LAND SNAIL PEST CONTROL Land snail s life cycle as pest control core

Tamaño: px
Comenzar la demostración a partir de la página:

Download "LAND SNAIL PEST CONTROL Land snail s life cycle as pest control core"

Transcripción

1 WORK PROGRAMME COOPERATION THEME FOOD, AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES, AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (European Commission C()49 of 9 July ) CALL: FP7-KBBE--4 Proposal full title: Proposal acronym: Short name: Novel strategies for integrating land snail pests control of agricultural crops in Europe, with projection to Latin- America LAND SNAIL PEST CONTROL Land snail s life cycle as pest control core Type of funding scheme: Work programme topics addressed: Name of the coordinating person: Collaborative Project. CALL: FP7-KBBE--4 Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology Area:.. Topic number: KBBE..-5 Dr. José Castillejo Murillo Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física. Facultad de Biología. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. E-578 Santiago de Compostela. La Coruña. Galicia. España. Mobile Phone: Tel: Fax: List of participants Participant number Participant organitation name Country (Coordinator) Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Spain Gordon Port School of Biology, Newcastle University, UK UK 3 Georges Dussart Canterbury Christ Church University, Kent UK 4 Marivonne Université de Rennes -UMR EcoBio 6553 France 5 Rita Triebskorn Physiologische Ökologie der Tiere Germany 6 Solveig Bioforsk Norway 7 Grita Faculty of Natural Sciences. Vilnius University Lithuania 8 Eva Knop Institute of Ecology and Evolution Switzerland 9 Albert Esther LEI Detachement Lelystad The Nedherland Letelier Museo Nacional de Historia Natural. Santiago de Chile Chile Salvio Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. University of Mar del Plata Argentina Lenita Instituto Butantan Brazil 3 Trujillo Universidad de Antioquia Colombia 4 5 6

2 Novel strategies for integrating land-snail pest control of agricultural crops in Europe, with projection to Latin-America TITLE: Novel strategies for integrating land-snail pests control of agricultural crops in Europe, with projection to Latin-America. : Scientific and technical quality, relevant to the topics addressed by the call. Concept and objectives To introduce in a series of traditional and ecological crops, new strategies for the integrated land snail pest control. These strategies are based in the deep knowledge of the pest s biology and ecology, so that the abundance and the activity periods can be predicted to elaborate an integrated pest control system and take decisions that can be applied in every develop phase (juvenile, adult, senile or eggs). Thanks to this the farmer will know when to apply the traditional molluscicides (to destroy the land snails), when to use ovicidal molluscicides (to destroy the egg lays), when to apply the biological control through parasite nematodes or when to use the trap-plants; and all this strategy will be regulated by the statistical model witch predict the activity. To develop this integrated control methods it will be necessary:. To know the biotic and a biotic factor that describe the land snails biological cycle in different areas of Europe and Latin-America, to elaborate the control method.. To know the specific land snails diet with the objective of finding the most attractive plant species to use them as trap-plants. 3. To understand the activity in function of the environment biotic and a biotic variables, with the aiming of developing an effective abundance and activity statistical prediction method. 4. To search plants with bio pesticide activity for be used as bio-molluscicides and bio-ovicides against land snail and its eggs. 5. To know the ovicidal potential of the usual non residual agrochemicals to use them as molluscicidesovicides in crops. 6. To know the ovicidal potential of cattle s and swine s slurries as molluscicides-ovicides in ecological farming. 7. To search in each study areas of Latin-America a parasite nematode (Phasmarhabdities alike) to use it as a biological control method against land snails. 8. To deliver to the horticultural industry an effective integrated crop management strategies, low chemical and biological protecting methods against land snails. 9. To deliver to the ecological farming effective integrated packages methods based on cattle and swine manure and plant traps, to protect the crops against land snail pests. With these strategies we are settling the basis for an integrated control method, to achieve a more rentable crop due to; having less plant damages, less pesticides use, and a more respectful farming with the environment and the wild fauna. The land snail pest problem in Europe and Latin-America is increasing every day due the commercial globalization. The most dangerous land snail species in Europe are: Arion lusitancicus, Deroceras retiuclatum, Lehamnnia marginata, Milax gagates, Criptophalus aspersus and Theba pisana among others. The 9% of the land snail species that are pest in Latin-America are introduced species from Europe and other countries, this species proliferate indiscriminately because of the absence of natural predators, such as Acanthina fúlica, Deroceras reticulatum, Milax gagates, Lhemannia marginata, Arion intermedius, Criptophalus aspersus. In some Caribbean regions native land snail species cause important damages, such is the case of Veronicella genus in Mexico and Cuba.

3 Scientific and technical objectives detailed description This project requires the application of novel control strategies to control native or introduced land snail pests in crops that can be used in any agricultural pest. With the strategies proposed here we can anticipate to the damages caused by the land snail pests, due the application of a preventive method even before damages appear on the crops. Our strategies are based on:. To understand the land snails biological cycle in the crops study areas.. To understand the land snails activity in function of the climatic variables and the crop type. 3. To destroy the land snail s egg-lays thanks to the plant extracts and non residual standard agrochemicals collateral effect. 4. To rationalize standard molluscicides consumption in standard farming. 5. To introduce cattle and swine manure and trap-plants as control methods in organic farming. 6. To understand the collateral effects of the products used in this integrated pest control methods. The understanding of the biological cycle is very important, because we attempt to use the molluscicides before damages appear. With the knowledge of the biological cycle we will know which time of the year is juvenile, adult or senile, we will know when the egg-lays are done, and in other words, we will know the sizes, structure and dynamics of their populations. The information provided by the biological cycle is important to implement this new strategy, as these molluscicides must be applied when the population density is lower and when there are fewer egg-lays in the soil. With this we obtain an optimal effectiveness destroying the egg-lays through ovicidal and also killing gastropods. By applying less molluscicides we save money and minimize the side effects on the environment. Knowing the diet of land snails in the study areas will give us information on the possible use of trap-plants, to evaluate and estimate the damage that they actually produce on crops. By studying the stomach contents of a specified number of land snails we can know their preferences, in previous research we found that plants that had a low abundance in the environment, appeared with high frequency in the stomach of land snails, this means that they have positive selection for this type of plants. These plants can be used as trap-plants to protect vegetable crops deterring land snails to eat the trap-plants. It is a very useful strategy in organic farming. Knowing the activity of terrestrial gastropods in terms of climatic variables and crop phenology is required to develop a statistical for activity prediction. With this model we can predict with 4-48 beforehand the activity, and provide the farmer information that land snails will be active, and thus may apply the traditional molluscicides at the right time, getting a greater effectiveness using smaller amount of molluscicides, leading to saving resources and reducing side effects on plants, soil and wildlife. So far we have been talking about traditional molluscicides. The tradiotional molluscicides (metaldehyde, carbamate, iron sulphate, phasmarhadities...) are intended to kill the individuals, in other words, kill the terrestrial gastropods leaving intact the land snail s egg-lays in the soil. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that in the past 4-5 decades there has been an excessive dumping of chemical toxins on the soil. As a result the soil has become barren and ground water toxic, in many places. Contrast this with organic inputs that are safe, non toxic, and cost much less. 'Biopesticides' are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Benefits of biopesticides include effective control of insects, plant diseases and weeds, as well as human and environmental safety. Biopesticides also play an important role in providing pest management tools in areas where pesticide resistance, niche markets and environmental concerns limit the use of chemical pesticide products. To find plants extract with molluscicidal and ovicidal activity against land snails and their eggs are original and promising. In each country, agricultural authorities allow a number of non residual agrochemicals for different uses and for different purposes, can be fertilizers, herbicides, acaricides, fungicides, etc... These products have gone through a series of tests to be authorized. In previous research we have tested non residual agrochemicals to see if they had the potential to destroy the land snail s egg-lays, and many of them had as side effect the egg-lays killing. Basing on these assumptions each partner must make a test series with non residual agrochemicals approved in their country, to discover which one or ones have a higher ovicidal power at the lowest concentration

