THE GUATEMALA MICROENTERPRISE. Final Report. Office of PrivateSector Programs USAID I Guatemala. Management Systems International

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1 THE GUATEMALA MICROENTERPRISE ASSESSMENT Final Report Bureau for Private Enterprise U.S. Agency for International Development Preparedfor: Office of PrivateSector Programs USAID I Guatemala Preparedby: Management Systems International Sponsored by: PrivateEnterpriseDevelopment Support Project 1I ProjectNumber Prime Contractor: Arthur Young June 1989 Arthur Young A MEMBER OF ARTHUIR YOUNG NrEINAT*ONAL

2 THE GUATEMALA MICROENTERPRISE ASSESSMENT Final Report Bureau for Private Enterprise U.S. Agency for International Development Preparedfor: Office of Private Sector Programs USAID/ Guatemala Preparedby: Sponsored by: Management Systems International 600 Water Street, S.W. Washington, D.C (202) Private EnterpriseDevelopment Support Project II ProjectNumber Prime Contractor: Arthur Young June 1989

3 THE GUATEMALA NICROENTERPRISE ASSESSMENT Table of Contents Page No. BACKGROUND NOTES TO THE REPORT iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vi PURPOSE AND METHODOLOGY vii ACRONYMS viii I. DESCRIPTION OF MICROENTERPRISE SECTOR IN GUATEMALA A. Introduction B. Macro-Economic Context C. Definition of Microenterprises Modern or Semi Modern Microenterprises Traditional Microenterprises Subsistence Microenterprises D. Demographic Characteristics Size of Sector Type and Size of Microenterprises Educational Level of Owners Family Size of Microentrepreneurs Ownerships Location E. Business Indicators Business Volume... I** Amount of Capitalization Structure Credit Experience Relation to Larger Economic Community Income Added Position Growth Level of Business Knowledge F. Conclusions G. Recommendation II. MAJOR CONSTRAINTS INTHE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MICROENTERPRISE SECTOR OF GUATEMALA A. Managerial/Technical Constraints B. Market Constraints Low Purchasing Power Poor Distribution and Product Differention Linkages with Larger-Scale Industrial and Commercial Sectors C. Legal/Regulatory Constraints Overview Regulation of Business Operations New Approaches i

4 Pae No. D. Financial Constraints E. Soco/Cultural Constraints Constraints on Women Microentrepreneurs Constraints on Indigenous Populations III. ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS WORKIN3 WITH MICROENTERPRISES IN GUATEMALA A. Methodology. 45 B. Findings: Characteristics of'selected institutions Overview Financial Services (Credit) Training and Technical Assistance Services Legal and Representational Services Market Development Services Government of Guatemala Programs C. Conclusions IV. MAJOR DONOR ACTIVITIES IN THE MICROENTERPRISE SECTOR A. Findings: International Organizations Inter-American Development Bank United nations Central American Bank for'economic integration. 59 B. Findings: Country Agencies United States a. USAID/Guatemala b. Peace Corps Germany Switzerland Belgium C. Conclusion and Recommendation' V. MICROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY A. Strategy/Goal B. Purposes C. Timing D. Emphasis VI. PROGRAM OPTIONS A. Overview B. Purposes 1. Improve Profitability of Existing Microenterprises Support Formation of New, Viable Microenterprises Integrate Microenterprises into the Economy C. Target Groups D. Activities to be Pursued by'usaid/g E. Program Development Matrix ii

5 TABLES Page No. 1 Relation of Traditional Sector to Economically Active Population (1987) Use of the Labor Force Microenterprises by Type and Sex of Owner Ranges of Quetzal Value of Sales per Month for Microenterprises Ranges of Quetzal Value of Fixed Assets Number of Employees by Type of Microenterprise Level of Education of Microentrepreneurs (FADES) Level of Education of Microentrepreneurs (ACCION) Source of Technical Knowledge (Specific Business) Dependents of Microentrepreneurs by Type of Enterprise Economic Activity'Rat;esby Sex and Household Headship Ownership of Microenterprises by Sex and Typo Locale of Enterprises Location of Microenterprises by Type Population by Department Contribution of Informal Sector to GDP Administrative Controls of Microenterprises Percentage of Microenterprises with Loan from Institution or Person Source of Credit Rate of Growth in the Informal Urban Sector' Summary of Organizations Working with Microenterprises Service Areas Provided by Organizations Working with Microenterprises FIGURES I Comparison of Population by Department Comparison of Net Migration Comparison of Total GDP Informal GDP as a Percentage of Total GDP Rate of Growth in the Informal Urban Sector ANNEXES A. Bibliography B. Proposed Scope for Baseline Study of Microenterprises in Guatemala C. Application for FIGSA/BANEX D. Commercial Code of Guatemala E. Study of Costs of Legalization of the Urban Informal Sector F. The Entrepreneurship Workshop G. Institutional Analysis Checklist for NGOs H. Questionnaire for Microentrepreneurs I. Questionnaire for Donor Organizations J. List of Institutions and Persons Contacted iii

