Meetings for Dr. Richard Kraft and Dr. Tulio Tablada

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1 Meetings for Dr. Richard Kraft and Dr. Tulio Tablada Individual Title Organization Date 1. Sra. Alicia Slate Oficial, Oficina de Inversiones USAID Nicaragua 7/30/09 Sociales 2. Sra. Glenda Marcia Reyes Gerente Primero Aprendo2 CARE/Nicaragua 8/3 3. Sr. Roberto Páramo Sandino Gerente Gestión para el CARE/Nicaragua 8/3 Desarrollo Educativa PROGEDES 4. Sr. Lázaro García Urbina Gerente CARE/Nicaragua 8/3 5. Sr. Ernesto Robleto Falla Presidente EDUQUEMOS 8/3 6. Sra. Aurora Gurdian Vice Presidente EDUQUEMOS 8/3 7. Sra. Kathy Chavez Icaza Directora Ejecutiva EDUQUEMOS 8/3 8. Sra. Elena Edwards Sub Directora de Desarrollo La Familia Padre Fabretto 8/3 9. Sr. Kevin C. Marinacci Director Ejecutivo La Familia Padre Fabretto- 8/3 Nicaragua 10. Mr. Brian Hunter Director de Pais Save the Children 8/3 11. Sra. Dharma Lila Carrasquillas Director de Educación Save the Children 8/3 12. Sr. Wilfredo Estrada C. Director del Centro Domingo Savio SAT 8/4 13. Sr. Vicente Baquedano B. Responsable de Desarrollo Domingo Savio SAT 8/4 Comunitario 14. Sr. Gabriel Moreira R. Medio General Domingo Savio SAT 8/4 15. Sra. Marcia Gómez P. Coordinadora Programa SAT La Familia Padre Fabretto 8/4 16. Sr. Steve Flores Tutor Mentor Domingo Savio SAT 8/4 17. Hmo. Rodrigo Méndez Director Don Bosco-Managua 8/5 18. Sr. Omar Urbina Instructor Don Bosco-Managua 8/5 19. Sra. Dana Mairena Directora Fe y Alegría Escuelas 8/5 20. Sra. Sharon Carter Acting Director USAID/Nicaragua 8/5 21. Dra. Josefina Vigil Directora y Consultor CIASES Es.No. Lechecuagos CIASES 8/5 22. Sra. Alicia Slate Human Investment Officer USAID Nicaragua 8/6 23. Sr. Christopher Barrett Oficial de Salud Oficina de USAID Nicaragua 8/6 Inversiones Sociales 24. Sra. Connie Johnson Director, Ofician de Inversiones USAID Nicaragua 8/6 Sociales 25. Sra. Luz Marina Garcia Transparency Program Director USAID Nicaragua 8/6 26. Sr. Luis Guzmán Oficial-Trade/Agriculture USAID Nicaragua 8/6 27. Dr. Oscar Mogollon Consultor-Proyecto Excelencia Ministerio de Educación 8/6 28. Sra. Violeta Malespín Director Plan Internacional 8/6 29. Dr. José Ignacio Mata Director Ejecutivo Proyecto EXCELENCIA 8/7 30. Srta. Megan Gavin Consultor Componente 4 Proyecto 8/7 EXCELENCIA 31. Sra. Jacqueline Sanchez Consultor Curriculum Proyecto 8/7 EXCELENCIA 32. Sr. Mario Malespín Consultor Evaluación Proyecto 8/7 1