4 in the shortest time. In organic farming the use of synthetic chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics, etc.., it s forbidden, with the objective of preserving the environment, maintaining or enhancing soil fertility and provide food with all its natural properties. Fertilizers that can be used in these kinds of crops can be of two types, green fertilizers or livestock manure. In previous research we found that certain concentration of swine and cattle manure had ovicidal action on terrestrial gastropod egg-lays. Therefore each partner will have to do tests to discover the type and concentration of manure that has higher ovicidal power against the land snail s egg-lays in their study areas. Finding a new parasite-nematode with a biological cycle like Phasmorhadities hermaphrodita is crucial to have a new tool for biological land snail pests control in agriculture in Latin-America, as the European variety has problems at certain soil temperatures. The task to find European zoo parasitic nematode was made in previous 97- UE - Project. As a consequence the of traditional and organic farmers are going to get a series of useful tools for land snail pests and, first they are going to have a new control strategy based on the application of the ovicidalmolluscicides at the correct time, determined by the life cycle of the terrestrial gastropods, and not by the crop phenology. It will be explained which chemicals they need to destroy land snail s egg-lays. Through the predictive model, the farmers will have the information necessary to know which day and a time terrestrial gastropods will be active, thus apply the traditional molluscicides at the right, time, place and amount. This information must be transmitted through scientific meetings, counselling State Agricultural Agencies and through web pages of the State Servers. 3

5 Compliance with the objectives of the work programme and its priorities This project can definitely solve the problem of land snail pests in agriculture that has been globalized by the reform of the European Common Agricultural Policy and which it is forced to fulfil in the countries from which we import agricultural products. This project is related to THEME (Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology), Area.. KBBE...-5 "Integrated pest management in farming systems of major importance for Europe" out of the 7th Framework Program of Cooperation (FP7 Cooperation Work Program), and our project fits in perfectly in the topics (issues) of integrated pest control (management) (In the context of Integrated Pest Management - IPM-) in particular (specifically) can be said that:. It includes preventive measures such as, molluscicides application in the more labile phases of the life cycle of terrestrial gastropods and when there is less density of population and eggs in the soil, which generally coincides with (periods in which) (times when) there is nothing planted on farms.. The design of this strategy is based on the study of the biological cycle of pests and the study of their activity in terms of biotic and abiotic variables of the environment, representing perfect control and more accurate information to take preventive measures. 3. With this strategy control measures are applied at the right time, anticipating the emergence of the pest, which implies less molluscicide applied to achieve a better effect, besides the molluscicide is never next to plants, if the measures control are applied prior to planting. Our strategy is aimed at controlling or eradicating the pest to protect the crop, in other words, we use a preventive strategy. 4. It is an integrated control based on the decision-making through the statistical model prediction. We only use low toxicity chemicals, we use the biological control of nematodes through zooparasites, not to mention the use of trap plants to deter terrestrial gastropods that attack crops or the use of swine and cattle manure as ovicidal all this applied at the time we enter the life cycle of the pest snail and the predictive model. 5. Con este proyecto estamos sentando las bases para que los agricultores cumplan la Directive 9/8/EC of The European Parliament and of the Council of October 9 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides, según la cual by 4 December 8 will be necessary to minimise the hazards and risks to health and environment from the use of pesticides. Al finalizar este proyecto dispondremos de biomolusquicidas with molluscicida and ovicidal action. Syngenta and Bayer Companies are intrested in this WP. 6. This strategy helped to reduce pesticide use on crops applying the necessary quantity at the right time, not introducing new chemicals in agricultural crops, but taking advantage of the farmers standard used non residual agrochemicals just giving it a different use or using the favourable side-effects. Thereby decreasing the amount of toxic agents that may be harmful to humans and to wildlife and soil. 7. This project combines "combine modelling and experimentation" because the entire strategy is based on the study of biological and ecological cycle of the pest, its dynamics, in order to achieve the greatest success of control with the least effort and with the least means. 8. The risks of not succeeding in this project are limited, first all the partners who are part of the research group have demonstrated ability to perform all the tasks outlined in the Work Packages, and also the USC team that coordinates this project has an extensive experience in developing predictive models of activity of the snails and slugs in agricultural crops of Galicia (Spain) and in controlling pests in vegetable crops and vineyards and many others European partners have similar experience in similar fields. Given the globalization of trade, over 9% of land snail species pests in Latin-America are of European origin, in other words, they are introduced species that we have been working with over years. 9. The balance between costs and benefits will always be positive because we will control the final shape of land snail pests in agriculture, and we will bring to the traditional and organic farmers to have a number of tools to obtain a more profitable crop and seeding time management, very respectful with the environment.. Finally, all information obtained from this project and the control strategies are available for the farmer, either through meetings, workshops taught by the competent authorities or available through on line services were the farmers will resolve questions and provide information of the pest activity. 4