6 BACKGROUND NOTES TO THE REPORT The PEDS Prolect This study was conducted under the Private Enterprise Development Support Project. The PEDS Project is a five year (FY88-FY92) $20 million project managed by the Bureau for Private Enterprise. In the first year of the project, PRE provided technical assistance in response to nearly fifty different requests from Missions and Bureaus. The PEDS Project is designed to provide a wide range of expertise in private sector development. Areas of technical assistance include the following: " Policy analysis related to private sector development " Sector assessments and analyses " USAID private sector strategy development " Legal and regulatory analysis and reform " Small-scale business development " Trade promotion " " Investment promotion Free trade zone development " Financial institutions and instruments " Management and financial training " " The role of women in private enterprise Applications of MAPS: Manual for Action in the Private Sector USAID Missions have the resources of thirteen contractors available to them through the PEDS Project. - Arthur Young (prime) - Ferris & Company - SRI International - Metametrics - Management Systems International - Elliot Berg Associates - The Services Group - Robert Carlson Ass. - Trade and Development, Inc. - Ronco - Multinational Strategies - Dimpex Associates - J.E. Austin Associates The Consultancy The purpose of the consultancy was to conduct an assessment of the microenterprise sector in Guatemala. The assessment aims to provide a data base and management tool for the design of USAID's future programs in the microenterprise sector. The team carried out its initial field trip during a four week consultancy in August Ms. Berliner returned to Guatemala in February to examine the legal constraints to microenterprise development. The Authors Lawrence Heilman, Vice President of Management Systems International (MSI), was the team leader for the microenterprise assessment. Previously, he served as the Deputy Director for Disaster Relief for USAID Burkina Faso ( ); the Director for Technical Services for iv

7 sub-saharan Africa for A.I.D./W ( ); the Chief of Planning and Evaluation for the A.I.D. Bureau for Research Projects ( ); an Office Chief in the Regional A.I.D. Mission in Guatemala ( ); and other posts in A.I.D. He holds a Ph.D. in development studies from American University, an M.A. in history from the University of California, Berkeley, and a B.A. in history and anthropology from the University of Florida. Mahlon Barash, Microenterprise Development Specialist at MSI, served as the microenterprise and institutional analysis specialist on the team. Prior to joining MSI, Mr. Barash served as the private sector officer for USAID Bolivia. He also served as a resident advisor for the Cooperative Housing Foundation in Belize and Peru. He was also a financial analyst for OPIC and the Credit Union system of El Salvador. Mr. Barash has an M.A. in International Management from the American Graduate School of International Management, an M.A. in anthropology from Pennsylvania State University, and a B.A. in history from Hanover College. Leni Berliner served as the institutional analysis specialist. Ms. Berliner is currently the Director of Latin American and Caribbean Programs at the Courncil for International Development. Before joining the Council, she was an independent consultant in international program design and management. Ms. Berliner obtained her MPIA in Economic Development from the University of Pittsburgh and a B.A. in Anthropology from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. James Berezin was the business specialist on the team. Since 1987, Mr. Berezin has been an independent consultant specializing in strategic planning, venture capital analysis, merchant and development banking, export promotion and small enterprise development. Previously, he served as the Deputy Director of the Office of Private Enterprise Development in USAID/Haiti and as a Trade and Development Officer in the Bureau for Private Enterprise. Mr. Berezin obtained an M.B.A. from Columbia University, an M.A. from Johns Hopkins University, and a B.S. from Georgetown University v

8 Management Systems International's sector assessment team wishes to thank the staff of USAID/Guatemala for their collaboration and support, in particular the Private Enterprise Development Office, the Agriculture and Rural Development Office and the Human Resources Development Office. The Vice-Ministers of Finance and of Development, Directors and Managers of the private voluntary organizations who work with microenterprise, municipal officials, credit union managers, bankers and directors of training institutions all deserve our gratitude for the time taken out of their busy schedules to help the team convey to USAID the important work that is being done and the changing Guatemalan context in which it is being done. The team also wishes to express its appreciation to the many owner/managers of micro-enterprises who tolerated our questions with good humor, and who demonstrate the value of business development services in their daily contribution to the Guatemalan economy vi