2 Individual Title Organization Date EXCELENCIA 33. Sra. Alicia Santa Coordinadora Administrativa y Financiera 8/7 Proyecto EXCELENCIA 34. Sra. Yadira Rocha Director de Educación IPADE 8/7 35. Dr. Marco Lacayo Sub Director Proyecto y PRONICASS-MINSA 8/7 Coordinador Institucional MINSA 36. Msc. Violeta Barreto Arias Coordinadora Institucional PRONICASS-MINED 8/7 37. Sra. Vilma Medrano Directora TeenSmart/Nicaragua 8/ Sr. Frank Matus-Aguirre Country Director Alianzas/RTI 8/ Dr. Manuel A. Roman Lacayo Country Program Manager Alianzas/RTI 8/ Sra. Patricia Gomez Consultor Curriculum Proyecto Excelencia 8/ Sra. Anyoli Sanabria López Especialista en Educación UNICEF 8/ Sr. Juan de Dios Zepeda E. Director de Formulación de MINED 8/12 Proyectos y Gestión de Recursos 42. Sra. Hazel Wilson Coord. Excelencia RAAS FADCANIC 8/ Ma. Lina Grádiz Blanco Coord. Excelencia RAAN FADCANIC 8/ Dra. Ethel Martinez Webster Coordinadora Excelencia RAAN FADCANIC 8/13 y RAAS 45. Sra. Olga Viluce Asesora para Asuntos de Unión Europea 8/13 Cooperación 46. Sra. Elena Getino Asesora Educativo Unión Europea 8/ Sra. Miriam Zablah de Bandes Directora Regional de Programas Fundación Uno 8/13 de Educación ExVice Ministro de Educ. 48. Sr, Jan Bauer First Secretary, Sustainable Embajada de Holanda 8/14 Development 49. Sra. María Antonia Mallona Assistant Director Peace Corps 8/ Sr. George Baldino Director-Nicaragua Peace Corps 8/ Sra, Lorena Zamora-Rivas Coordinadora Comité de AMCHAM 8/14 Educación, Vice-Secretaria Junta Directiva 52. Srita. Makiko Yanagihara Oficial de Programa JICA-Agencia de Cooperación 8/14 Internacional del Japón 53. Ing. Omar Bonilla Oficial de Programa JICA-Agencia de Cooperación- 8/14 Japón 54. Sra. Glenda Marcia Reyes Consultor Univ. Juan Pablo II 8/ Pbio. Eyleén Diesthers Castro Coordinador Arquidiocrono Universidad Juan Pablo II 8/15 R. Pastoral Educativo, Vice-Rector 56. Sra. Natalia Barillos de Rector Universidad Juan Pablo II 8/15 Montiel 57. Sra. Connie Johnson Director, Oficina de Inversiones USAID Nicaragua 8/16 Sociales 57. Sr. René Lauer Encargado de Negocios Embajada del Gran Ducado de 8/17 Luxemburgo 58. Sra. Claudia Paguaga Trewin Oficial de Programa Embajada de Dinamarca Para 8/17 2

3 Individual Title Organization Date CentroAmerica 59. Sr Luis Ramon Hernandez Director, Dirección de MINED 8/17 Planificación 60. Sr. Alvaro Vega Estrada Resp. Area de Industria, Educación Vocacional y Técnica, 8/18 MINED 61. Dr. José Ignacio Mata Director Ejecutivo Proyecto EXCELENCIA 8/ Sra. Nidia Mejía Oficial-Formación Docente Dirección de Formación Docente 8/18 MINED 63. Sra. Gertrudis Mayorga Directora-Formación Docente Dirección de Formación Docente 8/18 MINED 64. Sra. Doris Kroll Directora-HORIZONT 3000 Org. Austriaca de Coop. para el 8/18 Desarrollo 65. Sra. Amelia Tiffer Alduvin Directora de Oficina PINE-MINED 8/ Sra. Gertrudis Mayorga Directora-Formación Docente Dirección de Formación Docente 8/19 MINED 67. Hon. Miguel de Castilla Ministro de Educación MINED 8/ Sra. Connie Johnson Director, Oficina de Inversiones USAID Nicaragua 8/19 Sociales 69. Sra. Junko Sazaki Oficial UNFPA Apt.Error 70. Sr. Luis Barrios Director Dirección Educación Técnica- 8/20 MINED 71. Sr. Farand Demetz Director Dirección de Educación Bilingüe 8/20 MINED 72. Sr. Santo Duarte Oficial Dirección de Educación Bilingüe 8/20 MINED 73. Sra. Ivette Sosa Director Dirección de Secundaria 8/ Daniel Boniche Director Centro Nehemías 8/ Darling Hüeck Cordinadora Centro Nehemías 8/ Daniel Aragón Asesor Centro Nehemías 8/ Kinly Abigail Colomer Asistente de Coordinación Centro Nehemías 8/ Juan H. Granados Administrador Centro Nehemías 8/ Sra. Miriam Montenegro Oficial Banco Mundial 8/ Sra. Connie Johnson Director, Oficina de Inversiones USAID Nicaragua 8/21 Sociales 81. Sra. Coleen Littlejohn Oficial Banco Mundial 8/ Sr. Manuel Pascual Director Agencia Española para 8/21 Cooperación Internacional 83. Sr. Alejandro Genet Decano, Facultad de Educación UNAN-Managua 8/21 e Idiomas 84. Dr. David Parajon Director General AMOS-Salud & Esperanza 8/ Dr. Laura Chanchien Parajon Directora Médica AMOS 8/21 3