6 . Progress beyond the state-of-the-art A escala mundial, los perjuicios económicos causados por los gasterópodos terrestres se han incrementado gracias a la globalización del comercio lo que conlleva que se hable de especies de caracoles y babosas introducidas de un continente a otro, especies que al no tener depredadores específicos presenta un crecimiento poblacional exponencial. Mientras que algunos caracoles terrestres pueden alcanzar el estatus de plaga incluso en regiones relativamente áridas, las babosas resultan especialmente problemáticas en climas templados y lluviosos, pero aún en este caso, la magnitud de los daños causados por las babosas a los cultivos varía mucho a escala regional y de un año a otro (Port y Port, 986). Muchos especialistas coinciden en señalar que los daños ocasionados por los gasterópodos se han incrementado de forma muy significativa en las últimas ó 3 décadas, debido a la conjunción de una serie de factores como la simplificación de las técnicas de cultivo (reducción del laboreo, siembra directa), la reducción de las poblaciones de insectos depredadores por el uso de insecticidas, o la utilización de nuevas variedades de cultivo más susceptibles al ataque de los gasterópodos (Hommay, 995, ; Godan, 999; Speiser, ). Por otro lado, la elevación de los estándares de calidad exigidos por los consumidores hace que la tolerancia del mercado a productos dañados sea cada vez menor, lo que se traduce en una intensificación de las medidas de control de plagas. In recent years, the problems caused by land snails, especially the grey field slug (Deroceras reirulatum), the Spanish slug (Arion lusitanicus), the brown garden snail, Cryptomphalus (Helix = Cantareus) asperses,the white garden snail, Theba pisana and the greenhouse slug (Milax gagates), have increased dramatically, as illustrated by the 7-fold increase of molluscicide usage over the last 3 years as observed in Europe. These species are a serious pest of global economic importance (South, 99) as they have adapted well to the varied environments to which they have been introduced around the world. A. lusitanicus is polyphagous and feeds on a range of crop species as well as dumped plant material and carcasses (Wittenberg 5). In winter wheat alone, molluscicide use, including its application, is calculated to cost some millions annually, yet the damage to seeds and seedlings is not reliable controlled (GLEN, 989) Land snails reduce the vigour of some crops by killing seeds or seedling, by desroying stems or growing points, or by reducing the leaf area. This may slow down crop development and /or reduce yield. In other crops, the harvest is devaluated by feeding damage, mucus trails, faeces or presence of land snails. Land snail feeding may also initiate mould growth or rotting. Damage by land snails in not always easily distinguished from insect feeding. Clear, silvery mucus trails indicate land snail activity. In Sweden the species is reported from strawberry fields and grain storage facilities. No overall assessment of the economic consequences of A. lusitanicus has been made, but the species contributes to damage on several horticultural crops (Fischer and Reisschütz 999, Speiser et al. ). Furthermore, there are great impediments to human use of gardens as judged by the number of times this species make headlines in media (often under the alias killer slug )(Valovirta ). Strawberry growers in Norway have reported more than 5% loss in yield due to A. lusitanicus, but proper economic assessments have not been conducted yet. An example of a societal effect is that home owners have been known to sell their property and move to slug free areas. House prices may also be affected by the presence of this. In Central Europe, Limax maximus and Arion lusitanicus are the major pest slug species and most sales of molluscicide pellets in the home and garden market can be attributed to this species this gives an indirect estimate of the damage they cause. Many of the European slugs and snails have been introduced to America, Australia and NZ and cause tremendous problems in their agricultural crops. Arion lusitanicus is polyphagous and feeds on a range of crop species as well as dumped plant material and carcasses (Wittenberg 5). In Sweden the species is reported from strawberry fields and grain storage facilities. No overall assessment of the economic consequences of A. lusitanicus has been made, but the species contributes to damage on several horticultural crops (Fischer and Reisschütz 999, Speiser et al. ). Furthermore, there are great impediments to human use of gardens as judged by the number of times this species make headlines in media (often under the alias killer slug )(Valovirta ). 5

7 El control de plagas de gasterópodos terrestres se realiza, de forma casi exclusiva, por medio de la aplicación de cebos ( pellets ) que contienen entre un % y un 8% de metaldehído o de carbamatos (Godan, 983, 999; South, 99; Garthwaite y Thomas, 996; Bailey, ; Speiser, ). El principal productor mundial de metaldehído es la empresa suiza Lonza. El carbamato más utilizado en el control de plagas de gasterópodos terrestres es el metiocarbamato, cuya licencia de fabricación es propiedad de la empresa alemana Bayer. Ambos compuestos muestran una eficacia similar en lo que se refiere a su capacidad para reducir los daños causados por los gasterópodos a las plantas (Bailey, ), y también ambos presentan efectos negativos sobre las poblaciones de otros grupos de animales (South, 99; Bailey, ). Buchs, Heimbach y Czarnecki (989) han señalado la existencia de efectos negativos de los cebos molusquicidas con metaldehído sobre las poblaciones de algunos carábidos, y Bieri, Schweizer, Christensen y Daniel (989) han documentado una reducción de la abundancia de carábidos y estafilínidos tras la aplicación de cebos molusquicidas con metiocarbamato en praderas. Aunque en la actualidad todos los cebos molusquicidas incorporan pigmentos (generalmente azules) y otras sustancias para reducir el riesgo de ingestión por parte de mamíferos y aves, son frecuentes los casos de envenenamiento de animales domésticos debido al consumo de cebos molusquicidas (Bailey, ). A finales de los años 8, los cebos molusquicidas con carbamatos fueron prohibidos en muchos estados de Norteamérica, debido a la elevada frecuencia de casos de envenenamiento de aves que se registraron (Sakovich, 996). Tarrant y Westlake (988) señalan que la utilización de cebos molusquicidas con metiocarbamato supone una seria amenaza para las poblaciones del ratón de campo, Apodemus sylvaticus (Linnaeus, 758). Keymer, Gibson y Reynolds (99) registraron elevadas concentraciones de acetaldehído (resultante de la despolimerización del metaldehído en el tubo digestivo) en erizos (Erinaceus europaeus (Linnaeus, 758)) encontrados muertos en el campo, y Gemmeke (997) observó síntomas de envenenamiento y casos de fallecimiento, en erizos alimentados con babosas que habían ingerido cebos con metiocarbamato. Product index by Active Substance Metaldehyde: B&Q Slug Killer Blue Mini Pellets, Barclay Metaldehyde Dry, Barclay Tracker, Bio Slug Mini Pellets, BRITS, Doff Slugoids Slug Killer Blue Mini-Pellets, Escar-Go 6, Gastrotox Mini Slug Pellets, Gastrotox Slug Pellets, Goulding Slug Pellets, Greenfingers Slug Pellets, Hygeia Slug Pellets, Hytox Slug Pellets, Luxan Metaldehyde 5, Luxan Red 5, Metarex Green, Metarex RG, Molotov, Optimol, Pathfinder Excel, Slug Clear, Slug Killer Blue Mini-Pellets, Slug Out, Slug Pellets, Slugit Xtra, Slugtox, Stockmaster Slug & Snail Killer In winter wheat, Brussels sprouts and rape crops, molluscicide use, including its application, is calculated to cost some 5 million annually in the United Kingdom, yet the damage to seed and seedling is not reliable controlled. Pesticides sales in Europe are increasing. Levels of usage vary between countries. These profiles are part of an on-going series in Pesticides News that will cover all of Europe. Sources: Oppenheimer, Wolf & Donnelly, Belgium, 997. Molluscicides sales represents % of all pesticides. 6