9 PURPOSE AND METHODOLOGY This assessment of the microenterprise sector in Guatemala was done at the request of USAID/Guatemala to provide a management tool for future program strategy in this sector and to serve as a data base for program design. Chapters I through IV are findings and Chapters V and VI are conclusions and recommendations for proposed strategy and respective activities, projects and programs. The methodology used for data collection was: 1) review of available literature (secondary sources), which included recent surveys of microenterprises; 2) interviews with persons representing government, formal private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with microenterprise programs, and international and specific country donor organizations; and 3) interviews with microentrepreneurs involved in commerce, production and services. Given the short period available for data collection, the findings and conclusions are based on the best information currently available, but it was not possible to do a scientific verification of secondary source validity. The interviews with microentrepreneurs were used only to gather impressions and give examples of conclusions drawn from the data and cannot in any way be considered a representative sample vii

10 ACROIYNS AGG ADESCO ASINDES-ONG ATI BANEX BANTRAB CABEI/BCIE CACIF CAEM CAPS CHF CIDA CORFINA DIGESA EAP EEC ESF FADES FAO FAPE FDM FENACOAC FEPYME FIGSA FLYP FOFISI FUNDAGUATEMALA FUNDAP FUNDEMIXCO FUNDESPE FUNTEC GDP GOG HODE HOH IDB IDESI IESC IFDI INCAE INE INFOM INTECAP LAAD NGO OPED Asociaci6n de Gerentes de Guatemala Asoclaci6n para el Desarollo Comunitario Asociaci6n de Enfidades de Desarrollo y de Servicio No Gubernamentales de Guatemala Appropriate Technology International Banco de Exportac16n Banco de Trabajadores Central American Bank for Economic Integration Comite Coorinador de Asociaci6nes Agricolas, Comerciales y Financieras Camara Empresarlal Central American Peace Scholarships Cooperative Housing Foundation Canadian International Development Agency Corporaci6n Financiera Direcci6n General de Servicios Agricolas Economically Active Population European Economic Community Economic Stabilization Fund Fundaci6n para el Analisis y Desarollo de Centroamdrica Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Fundaci6n de Asistencia para la Pequefia Empresa Fundaci6n para el Desarollo de la Mujer National Federation of Credit Union Federaci6n de Pequeflas y Medianas Empresas Financiera Guatemala S.A. Fundaci6n Libertad y Progreso Instituto de Desarrollo del Sector Informal Fundaci6n Guatemala Fundaci6n para el Desarollo de Programas Socioecon6micos Fundaci6n de Mixco Fundaci6n para el Desarollo de la Pequefia Empresa Fundaci6n Tecnologia Gross Domestic Product Government of Guatemala Hogar y Desarollo Head of Household Inter-American Development Bank Fondo de Financiamiento del Sector Informal (Peru) International Executive Service Corps Intermediaci6n Financiera para Desarollo Integral The Central American Institute of Business Administration Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Instituto de Fomento Municipal Instituto Tecnico de Capacitaci6n The Latin American Agribusiness Corporation Non-Governmental Organization Office of Private Enterprise Development (USAID/G) viii

11 PCV PED PROSEM PVO SIMlME UNDP USAID/G Peace Corps Volunteer The Private Enterprise Development Project Prom,16n y Servicios Empresariales Private Voluntary Organization Sistema Multiplicadora de la Micro-empresa United Nations Development Programme United States Agency for International Development Mission to Guatemala ix