4 Appendix A Basic Requirements of Any System Prior to Meaningful Educational Reform Over a decade ago, I gave a talk and wrote a brief paper for MINED and USAID/Nicaragua on what are the basic requirements for any school system before any meaningful reforms can take place. The issues discussed here will be briefly touched on as an introduction to where Nicaraguan education stands in Food and Potable Water: At the time of my original presentation, there was a program in place called Léche y Galleta, which provided at least minimal calories and hydration to large numbers of poor Nicaraguan urban and rural poor children. It was not sufficient, but at least tens of thousands of hungry children received some nourishment, and their improved ability to function and learn in school was evident following their receiving them, usually at around 9 a.m. each day. I was delightfully surprised by the current feeding program, PINE, which provides beans, rice and a nourishing drink to Nicaraguan children. The value of this, particularly for children who come to school with no breakfast and who go back to homes with little food, is undeniable. It has also proved an excellent mechanism to involve thousands of parents in schools to not only prepare food, but also for some to remain and assist in classrooms. Since we did not get to observe many afternoon sessions, it is difficult to say what aspects of PINE are available in the afternoon, but in the few cases seen, there did not appear to be a feeding program in the p.m. Regrettably, not all schools visited appear to have ready access to potable water, and in the hot climates, this is extremely important. Recommendation: The PINE program must be continued, and parent councils must be encouraged to look beyond the feeding program and see how parents can participate in other ways to assist teachers in the classroom setting. The MINED and donors must move as rapidly as possible to ensure that potable water is available at all school sites. In addition the afternoon feeding program, if any exists, must be strengthened so that children attending in the afternoon have equal access to PINE. 2. Time: The issue of time in school, and particularly time-on-task remains a major issue in many schools of Nicaragua. In order to succeed in mastering the basics of reading, writing and arithmetic in the early grades, leading to success in the other subjects of the curriculum, children need sufficient time in school and instructional time to succeed. During visits to schools, I found the continuing problem of school days canceled to celebrate independence days, saints days and rain days. In fact, well over half of the visits made proved fruitless, as the neither the children, nor teachers were even present. My previous research in 2004, found that the number of schools days was actually 160, not the 200 mandated by law, and that few schools functioned from 7 or 7:30 a.m. to 12 or 12:30, or 12:30-5 or 5:30. The issue of time speaks to the importance of time-on-task, and while most Excelencia schools functioned well, many others provided only 2-3 hours of instruction, for a likely total of from hours of actual schooling each year. Extra time for recess, late starting and early closing of schools are among the critical issues. Recommendation: This ongoing issue has been noted by every Minister of Education over the 38 years that I have been coming to Nicaragua, but it still confronts large numbers of schools. Continued efforts to uphold the laws on number of school days and the use of school time must be strengthened. 4

5 3. Desks: A third important basic is the need for a seat in the classroom. Thankfully, I found all schools visited appear to have sufficient places for children to sit. A study in Guatemala some two decades ago found that one of the leading causes of dropouts was the lack of a place to sit in the classroom. Recommendation: Many schools have unused chairs stacked up in the back of classrooms. It is critical that these chairs be used in any school setting where it is found they are needed. 4. Textbooks: While textbooks are not the only means for children to learn their subjects, they are often the only instructional materials available. Regrettably, with the new curriculum reform and its validation process, textbooks tied to the new curriculum could be found in the validating schools, but in many other schools, with the exception of JICA funded mathematics texts, there were often only one old book for the teacher, and none for the children. This effectively forced the teachers to copy things onto the board and use frontal teaching methods. In some cases, old or even new textbooks could be found in a library or locked in the director s office, but were not available to the teachers. Recommendation: The process of providing textbooks for every child in every subject must be among the highest priorities, and while some books are still going through the review and validation process, children now in school cannot wait much longer. 5. Attendance: This issue is related to that of time mentioned above. Once again I found schools in which up to half or more of the children were not in attendance, and many cases in which the teacher never showed up and classes were cancelled. Thankfully, this did not occur in most EXCELENCIA or CETT classrooms or schools. These schools often had a good substitute teacher (parents or student teachers) plan in place, so that schooling could continue. If any rain occurred during the night, as it often did during our visits in September and October, schools or classrooms were not in session. While this is somewhat understandable during times of major rainstorms, where the safety of the children might be at risk, or when rural children cannot walk several kilometers on impassable roads, it appears to have become an habitual behavior, that whenever there is rain, even minimal amounts, large numbers of children and teachers do not attend. Recommendation: The MINED, through its various administrative structures must place teacher and student attendance as one of its highest priorities. This can possibly be done through incentives and disincentives. 6. Infrastructure: Nicaragua and its donors are to be congratulated for attempts to provide good buildings, roofs, latrines, playgrounds and other important infrastructure improvements. It is particularly difficult to maintain the infrastructure in a hot, wet climate. EXCELENCIA schools have in place excellent programs for involving all students in regular, daily cleaning tasks, and parents in assisting in maintenance issues. This was not, however, found to be the case in other schools visited, where crumbling buildings or lack of infrastructure, and little daily cleanliness of the grounds were observed. Recommendation: As more and more schools are brought into the EXCELENCIA model, it is crucial that student and parent involvement in school upkeep and maintenance be part of the package. 5