8 The figure examines the detailed trends within winter wheat, which accounts for a 45% of the UK cropped area, and a significant amount of molluscicide use. 6 report of indicators reflecting the impacts of pesticide use. Directive 9/8/EC of The European Parliament and of the Council of October 9 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. The specific objectives of the Thematic Strategy are: to minimise the hazards and risks to health and environment from the use of pesticides to improve controls on the use and distribution of pesticides to reduce the levels of harmful active substances including through substituting the most dangerous with safer (including non-chemical) alternatives to encourage the use of low-input or pesticide-free crop farming, in particular by raising users' awareness, by promoting codes of good practices and consideration of the possible application of financial instruments to establish a transparent system for reporting and monitoring the progress made towards the achievement of the objectives of the strategy, including the development of suitable indicators. En los últimos años ha aparecido en el mercado un nuevo molusquicida químico, bajo el nombre comercial de Ferramol, fabricado por la empresa alemana Neudorff GMBH. Este producto se presenta también en forma de cebos y contiene fosfato de hierro como ingrediente activo. Los ensayos realizados hasta la actualidad para comprobar su eficacia (Iglesias y Speiser ; Speiser y Kistler, ) indican que ésta es equiparable a la de los molusquicidas químicos clásicos, metaldehído y metiocarbamato. Sin embargo, a diferencia de éstos, que son totalmente sintéticos, el fosfato de hierro aparece de forma natural formando parte de varios minerales, especialmente la strengita (Fe III PO 4 (H O) ortorrómbico) y metastrengita (Fe III PO 4 (H O) monocíclico) (Roberts, Campbell y Rapp, 99; Clark, 993), y es un compuesto con una toxicidad muy baja (EPA, 998). La falta de medios de control de plagas de gasterópodos cuya utilización esté autorizada en la agricultura biológica hace que estos animales hayan sido considerados como los más dañinos para los cultivos biológicos por numerosas asociaciones profesionales de Gran Bretaña y Suiza (Peackock y Norton, 99; Kesper y Imhof, 998). El único agente de control biológico que se comercializa en la actualidad para el control de plagas de babosas es el nematodo Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider, 859), lanzado al mercado por primera vez en Gran Bretaña en 994. Numerosos ensayos de campo realizados en una amplia variedad de cultivos y de países europeos han puesto de manifiesto que P. hermaphrodita es capaz de reducir los daños ocasionados por las babosas a las plantas (Wilson, Glen y George, 993; Wilson, Glen, George y Hughes, 995; Wilson, Hughes y Glen, 995; Ester & Geelen, 996; Iglesias, Castillejo & Castro, ab). Su eficacia frente a la especie D. reticulatum está fuera de toda duda (Glen, Wilson, Brain y Stroud, ), pero existen indicios de que su eficacia contra otras especies podría ser menor (Wilson et al., 995a; Coupland, 995; Glen et al., 996; Speiser y Andermatt, 996; Speiser, Zaller y Neudecker, ; Iglesias y Speiser, ). La eficacia de los tratamientos con P. hermaphrodita está muy condicionada por la temperatura y la humedad del suelo, que afectan en gran medida a su supervivencia, pero presenta la ventaja de que las condiciones de temperatura y de humedad que son favorables para la actividad de las babosas lo son también para la supervivencia del nematodo, mientras que los molusquicidas químicos en forma de cebos ven muy mermada su eficacia en las condiciones de elevada humedad en las que los gasterópodos ocasionan la mayoría de los daños a las plantas (Glen et al., 996). No obstante, el elevado coste económico que suponen en la actualidad los tratamientos de control de plagas con nematodos 7

9 hace que su uso esté todavía muy restringido a cultivos de elevado valor como las plantas ornamentales y algunas hortalizas (Grunder, ). La aplicación de molusquicidas representa sólo una medida de control a corto plazo, es decir, con ellos se consigue proteger temporalmente a las plantas de los daños que podrían causarle los gasterópodos. Sin embargo, no tienen un efecto significativo y duradero sobre las poblaciones de gasterópodos residentes en las zonas de cultivo, por lo que el riesgo de que produzcan daños es permanente (Hommay, ; Port y Ester, ). Ello se debe a que los molusquicidas aplicados afectan sólo a una parte de la población, y a que los huevos de los gasterópodos, que se encuentran en el suelo, no se ven afectados por los tratamientos molusquicidas convencionales, dando lugar a una rápida recuperación de las poblaciones (Glen, Wiltshire y Milson, 988). Se ha estimado que los tratamientos molusquicidas a base de cebos con metaldehído o carbamatos matan a menos del 5% de la población de gasterópodos existente en el momento de la aplicación (Glen y Wiltshire, 986; Wiltshire y Glen, 989; Glen, Wiltshire y Butler, 99). Por otro lado, es frecuente que la cantidad de cebo molusquicida ingerido por los gasterópodos en el campo tenga sólo un efecto subletal transitorio (Kemp y Newell, 985; Wedgwood y Bailey, 986; Briggs y Henderson, 987; Bourne, Jones y Bowen, 988), y se ha comprobado que la fecundidad de los individuos que experimentan ese tipo de envenenamiento subletal no se ve afectada, por lo que continúan poniendo huevos una vez que se recuperan (Kemp y Newell, 985). En los años 6 surge el concepto del control integrado de plagas (CIP) (Stern, Smith, van der Bosch y Hagen, 959), que en la actualidad es parte integrante de otro concepto, más amplio, que es el del desarrollo sostenible. El control integrado de plagas implica la integración de los conocimientos provenientes de multitud de campos (biología, química, agronomía, climatología, economía, etc.) con el fin de desarrollar las estrategias de control más adecuadas desde el punto de vista económico, ambiental y de salud pública (Dent, 99). Si bien es un sistema basado en la combinación de diferentes métodos con el fin de minimizar el uso de pesticidas químicos, no se descarta, a priori, la utilización de ningún tipo de agente de control (Coombs y Hall, 998). Metodológicamente, el control integrado de plagas puede describirse como un "proceso de toma de decisiones" es el que, sobre la base de toda la información relevante disponible, hay que decidir qué medidas tomar y en qué momento aplicarlas, para que el control de la plaga resulte, además de eficaz, lo más rentable posible desde el punto de vista económico y lo menos agresivo que sea posible desde el punto de vista ambiental (Bechinski, Mahler y Homan, ). En la actualidad, los programas de control integrado de numerosas especies de artrópodos y de hongos causantes de plagas en una gran variedad de cultivos, se basan en la utilización de sistemas de predicción (Dent, 99; Frahm, Johnen y Volk, 996). Prever en qué momento una plaga puede producir daños significativos en un cultivo es fundamental para poder tomar una decisión con respecto a la necesidad de aplicar pesticidas para protegerlo (Buhler, 996). Por otro lado, dependiendo del modo de acción del pesticida, su eficacia puede estar condicionada por la fase del ciclo en la que se encuentren los organismos causante de la plaga o por su nivel de actividad (Bailey, ). En definitiva, se necesita disponer de criterios que permitan determinar tanto la necesidad y como la conveniencia de la aplicación de pesticidas. World Biocides. Global biocide demand to grow 5.4% annually through 9 World demand for biocides is projected to increase 5.4 percent per year to $6.9 billion in 9. North America and Western Europe will remain the largest regional markets, accounting for over two thirds of demand. The Asia/ Pacific region, due mainly to continued rapid growth in China, is expected to register the fastest growth among the major regions through this decade. Eastern Europe is also expected to register above average growth, but will still account for less than five percent of global demand. In more mature markets, such as Japan, the United States and Western Europe, advances will be modest, with gains spurred by the replacement of traditional products with higher value formulations offering a combination of broad-spectrum efficacy, low toxicity, minimal effect on finished product quality and reduced environmental impact. Much of this shift will be prompted by the sizable regulatory framework under which the biocide industry operates. Many biocides are synthetic, but a class of natural biocides, derived from e.g. bacteria and plants Biopesticides : an Economic Approach for Pest Management. It is hearting to observe the growing awareness among the farmers and policy makers about ecologically sustainable methods of pest management. More and more farmers are coming to realize the short-term benefits and long-term positive effects of the use of bioagents and other ecologically safe methods to tackle pests. The present article 'Biopesticides' is of much relevance in this context. 8

