SALGADO, G., AND A. CRUZ Porrorchis nickoli n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Plagiorhynchidae) from mammals in Southeastern Mexico, first known occurrence of Porrorchis in the Western Hemisphere. Journal of Parasitology 88: TONGU, Y., H. HATA, Y. ORIDO, M. PINTO, R. LAMOTHE, M. YOKOGAWA, AND M. TSU Morphological observations of Paragonimus mexicanus from Guatemala. Japanese Journal of Parasitology 44: J. Parasitol., 91(1), 2005, pp C American Society of Parasitologists 2005 Effects of Heparin Administration on Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infection in Rats Kazuhiko Nishimura, Kensuke Shima, Masahiro Asakura, Yoshihiro Ohnishi, and Shinji Yamasaki, Division of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Sakai, Osaka , Japan. osakafu-u. ac.jp ABSTRACT: We examined whether heparin administration influences in vivo trypanosome proliferation in infected rats. Administration of heparin every 8 hr via cardiac catheter inhibited growth of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and prolonged survival of treated rats. Heparin administration increased lipoprotein lipase activity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration in the blood, and haptoglobin messenger RNA content of the liver. The presence of heparin in culture media did not directly affect proliferation of trypanosomes in vitro. 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