6 Appendix B Peace Corps-Nicaragua Small Business Development Small business development (SBD) Volunteers provide sustainable business and life skills to youth and micro-business owners to improve employment, increase income, and increase economic opportunities in their communities. Volunteers focus most of their efforts on conducting courses and individual sessions on entrepreneurship, business and job skills for youth in secondary schools, technical institutes, and in other educational centers, including out of school youth; some Volunteers also deliver courses for university students. Most SBD Volunteers are assigned to work in secondary schools with the Ministry of Education and live in small towns and cities. Based on community needs and opportunities, they also provide information technology training and business advising to local business owners. Health To address the critical health needs of Nicaragua, community health education Volunteers are based out of rural health clinics and posts. Volunteers focus on hygiene promotion, nutrition and garden promotion, adolescent health, and family health, conducting health education activities in the clinics and posts, in local primary and secondary schools, and with community groups. Environment Volunteers are assigned to rural school districts, where they work with elementary schools. They work directly with teachers, students and community members supporting environmental education using interactive, student-centered methods and community efforts to address local environmental concerns. Volunteers conduct teacher-training activities and coordinate other environmentally focused activities based on community needs. Agriculture Volunteers work with local farm families to improve food security. Their activities include enhancing soil fertility, promoting soil and water conservation, diversifying crops, integrating pest management, and maximizing available resources and space in a family s backyard or patio area. Agriculture Volunteer also work with families on food-processing activities for consumption or sale. Youth Development Volunteers promote positive youth development by providing youths, ages 10 to 21, with information that contributes to their development and decision-making processes. Volunteers are located in remote communities along the Caribbean coast, and they collaborate with local youth organizations, churches, schools and the Ministry of Health. They promote positive youth development with these organizations through cultural activities, organized youth groups, sports, life skills education, environmental awareness activities, tutoring, and community projects. TEFL Education Nicaragua s newest program, which started in August 2006, is the TEFL teacher training project. English language education is a top priority for Nicaragua and the Ministry of Education. Volunteers train new 6

7 English teachers and work alongside current high school educators to help them enhance their English teaching skills. Activities include introducing English teachers to modern language teaching methodologies, designing and conducting communicative activities, and helping instructors enhance their own conversation skills, in some cases incorporating activities that represent U.S. culture. Volunteers also coordinate extracurricular activities such as English language clubs and summer programs They promote English language learning through tutoring, and provide classes to other community representatives, such as nongovernmental organization professionals, community leaders, and other interested community members. Appendix C AMOS HEALTH AND HOPE HEALTHY SCHOOLS PROGRAM Updated August 22, 2009 Problem: School-age children in Nicaragua have easily preventable and treatable illnesses such as intestinal parasites and lice which worsen their nutritional status, decrease normal growth and development, and decrease school performance. Goal of the program: Improve the health of school children using the World Health Organization Model for Healthier Schools called Focusing Resources for Effective School Health (FRESH). This goal is based on the premise that a child s ability to attain his or her full potential relates directly to the foundations of good health, good nutrition and appropriate education; If children are healthy, they are better able to learn. General program description: In the municipality of San Jose de Los Remátes (SJR) there is one school in each of the 24 communities. AMOS is working with the Ministry of Education (MINED) to serve a total of 1400 elementary school age children in the area of SJR to encourage school attendance, to teach nutrition and health to students and to train all teachers in basic first aid. To accomplish this we work through the community health network consisting of health committees and health promoters who in turn seek to teach the health principles and practice to the parents of school children. Program Activities carried out in 2008 and As part of the Healthier Schools Program to help promote school attendance, AMOS has accomplished the following as of August 22, 2009: Distributed school supplies kits to approximately 1350 children each year Trained teachers in the 24 schools in basic first aid and provided first aids kits to each school. (The AMOS Field coordinator has attended TEPSE meetings during which she has done the trainings). Coordinated with MINED and MINSA to distribute fluoride to teachers so they can provide fluoride treatments to children twice a month. Provided de-licing treatment for school age children as needed. Coordinated with another organization called Associacion de Desarrollo para los Pueblos (ADP) and MINED to support school gardens. Provided dental care to school-age children, including distribution of toothbrushes and toothpaste, dental hygiene education, tooth fillings and extractions. Built two preschools in the communities of El Coyol and Horconcitos, with the labor of community members and MINED. 7