10 'Biopesticides' are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Benefits of biopesticides include effective control of insects, plant diseases and weeds, as well as human and environmental safety. Biopesticides also play an important role in providing pest management tools in areas where pesticide resistance, niche markets and environmental concerns limit the use of chemical pesticide products. Biopesticides in general- (a) have a narrow target range and a very specific mode of action. (b) are slow acting. (c) have relatively critical application times. (d) suppress, rather than eliminate, a pest population. (e) have limited field persistence and a short shelf life. (f) are safer to humans and the environment than conventional pesticide. (g) present no residue problems. Pesticide residues in agricultural commodities are being the issue of major concern besides their harmful effect upon human life, wild life and other flora and fauna. Equally worrying thing is about development of resistance in pest to pesticides. The only solution of all these is use of 'Biopesticide' that can reduce pesticide risks, as- (a) Biopesticides are best alternatives to conventional pesticides and usually inherently less toxic than conventional pesticides (b) Biopesticides generally affect only the target pest and closely related organisms, in contract to broad spectrum, conventional pesticides that may affect organisms as rent as birds, insects, and mammals (c) Biopesticides often are effective in very small quantities and often decompose quickly, thereby resulting in lower exposures and largely avoiding the pollution problems caused by conventional pesticides (d) When used as a fundamental component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, biopesticides can greatly decrease the use of conventional pesticides, while crop yields remain high (e) Amenable to small-scale, local production in developing countries and products available in small, niche markets that are typically unaddressed by large agrochemical companies. The advances that the proposed project and patents will bring. To this day, non residual agrochemicals with ovicidal action had not been used to control land snail pests in agriculture. The strategy proposed in this project is innovative, original and this pest control methods are very efficient, and makes it very easy to eradicate pest. It is original because it attempts to control the causative agent pest in the phase of their life cycle [biological cycle] where they are most fragile, in the egg stage. It is an original method that will develop statistical models to predict the abundance and activity of the land snail with which the farmer can act in a preventive manner so as not to damage because it will indicate the moment when which has to apply the ovicidal or the traditional molluscicides. It is original because it doesn t introduce new pesticides in agriculture, it is based in non residual agrochemicals that the farmer habitually uses, it seeks the best profile to exploit its ovicidal activity. It is new because it puts into the hands of the organic farming a number of tools to control land snails pests using natural fertilizers or deterrent strategies implemented by trap plants deterring land snails from attacking crops. It is a project that uses current technologies to see how the pests live, which are their weaknesses, and attack them manipulating it that way to minimize side effects on crops, and even on the man. With this project we are going to obtain results that will be patented. As a result we will be able to patent the pest control strategies, establish a patent for the active use of non residual agrochemicals with ovicidal action against the land snail s egg-lays, and finally be able to patent the Statistical Prediction Activity Model and abundance of land snail that are pests, and most likely be able to patent the use of a zooparasite nematodes for the land snail pests biological control. 9

11 .3 S/T methodology and associated work plan.3. Overall strategy of the work plan ( page). Detailed description of the proposed work The whole strategy is designed to perform integrated land snail pests control in conventional and organic farming, and it is here to introduce the use of new molluscicides ovicidal action, capable of destroying the egglays, the use of trap-plants as a deterrent, and the rational use of traditional molluscicides. WP..-To understand the biology of land snail that are pests in a range of vegetable crops, it is necessary to have information of the size, structure and dynamics of their populations. WP..-To study food and qualitative and quantitative composition of the diet of terrestrial gastropods that are pests in order to find plants that can be used as trap plants in organic farming and traditional. WP. 3.-To develop a statistical model that could explain and predict the abundance and activity of the land snail as a function of environmental variables such biotic and abiotic. WP. 4.-To investigate the feasibility of using plant extracts as biomolluscicides and bio-ovicides. To carry this out it will also be necessary: 4.. Laboratory tests on filter paper (direct contact) and artificial soil (standard soil) to select the plant extracts with molluscicidal and /or ovicidal activity. 4.. Mini plots experiments on horticultural soil to evaluate the efficacy of the selected plant stract against lands snails and its eggs Mini plots analysis to know the collateral effect of plant extract selects on invertebrate soil Chemical analysis to find the plant extracts active principle by analytic steps. WP. 5.-To investigate the feasibility of using commercial agrochemical activity as ovicidals with control land snail egg-lays for key Conventionally grown horticultural crops. To carry this out it will also be necessary: 5.. Laboratory tests on filter paper (direct contact) and artificial soil (standard soil) to select the agrochemical which best suits the egg types of the pest species and soil type in the study area. 5.. Field experiments on horticultural crops to evaluate the efficacy of the selected agrochemical as Ovicidal-molluscicides for the pest control of key conventional grown horticultural crops Field analysis to know the collateral effect of agrochemical selects on invertebrate soil fauna and border effect on wild land snails in conventional horticultural crops. WP. 6.- To investigate the feasibility of using swine and cattle manure of killing land snail eggs and plant-tramp strategy of land snail pest control for key organic horticultural crops grown. To carry this out it will also be necessary: 6.. Laboratory testing to determine concentrations of swine and cattle manure that are effective against the egg-lays of terrestrial gastropods pest. Discriminant trials will be made on filter paper (direct contact) and artificial soil. 6.. Field experiments to evaluate the efficacy of swine and cattle manure land snail egg-lays as control for key organic horticultural crops Field analysis to investigate the collateral effect of swine and cattle manure on soil invertebrate fauna and border effect on wild land snails in organic horticultural crops Field experiments to use plants as tramp-deterrent method to protect organic horticultural crops WP. 7.- Make field trials in traditional crops to compare the effectiveness of the control strategy of pest land snail proposed by us versus conventional approaches of applying chemical molluscicides when observed damage to the crops. Field experiments in Conventional key horticultural crops to evaluate the efficacy of selected agrochemical ovicidal with activity against land snail egg-lays in relation to other standard commercial lowchemical methods of killing animals land snail. Final trial. WP. 8.- Field experiments organics in key horticultural crops to evaluate the efficacy of organic Molluscicidesovicides and the use of plant-traps as land snails method to control pests. WP. 9.- To identify improved strains of nematodes Phasmarhabditis Which are more effective biocontrol agents of larger land snail species in Hispano-America.