12 CHAPTER I: DESCRIPTION OF THE NICROENTERPRISE SECTOR IN GUATEMALA A. Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to propose a definition and describe the characteristics of microentrepreneurs - both quantitatively and qualitatively. The data were abstracted from available literature and supplemented with data developed in the course of the assessment exercise through a series of interviews with representatives of public and private sector institutions as well as individual microentrepreneurs themselves. A survey to develop a representative sample of microentrepreneurs which would have provided definitive primary source data could not be conducted within the time frame of this assessment. Therefore, the information gathered from microentrepreneurs will be used to provide examples for certain findings from the statistical data. If data gaps are identified that must be addressed because of their importance to the project identification and design process, recommendations will be made how the data may be developed. The principal statistical and survey sources were as follows: 1) Instituto Nacional de Estadfstica (INE), Encuesta Nacional Socio-Demoqr~fica , 1987, 10 volumes. This survey was nationwide, with the figures extrapolated from the 1981 census and based on a sample of 9,660 households. 2) Jorge Rolando Escoto Marroquin, et al, El Sector Informal: Estudio Sobre el Sector Informal de Producci6n y Servicios en el Area Urbana Central de Guatemala, Fundaci6n para el Analisis y Desarollo de Centroam~rica (FADES), Study of the production and service informal sector of Guatemala City (1986) with a sample size of ) Mirtha Olivares, Estudio Exploratorio para el Desarollo de un Programa de Apoyo a la Microempresa, ACCION International/AITEC, Study of microentrepreneurs (production, service and commerce) in Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango (1986) with a sample size of ) Job W. Blijdenstein, La Pequefia y Mediana Industria en la Economia de Guatemala, Banco Centroamericano de Integraci6n Econ6mica (BCIE/CABEI), Economic study of small and medium industry in Guatemala (1985). This report is nationwide in scope but is focussed primarily on "formal" enterprises. It is based on secondary sources. Although it appears that the methodology used in these surveys was scientifically valid, there are shortcomings since they did not cover the entire country (ACCION), did not include all types of microenterprises (FADES) or were not specifically targeted for microenterprises (INE). Although the ACCION survey had a smaller sample size than the FADES survey, it had a wider geographic coverage and surveyed all three types of microenterprises. Thus this survey is given preference over the FADES survey unless data on a certain characteristic is not available

13 In much of the literature the terms "informal sector," "traditional sector" or "third sector" are equated with microenterprises. As will be discussed in section C below, these terms are not necessarily synonymous. Unfortunately, no study exists which explicitly makes this distinction. Therefore, out of necessity when using these sources, we must assume that all of these terms are synonymous even though, based on observation, has been it noted that there are a certain number of microenterprises that are formalized, particularly in the first sub-sector identified section in C. Conversely, there are informal enterprises that are not microenterprises. In the next sections the following aspects of the microenterprise sector are described: the macroeconomic context, definition, demographic characteristics and business indicators. B. Macroeconomic Context The economic importance of the microenterprise sector can be established using a number of indicators from available sources. INE defines the "traditional sector" as "those workers or owners employees, and family workers, pertaining to establishments with less than five persont." This sector is numerically significant as in can Table be observed 1.' It represents 62% of the economically active population (EAP) (1987). The non-agricultural portion of this sector represents 26% of the EAP and the microenterprises themselves, 13% of the EAP. In recent years ( ) the EA has grown at an average rate annual of 3% as can be seen in Table 2. Unemployment (including "visible" underemployment those working less than 40 hours per week) increased 44% to in 1985, but has been reduced to 13% by However, if one also includes "invisible unemployment" - those working mere than 40 hours week per but being paid less than minimum wages - (48%) the total unemployment rate for 1987 is 62% as indicated in Table 1. Thus problem the of underemployment, which represents 59% of the EAP is of significant more magnitude than full unemployment and indicates a tremendous waste of human resources which could potentially contribute to the growth I Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (INE), Encuesta Nacional Socio-Demoqr~fica , Empleo. Todo Repblica, Volumen I1, 1987 Cuadro II.1, p. 101 and Cuadro , p Job W. Blijdenstein, La Peuefia Y Mediana Industria en la Economia de Guatemala, Banco Centroamericano de Integraci6n Econ6mica (BCIE), 1986, calculations of CNPE based on "Entrevista de Hogares sobre Ingresos y Gastos," DGE,

14 TABLE I RELATION OF TRADITIONAL SECTOR TO ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION (1987) %of EAP %of non-agricultural traditional sector Total Economically Active Population at Occupied: Full-timeWb Visible underemployment G/ Invisible underemployment dt Unoccupied at Total Economically Active Traditional Sector 1/ Less: Traditional sector - agriculture Non-agriculture traditional sector Workers Paid Family (non-paid) Entrepreneurs: Own account g/ Employer ft/ 2,710,046 2,644, % 1,041, % 296, % 1,306, % 65, % 1,680, % 970, % 710, % 353, % 49.8% 284, % 40.0% 69, % 9. 8 % 356, % 50.2% 332, % 46.8% 24, % 3.4% Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Encuesta Nacional Socio-Demografica , Empleo, Total Repiblica, Volumen II,1987, Cuadro 11.1, p.101 and Cuadro , p.131. al Defined as persons over 10 years old who work or are actively looking for work, i.e., includes employed, underemployed and unemployed. b] Those working for salary or independently and those not working, but tied to ajob (e.g., on vacation)../ Those working less than 40 hours per week and who wish to work more. W/ Those working more than 40 hours per week and whose income isless than minimum wage. J Those who worked previously and are actively looking for work. Does not include those looking for work for the first time. / "Traditional sector" isdefined as all those persons related to enterprises of five persons or less. g/ Those with their own business, who work for no one (but themselves) and who have no paid employees. Those with their own business who have one or more paid employees. T-1.CHP -3