8 De-wormed all school aged children in the 24 schools in conjunction with MINED and MINSA twice a year in 2008 and once so far in 2009 (Expect to repeat in Sept). Hand washing education and provision of basic hand washing kits to all schools so that children can learn how to prevent disease and promote health. AMOS Health and Hope Brief Description: AMOS Health and Hope is a non-profit faith-based organization established in Nicaragua in Our mission is to improve the health and well-being of poor and marginalized communities by working alongside them in health, education, and development. Our values are: Loving our neighbor, respecting the rights and dignity of all people, service to vulnerable communities, empowerment for service, stewardship, peace and justice. AMOS has sought to implement its mission through integrated primary health care systems that promote health, prevent disease, and treat the most common causes of death and illness. Context: Inequities in the distribution of income and health care services result in higher burdens of sickness, death and disability for the world s poorest people. Despite great advances in medical technology and health care, over 7 million children in the poorest sectors of society still die of completely preventable causes, such as diarrhea and pneumonia. 1 While the global under-five mortality rate (U5MR) has decreased in recent years, children living in poverty are still at higher risk of illness and death than children who are not poor 2. In countries such as Nicaragua, the rural population is especially vulnerable because the vast majority or people do not have their basic needs met, make less than $2 per day, and have limited access to health care. Geographic Location: AMOS is working with 24 rural communities in the municipality of San Jose de los Remates (SJR) in Boaco, Nicaragua. SJR is located 97 km. from Managua and 50 km. from the nearest hospital. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the population in the municipality is rural and has to travel one or more hours to get to the nearest government health clinic. Target population: Population of approximately 8,000 people in the municipality of SJR, Boaco, Nicaragua. The majority of the families work as subsistence farmers who supplement their income by working as seasonal laborers on coffee plantations and cattle farms. Problems faced by the rural population: Poverty, difficult geographic access to health care services, tropical diseases, dispersion of homes, lack of potable water, lack of sanitation services, food insecurity, substance abuse, violence, and underemployment with frequent migration of men and women. Brief description of the Primary Health Care program: Our goal is to develop a municipal primary health care model that can be replicated and adapted in other municipalities. To improve the health of women, children and others in the communities, we focus on the following principles: 1. Building community capacity - Training and mentoring of local health promoters (Promotores de Salud) to coordinate disease prevention, health promotion, and basic curative services in their own communities. AMOS assists each community in the construction of a small clinic which the health promoter manages, in the regular supply of essential medications, and in the periodic supervision and evaluation of each health promoter. 1 Black, Morris, &Rice. Where and why do ten million children die every year? Lancet 2003;361: UNICEF. State of the World s Children

9 2. Community empowerment AMOS trains local leaders to organize and become members of a local health committee that supports the local health promoter and seeks the participation of community members in health related activities, such as doing a community census, monitoring the health of children and pregnant women, building wells and latrines, determining health problems and priorities, creating a local annual health plan and monitoring its implementation. 3. Intersectoral coordination AMOS communicates and coordinates with the following entities: Ministry of Health (MINSA) AMOS coordinates with the local government health authorities as they attempt to implement their family health model (MOSAFC) to enhance clinical services, facilities and outreach. Ministry of Education (MINED) AMOS coordinates with the local government education authorities to support primary school health interventions, literacy campaigns and small schoolrelated construction projects. Municipal government - AMOS coordinates with the Mayor's office on issues such as clean water, sanitation and others. Other NGOs - AMOS coordinates with other NGOs if they happen to have activities or specific projects in the same communities as AMOS to avoid duplication of services and increase the impact through complementary efforts. Churches, Foundations and individuals - AMOS receives its financial support from these sources. AMOS also receives short-term construction or medical teams and long-term individual volunteers from the U.S. AMOS Co-Directors: Laura Chanchien Parajón MD, MPH and David Parajón, MD, MPH, MBA. AMOS Contact Information Office: Fax: Mailing address: Apartado Postal 5051, Managua, Nicaragua Physical Address: De los Semáforos del 7 Sur, 2 cuadras al Oeste, 2 y media cuadras al Sur, Managua, Nicaragua. Updated August 19, AMOS Health and Hope AMOS programs seek to respond to community identified needs and build upon community strengths. We start by partnering with rural communities to identify their felt needs and build upon their community strengths. In each community, we train local health promoters who serve their communities to prevent disease and provide health care. 9