12 METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH WORK PACKAGES Work Package Field research to investigate life cycle of land snail past in horticultural crops Partners (. Man-month) Partners (. Man-month) Partners 3 (. Man-month) Partners 4 (. Man-month) Partners 5 (. Man-month) Partners 6 (. Man-month) Partners 7 (. Man-month) Partners 8 (. Man-month) Partners 9 (. Man-month) OBJETIVES To investigate size, structure and dynamic of land snail for a key horticultural crops Estudiar el tamaño, estructura y dinámica de sus poblaciones. BACKGROUND Methodological review. Many methods have been used to make quantitative studies of land snail populations. According to South (99) these methods can be qualified in three categories: A. Absolute methods, expresses the number of individuals per unit area. B. Relative methods, expresses the number of individuals per unit effort or the relation to non-standardized traps. C. Indirect methods, expresses sizes of population in terms of traces left or the effects produced by land snails (for example, depending on the damage extension done to the crop, or according to bait consumption). Relative methods are faster and much more comfortable but they have the disadvantage that the estimates are highly dependent of the land snail activity levels, this can lead to incorrect population sizes because of weather conditions that have an important effect on the land snail activity (Getz, 959; Hunter, 968a; South, 99). Absolute Methods involve the absolute quantification of individuals per surface area. This can be done on site by applying an irritant substance to a determined area. For years formaldehyde was used for this purpose, but South (964) rejected this method when he realized that most of the land snails died before they could reach the surface. Högger (993) proposed a new method. First he determines an area, limiting it with a metal ring of 5 cm of height; then he introduces it in to the ground to a depth of 5 cm. Once done this, he applies mustard oil to the ground and captures the land snails that come out to the surface. Another method, proposed by Ferguson, Barratt & Jones (989), it is based on the placement of shelter traps located inside of the area determined by the metal ring, which in this occasion is covered with a top that prevents the escape of land snails and helps to keep the humidity (moisture) inside. The shelter traps and the area inside the ring are inspected each day removing the land snails caught, until no new individuals appear. Another way of obtaining absolute estimates is to take soil samples of known surfaces and transfer them to the laboratory for further land snail extraction and quantification. The extraction can be done by; the progressive flooding of the soil samples to make land snails surface, or by washing the soil sample on sieves with water. South (964) compared the last sieving method with absolute methods (flooding with cold or hot water, extraction with chemicals, dry sieving) and relative methods (trapping, Direct observation during night). South concluded that the water sieving is the most reliable method, since it allows the recovery of almost the % of the land snails contained in one soil samples. Hunter (968a) proved the efficiency of this method when he recovered almost all individuals of a known population; South (964) concludes that the water sieving is the most accurate method; It s also is the only reliable method to obtain and quantify land snail lays. Almost all the authors agree that land snails and it s lays are located in the uppermost stratum of the soil. According to South (964), % of the lays and land snails of D. reticulatum species is located in the first or

13 3cm of soil in field areas. In crop areas, Hunter (966) found out that 83% of individuals of D. reticulatum were located in the soil first 7 5cm, and a 6% were located above 5cm. Also in crop areas, Runham & Hunter (97) observed that in the first cm of soil contained the 97% of D. reticulatum. Rollo & Ellis (974) pointed out that the 9% of snail lays are also located in the same soil layers. According to Marquet (985), in standard conditions any land snail appears above the first 5cm of soil, However in exceptionally severe winters up to a 5% of individuals may appear at depths between and cm. South (99) suggests that sampling the soil s first cm it s enough to quantify land snail populations. Importancia: el WP. es importante ya que nos va a proporcionar información sobre el tamaño, estructura y dinámica de la población de caracoles y babosas plaga, información que emplearemos en el desarrollo del modelo predictivo Assessment of progress and results. Por medio de los informes semestrales y anuales, y por medio de los controles personales que periódicamente el coordinador realiza a cada uno de los partner en el país correspondiente Task. Objetives Studying the land snail population size in crops where they will conduct the study. Participants: all partners Materials and Methods The methodology used is based on absolute estimation methods; land snails quantification of known surface soil samples. Soil sampling. The choice of the sampling location is randomly selected. To carry this out the plot is divided in a grid composed at least of 5 frames of 4 x 4 m; each one subdivided in four quadrants. The quadrants are determined using the last two digits of the randomly generated value of the random (ran) calculator function. Once selected frames, we proceed to determine which quadrant of each frame, by using again the calculator random number generator following the next code:,-,49 for the upper left quadrant;,5-,499 for the upper right quadrant;,5-,749 for the lower left quadrant;,75-,999 for the lower right quadrant. The sample extraction is performed with a rectangular spade mark with the depth to be achieved ( centimeters). First is selected the area to take the soil sample, then we place on the ground an aluminum frame of 5 x 5 cm, then the spade is stuck in to the ground along its entire contour until the marked depth and extract the sample. Each sample is introduced in a properly labeled opaque plastic bag; these bags are conserved in a cold storage at 4ºC in the dark, for its further laboratory analysis in the next 3 days. To determine the number of soil samples needed its used an statistical software; The means and variances of the average land snails and eggs are calculated, to find out all the possible combinations of samples, 3samples, 4samples till the total of samples. For each number of samples the degree of error is calculated dividing the standard deviation by the arithmetic mean. In previous investigations we observed that to obtain a degree of error less or equal to %, 8 samples are enough in the case of land snails and 6 in the case of eggs. The abundance of land snails and eggs is estimated by washing the soil samples precedent from the study plots. On a monthly basis soil samples of 5x5 cm square and cm deep. Soil samples treatment. Each sample is placed individually on a white plastic tray; in the first place the sample is thoroughly inspected to capture any snail that might be in the soil surface, once done this the vegetal cover is removed, cutting it with scissors; then the soil sample is washed in sieves, with a decreasing mesh sizes from 4mm to mm. The soil samples are crumbled to smaller pieces with the help of the water jet. The thicker roots are cut to smaller pieces. The sieves content is carefully inspected under a X magnifying glass and a powerful white light source.