15 TABLE2 USE OF THE LABOR FORCE (000's of persons) Total Employment Unoccupied Underemployed Unemployment Year EAP No. %EAP No. %EAP No. %EAP No. %EAP ,183 2, % % % % ,250 2, % % % % ,320 2, % % % % ,392 2, % % % % ,466 2, % % % 1, % ,543 2, % % % 1, % 1986 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a ,710 2, % % % % Invisibleunderemployment 42.8 Total unemployment % Source: Job W. Blijdenstein, La Peaquefla y Mediana Industria en la Economla de Guatemala, CABEI, 1986, calculations of CNPE based on Entrevista de Hogares sobre Ingresos y Gastos, DGE, n.a. - not available. T-2.CHP -4

16 of the economy. The greatest portion of the underemployed population works in agriculture (62%), which could be explained partially by the seasonal nature of this occupation. Men represent 74% of the underemployed population and 77% of the underemployed men work in agriculture. In addition to the growth of the EAP and the large percentage of unemployed population, the migration to the urban areas has caused an excess in the available work force. This migration has been caused primarily by the seasonal nature of agriculture and the political violence in the interior beginning around The formal sector's inability to absorb the increase in the EAP has resulted in the formation of microenterprises. Microenterprise provides a way to participate in the economy for a large portion of the economically active population that would otherwise be unemployed or underemployed. The formation of microenterprises can have a positive effect on the economy. Increasing the number of microproducers and service enterprises or expanding those in existence will contribute to the growth of the economy as measured by GDP. Increasing the number of micro retailers opens more outlets for items produced. To the extent these goods are domestically produced, this also contributes to an expansion of the economy. Generation of employment in microenterprises requires a lower investment per job than in the formal sector. However, the formation of too many extremely small microenterprises is costly to the economy. The expansion of existing microenterprises is desirable in that it creates additional jobs without the start-up costs and in some cases a costly learning curve based on trial and error. Microenterprises seem to be formed for the following reasons: - unemployment in the formal sector - underemployment in the formal sector - financial and administrative rigidities of the formal sector - earthquake of death of heads of households (HOHs) which meant the growth of a young inexperienced work force which could not find work or were underemployed by the formal sector - purchasing power was eroded due to inflation - need for addition income - desire to become independent and improve business skills On the other hand, MSI's and other studies of entrepreneurship have shown that relatively few people in any population 4 have the psychological drive and entrepreneurial skill to sustain a business. Most people are more effectively employed by others. 3 INE, op. cit., pp. 135, Although some cultures are especially conducive to entrepreneurship, for example, that of El Salvador

17 C. Definition of Microenterprise The GOG's operating definition of a microenterprise as elaborated by the Sistema Multiplicadora de Microempresarios (SIMME) is as follows: (a) The firm employs no more than six persons including the entrepreneur. (b) Total assets do not exceed Q12,000. (c) Work is essentially manual with the assistance of some basic equipment. (d) There is little or no division of labor. From observations, confirmed by local microenterprise participants, the above definition is too broad as it does not take into account the various levels of entrepreneurial skills and resources. Therefore, the following definition of the sector is proposed: The Guatemalan microenterprise sector is characterized approximately by 356,000 microenterprises, in production, services (including transportation), and commerce having various degrees of entrepreneurial/ managerial sophistication, technical expertise, and financial resources. Most of these microenterprises are in Guatemala City, secondary cities such the various departmental capitals or rural towns. According to local sources, most rural enterprises outside of tertiary towns are either basic village enterprises (a bodega or a truck); cottage industry extension of microenterprise activity in larger towns (garments for the market Chichicastenango) in or the simple commercialization of primary agricultural products (honey). Accordingly, microenterprises can be classified into three categories: 1. Modern or Semi Modern Microenterprises - Assets (inventory, equipment and cash) of between Q8,000 to Q14,000 (although sowetimes as high as Q20,000 in major urban areas). - Some modern production and marketing techniques for a specified market (ceramics, garments for middle-class market outlets, or mass produced artisanal products for export); the repair of some types of complicated equipment (computers, tv sets, processing machinery); trade in higher value added products (an agricultural supply store) or a small transportation fleet. - The entrepreneur has some basic managerial/technical training,spends more than 50% of the time marketing or managing rather than producing. - employs up to 6 workers, including self and family members. 5 As of September 15, 1988, 2.7 quetzales (Q)- US$