10 To ensure quality health care, our team of public health nurses and physicians supervises and monitors the work of the health promoters in their communities. We foster holistic development by coordinating with local communities, churches, governments, and non-governmental organizations to support health, education, clean water, improved sanitation and job creation. Healthy Schools Children who are healthier learn better. AMOS works with students in rural schools, their teachers, and their parents to promote healthy habits and provide school-based health care to improve the health of children. Deworming Program AMOS helps provide medications to treat children suffering from parasite infections (also known as worms) that cause malnutrition and poor growth. We also work to prevent worm re-infection through health educations, chlorination of water, and improved sanitation programs. Patient Care Program AMOS helps people living in extreme poverty with medicines, emergency transport, clinic visits or lab tests that they otherwise could not afford. We also help local hospitals care for patients with HIV/AIDS. Disaster Relief AMOS accompanies and supports the victims of disaster by providing food, medicines, and personal hygiene kits, in coordination with one of our partners, the Nicaraguan Council of Churches (CEPAD). Rural Community Health In rural Nicaragua, children often suffer from preventable disease. AMOS helps prevent death and disease by equipping communities with the tools they need to reach out to their most vulnerable neighbors through the model of Primary Health Care. We train and accompany local volunteers to carry out activities that improve community health. Service and Learning Programs We provide opportunities for churches, groups and individuals to serve and learn alongside the people of Nicaragua by helping with community projects such as building schools, clinics or latrines. AMOS HEALTH AND HOPE APDO POSTAL 5501, MANAGUA, NICARAGUA PHONE: FAX:

11 Appendix D A History of USAID Involvement in Primary Education , Restructuring, Remodeling and Re-Culturing the System By Richard J. Kraft Restructuring the System: BASE I ( ) Tragically, too many countries of the world have gone through civil wars, revolutions, counter revolutions, and economic depressions throughout the past decades. Nicaragua is a prime example of a small, poverty stricken nation caught up in the battles of the Cold War, and on returning to democracy in the late 1980s, found itself continuing to suffer from an apparently endless series of natural and human-caused disasters. It was into this setting that USAID began a long-term commitment to improve the quality of primary education in the country. Starting with planning in 1992, BASE I, the Nicaraguan Basic Education Project finally got underway in 1994, with a major objective of implementing a national transformation of educational philosophy from the previous Sandinista leftist, ideologically charged programs, to one based on constructivist-humanist educational principles. Child-centered pedagogy was to replace the more traditional classroom pedagogies found both prior to and during the revolutionary period; the Ministry of Education, while going through a massive downsizing, was to be strengthened in its administrative and support functions; teacher training was to be conducted to confront the massive numbers of empirismo (untrained) teachers who had been employed during the Sandista period; and the ideological educational materials of the 1980s were to be replaced with the best that could be found from throughout Spain and Latin America, or developed and adapted locally. Table 1.1 summarizes these major goals. Table 1.1 Basic Goals of BASE I ( ) Curriculum reform Educational materials development Teacher Training Institutional development for grades 1-4 Institutional reform of the MECD It was during the early years of BASE I, that this author worked on the institutional reform aspects of the program alongside Nicaraguan colleagues in the Research and Evaluation Office, and conducted several of the early internal project evaluations. In 1996, I wrote an ethnography of Nicaraguan schools titled, Todo Cambia-Nada Cambia: Los Mitos de la Reforma Educacional: Forma sin Sustancia: Instrucción en la Escuela Primaria de Nicaragua. (Everything Changes-Nothing Changes: The Myths of Educational Reform: Form without Substance: Instruction in the Primary School of Nicaragua). As the internal evaluator on the BASE I project, I visited hundreds of classrooms, trained a team of evaluation experts to document what was happening around the country, and then spent three months conducting ethnographic research in four model and non-model schools. It was as a result of this research, that I became increasingly disillusioned with the range of educational reform efforts underway by not just USAID, but in the other internationally supported educational reform projects. 11

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