14 Larger land snails are retained in the upper sieve, and in the lower sieve the smaller land snails and the eggs. The collected land snails are kept in a tray and the eggs in a Petri dish, both with a humid filter paper. Once finished separating eggs and land snails from the soil samples we proceed to identify them Task. Objetives Field experiments to investigate To know the land snails pests populations dynamic and structure. Participant: All partners Materials and Methods To study the population structures and variation over time it s necessary to determine the maturity state of the land snails constituting the population along time. Because of this, Bett (96), Hunter (968a), and Hunter & Symonds (97), based their studies exclusively on sperms presence or absence along the genital tract. South (989a) used the same methodology, but he also obtained the gonad and albumin gland mass, (Hermaphrodite Gland Index, H.G.I. and Albumin Gland Index A.G.I. respectively, of each individual. This index express the % of corporal mass represented by each gland, that have a characteristically variation along the maturation cycle of D. reticulatum. Duval & Banville (989) and Barker (99), in adition to calculating the H.G.I. and A.G.I., incorporated in their work the gonad cytological analysis of individuals, and determined their maturity level using as reference the previous studies of Runham & Laryea (968), based on the presence and relative abundance of each cellular type in gonad gametogenisis in D. reticulatum gonad. Haynes et al. (996) classified the land snails in five categories based on the body mass index H.G.I. A.G.I. instead of using the cytological gonad analysis to describe the population structure. The population dynamic and structure study are only done on the species that really are a pest; in our previous studies (Barrada, 3) we focused exclusively on Deroceras reticulatum that really constitute a pest in the European crops. Individual management. Individuals belonging to the pest species are weight on a laboratory balance to the hundredth of milligram, and then they are sacrificed by a brief immersion in water at 5ºC. This method is a modification from the Haynes, Rushton y Port (996) method, which is to dip them in boiling water. The sacrificed individuals are introduced in properly labeled glass tubes, with preservation 7% alcohol. Then the individuals are dissected and they have their hermaphrodite gland and albumin gland removed, which is used to determine the maturity state of individuals. Following Barker (99) approach, individuals with BMI(body mass index) exceeding mg are not dissected, assuming that they don t have a differentiated gonad. The hermaphrodite and albumin gland, extracted from individuals with BMI greater or equal to mg, the glands are weighed up to the hundredth of milligram immediately after its extraction. The hermaphrodite gland is fixed with Carnoy for 4 hours and preserved in alcohol 7%. Determining the maturity degree. It will follow the methodology used by Duval & Banville (989) and Barker (99), the sexual maturity status of individuals at each monthly sampling is determined by gonad cytological analysis, using as a reference the states defined by Runham & Laryea (968). To this end, each individual gonad was dehydrated by a series of ethanol baths of progressively higher degree (7%, 96% and %), ending with baths of toluene. Next the sample is included in a paraffin block; which is sectioned at 8 μ thick. Obtained sections are rehydrated by reversing the previous dehydration, replacing toluene by xylene and dipping them in distilled water. Then the sections are stained using hematoxylin-eosin staining, and finally dehydratated again. Each cellular type that appear in the selected land snails gonad and the maturity states are available in Pelluet & Watts (95), Watts (95), Bridgeford & Pelluet (95), Henderson & Pelluet (96), Smith (966), Runham & Laryea, (968), Bailey (973), Hill & Bowen (976), Parivar (978, 98, 98), Nicholas (984), South (99), Fawcett (987) and Lutchel et al. (997) works. 3

15 Each captured individual was identified as belonging to one of the following sexual maturity stages: i) undifferenciated spermatogonia, ii) spermatocyte, iii) spermatid, iv) espermatozoa, v) oocyte and vi) senescent. The first three states correspond to immature land snails, with no reproduction ability; sexually mature land snails are those that are in spermatozoon and oocyte state (Runham y Laryea, 968; South 989a). In other words, each captured individual is characterized by their body mass (mg), by their maturity state and by the mass (mg) of the hermaphrodite and albumin gland. From these values it s calculated for each individual, the hermaphrodite gland index (H.G.I.) and the albumin gland index (A.G.I.), as follows, H.G.I. = Hermaphrodite gland mass / individual mass A.G.I. = Albumin gland mass / individual mass For each sample occasion, individuals who have similar characteristics referring to its sexual maturity state and body mass index values, H.G.I. and A.G.I., are considered as belonging to the same land snail generation. In this research project we follow the methodology used by Duval & Banville (989) and Barker (99) for the population structure study. As these authors did, we assume that individuals with body mass exceeding mg are land snails with completely undifferentiated gonads (from the cytological viewpoint) are not analyzed. In this regard, it should be mentioned that South (989a) indicates a value of 4 mg body mass as a limit from which, the maturity state of D. reticulatum can be defined by studying the cytology of the testis. Previous obtained results agree with the values set by South (989a). 4

16 Work Package Field research to investigate the feeding habits and the qualitative and quantitative diet of land snails in horticultural crops. Objetives To Study land snail feeding and qualitative and quantitative composition of their diet in order to find plant species that can be used as trap plants in organic farming. Partners (. Man-month) Partners (. Man-month) Partners 3 (. Man-month) Partners 4 (. Man-month) Partners 5 (. Man-month) Partners 6 (. Man-month) Partners 7 (. Man-month) Partners 8 (. Man-month) Partners 9 (. Man-month) Background El estudio del material ya ingerido por los caracoles y babosas se realiza mediante el análisis microscópico de los pequeños fragmentos de plantas que se encuentran en las heces o en el interior del tubo digestivo de los animales. Este método ha sido utilizada por Grime, Blythe y Thornton (97), Mason (97), Wolda et al. (97), Chatfield (975), Richardson (975), Williamson y Cameron (976), Szlavecz (986), Speiser y Rowell-Rahier (99), Hatziioannou et al. (994), para estudiar la dieta de caracoles como Cepaea nemoralis, Oxychilus cellarius (Müller, 774), Oxychilus alliarius (Miller, 8), Discus rotundatus (Müller 774), Arianta arbustorum (Linneo, 758), Monadenia hillebrandi (Smith, 957), Monacha cantiana (Montagu, 83), Monacha cartusiana (Müller, 774), Braybaena fructicum (Müller, 774), Helix lucorum (Linneo, 758), Xeropicta arenosa (Ziegler, 87) y Cepaea vindobonensis (Férussac, 8). Hunter (968b), Pallant (969, 97), y Jennings y Barkham (975) la han utilizado para estudiar la dieta de babosas como Deroceras reticulatum, Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 88), Arion hortensis Férussac, 89, y Arion ater. El estudio de las heces es un método más rápido que el análisis del contenido estomacal, ya que no requiere el sacrificio y disección de los animales. Sin embargo, los materiales presentes en las heces han atravesado todo el tubo digestivo del animal y se encuentran más degradados, por lo que resultan más difíciles de identificar que los extraídos del estómago (Cook y Radford, 988; Hatziioannou et al., 994). El estudio de heces es un método adecuado para determinar la presencia o ausencia de determinados elementos en la dieta de los animales, pero la proporción de materiales no identificados en las heces suele ser tan elevada, que no resulta un método útil para realizar una caracterización cuantitativa de la alimentación (Williamson y Cameron, 976; Szlavecz, 986; Speiser y Rowell-Rahier 99). Vadas (977) indica que los materiales más abundantes y más fácilmente identificables en las heces de los animales son los menos utilizados metabólicamente y que, posiblemente, son también los ingeridos en menor cantidad, por lo que el análisis de heces conduce a una sobrevaloración de los alimentos poco consumidos; por el contrario, los alimentos más consumidos son infravalorados debido a que son digeridos en mayor medida y resultan más escasos y difíciles de identificar en las heces. El análisis del contenido del tubo digestivo de los animales es un método más laborioso, pero proporciona una imagen más real de la dieta de los animales (Norbury y Sanson, 99). Pallant (969, 97) estudió la alimentación de D. reticulatum en poblaciones naturales (bosques y praderas) mediante el análisis de contenidos estomacales. Para reducir al máximo la degradación digestiva del alimento ingerido por los caracoles y babosas capturadas y facilitar su identificación, Pallant (969, 97) introdujo directamente a los animales capturados en alcohol al 7%, y realizó su disección para la extracción del contenido del tubo digestivo a lo largo de las horas siguientes a la captura. Triebskorn y Florschutz (993) realizaron un estudio sobre el tránsito del alimento a través del tubo digestivo de D. reticulatum, mediante la utilización de un preparado alimenticio (lechuga, maíz y leche en polvo) marcado radiactivamente y la toma de radiografías de los animales a intervalos regulares; según sus resultados, el alimento ingerido penetra inmediatamente en el buche, estómago y parte anterior del intestino, lugares en los que permanece durante un período mínimo de dos horas y media antes de comenzar a avanzar por 5