18 - high percentage (at least 50%) of this subsector is formalized because of ongoing commercial arrangements with larger enterprises. many have financial or technical assistance from development organizations, but limited or no connections with the formal banking sector. minimal percentage of women owned businesses. located principally in Guatemala City and to a limited extent in secondary towns. 2. Traditional Microentergrises - Assets of between Q3,000 to Q12,000 - Traditional basic consumer market (tailor, carpenter, car repair, general store) having modest value added component. - The entrepreneur/artisan is the principal worker with the assistance of 3 to 4 semi-skilled workers. - Little or no technical or managerial training. - Low percentage are formalized; limited commercial links to larger enterprises. - Limited financial or technical assistance from the development agencies; minimal or no contact with the formal banking sector. - Larger participation (approximately 30%) of women due to high trade and service component. - Located mainly in Guatemala City and secondary towns. 3. Subsistence Microenterprises - Assets of between Q500 and Q5,000 - Essentially micro retail or artisan activity. Minimal value added. - None are formalized; some linkage with the traditional microenterprise sub-sector. - Sub-sector dominated by women (around 75%) with minimal or no formal training. - Predominant in rural areas; often as a part time activity. In urban areas, often a subsistence activity due to lack of formal employment opportunities

19 It should be noted that the above are general characteristics and there is fluidity between sectors. However, the framework of each subsector is influenced by the entrepreneur's managerial/technical training and skills, drive, geographical location and accessibility to financial assistance. D. Demographic Characteristics 1. Size of sector Based on a recent survey by INE, the number of enterprises with fewer 5 or employees in the "traditional sector" is estimated to be 356,000 as of 1987 with an estimated 637,000 income generating jobs. The estimated number for the department of Guatemgla is 96,000 microenterprises (27% of the total) with 206,000 jobs (32%). o On the other hand, FADES estimated ina 1986 study that there were 125,000 enterprises in the "informal sector in the central urban area of the country" with 341,000 employees. This discrepancy in numbers 7 could be due to differences in definitions and research methodology. 2. TYpe and size of microentergrises a.it Table 3 indicates that the majority (52%) of microenterprises are engaged in commerce (buying and selling of finished goods with little, if any, value added). Women are amajority (55%) of all microentrepreneurs and are predominantly (61%) engaged in commerce. This type of enterprise requires relatively little start-up capital and allows women a certain amount of independence from men. 6 INE, op. cit., p. 131 and Volumen III, p Jorge Rolando Escoto Marroquin et al, El Sector Informal: Estudio Sobre el Sector Informal de Producci6n Y Servicios en el Area Urbana Central de Guatemala, FADES, 1987, pp. 49,

20 TABLE 3 Microenterprises by Type and Sex of Owner (thousands) Men Women Total Production 62 (38.5%) 63 (32.3%) 125 (35.1%) Commerce 68 (42.2%) 119 (61%) 186 (52.3%) Services 31 (19.3%) 13 (6.7%) 45 (12.6%) Totals 161 (45.2%) jj9 (54.8%) 35 (100%) Source: INE, op. cit., pp b. Size Size of microenterprises can be measured in three ways - level sales, of amount of total assets, and number of employees. Unfortunately, due to the lack of recordkeeping and accounting practices of many microenterprises, these data are somewhat unreliable. However, they do provide quantitative measures, though imperfect. 1) Ranges of sales For Guatemala City the sales of 86% of production and service microenterprises surveyed by FADES was below Q400 per month as shown in Table 4. Although this may seem like a low income, the profit of those surveyed was relatively high - 37% had weekly profit margins of 20-39% and another 27% had profits of 40-59%.8 This would indicate relatively low operating costs - an impression confirmed by the ACCION survey where 45% of the microproducers and 83% of the micro retailers had weekly expenses of Q125 or less. 9 Micro retailers in this sample generally had lower costs (average of Q102 per month) than producers (average of Q345 per month). 8 ibtd. p Mirtha Olivares, Estudio Exloratorio para el Desarollo de un Programa de Aooyo a la Microempresa, ACCION International, 1986, p

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