17 el intestino; el buche y el estómago se vacían completamente en el curso de las trece horas siguientes a la ingestión. Importancia: la información que se obtenga de este estudio nos servirá para diseñar las estrategia del uso de plantas-trampas como agentes disuasorios y conocer y evaluar los daños reales sobre los cultivos. Assessment of progress and results. Por medio de los informes semestrales y anuales, y por medio de los controles personales que periódicamente el coordinador realiza a cada uno de los partner en el país correspondiente. Work and methodology Description Sampling. The diet study is done by the analysis of the digestive tract content of land snails captured in monthly samplings. The captures of these animals are randomly done in the course of a run across the whole plot. Only the collection of small land snails is avoided, because their processing is very difficult. The capture of the land snails is done during the next 3 or 4 hours after sunset, which is when it takes place the main feeding activity of land snails and D. reticulatum in particular (Dobson & Bailey, 98, Rollo, 988ab; South, 99; Hommay, Lorvelec & Jacky, 998). Every plant species, where each land snail is captured, is recorded. The land snails are individually introduced in plastic containers with a piece of damp cotton for its further transport and storage in the laboratory. The day after the capture of the land snails, the plot s vegetation composition is determined. The different plant species coverage percentage is estimated using a measuring tape extended along the plot s principal axis, at intervals of.5 meters. The tape s intersection points with the different plant species are noted, and with this data the coverage percentage for each species is calculated. Graminaceous are considered as a whole. Individual Processing. The land snails caught for the diet analysis are transported and processed within hours, in order to minimize digestive degradation of their stomach contents (Pallant, 969, 97). Land snails are weighed on a scale up to the hundredth of milligram, before being sacrificed by immersion in hot water (5 º C). Then the individuals are dissected and have their maw removed, which is placed onto a slide. Under a binocular microscope the maw is open along the longitudinal axis and all its contents are collected, using a fine brush. Each land snail s stomach contents is weighed to the hundredth of milligram and immediately introduced into a small plastic tube, were milliliters of N hydrochloric acid is added to eliminate the mucus and epithelial debris from the maw sample (Hatziioannou et al., 994). Stomach contents are always analyzed in the following two days after its capture. Qualitative diet determination. The qualitative diet study is based on the food fragments identification, found in the snails digestive tract. The plant fragments identification is possible through epithelial formations such as stomata and trachoma. The appearance and distribution of these formations are characteristic for each plant species. Before starting the samplings, land snails are captured around the study area, they are fed with a monospecifical plant diet, and their feces are used to make an image collection of the fragments found in the land snails stomachs. These land snails are kept inside a climate chamber with a photoperiod of hours, 8 º C and 9% relative humidity. All land snails are housed inside transparent plastic boxes cm, with the bottom covered with a damp filter paper, and all the plastic boxes are perforated to allow the air renewal. In each case four individuals are kept. After a period of 7 hours without food all land snails will be fed with a diet consisting on a single plant species collected in the study plot. Then after six hours, the land snails are processed as described in the previous section, and the fragments found in their stomachs are photographed under a microscope (Barrada, 3). For each plant we have a large reference image collection of each one after being eaten by land snails. The captured land snail s digestive tract is studied using the same microscope equipment. Fragments found in the land snails digestive tract are compared with the reference images collection for their further identification. Quantitative diet determination. To determine the land snails quantitative diet composition, we follow the methodology used by Hatziioannou et al. (994). A stomach sample content of each land snail is taken; the surface area of each fragment is measured with the help of a software image analysis (SPSS Sigma Scan Pro Image Analysis Version 5...). The surface areas of all the same type fragments are added together and the percentage is calculated and represented in relation with the sum of all the fragments contained in the same sample surface areas. According to this, each plant contribution to the land snail diet is estimated. 6

18 Using.4 ml sample taken from the stomach contents of each land snail, diluted with ml of hydrochloric acid and then homogenized with the aid of an agitator pressure SBS AT- or similar. All fragments of food contained in the sample are photographed, identified and measured. The sample volume used for each digestive tract is previously determined from the land snails stomach contents study, whose diet is known. To this purpose four land snails are individually housed in each plastic box. After a fasting period of 7 hours, the land boxed land snails are provide with a small piece of 3 different plant species, and 6 hours after they are sacrificed and their stomach contents are removed, as previously described. Their stomach contents are diluted in ml of HCl for their analysis in 6 successive.8 ml samples. In previous researches (Barrada, 3), it was determined that a.6 ml sample (8% of total volume) is an accurate representation of the land snails stomach contents composition, equivalent to a.48 ml sample (4% of the total volume). To minimize the error degree it is always used a.4 ml sample (% of total volume) for the digestive tract contents representation. Diversity and selection Indexes. The diversity land snails diet and the vegetation variety in the study plots, is calculated through the Shannon-Weaver index, H '= Σ (p i ) (log p i ), where p i is the frequency for each component of the diet or vegetation (Margalef, 98). The index C is used as a selection index, Pearre (98), this index reflects the outcome of predator-prey interaction taking into account the abundance in the environment for each prey type. This index has a value ranging from + and -, where C = indicates no selection. It shows if a plant is consumed above (positive values) or below (negative values) it s expected consumption according to their availability in the nature. This index is based on the χ test that allows establishing the significance of the selection degree for any sample size. 7

19 Work Package 3 Objetives To develop a statistical method to explain and predict the land snails activity according to atmospheric conditions. Partners (. Man-month) Partners (. Man-month) Partners 3 (. Man-month) Partners 4 (. Man-month) Partners 5 (. Man-month) Partners 6 (. Man-month) Partners 7 (. Man-month) Partners 8 (. Man-month) Partners 9 (. Man-month) Background La actividad de los gasterópodos terrestres está regulada por complejos mecanismos en los que intervienen tanto factores externos (ambientales) como internos (ritmos endógenos) (Bailey y Lazaridou- Dimitriadou, 986; Aupinel, 987; Young y Port, 989; Cook, ). Como regla general, se admite que estos animales pasan el día inactivos en sus refugios, que su actividad es principalmente nocturna, y que las condiciones meteorológicas determinan en gran medida el que se muestren más o menos activos (Hommay et al., 998). No obstante, se reconoce la existencia de diferencias interespecíficas en lo que se refiere a sus patrones de actividad y a la influencia que ejercen distintos factores ambientales sobre los mismos (Cook, ). También se ha apuntado la existencia de diferencias intraespecíficas en la importancia relativa de los distintos factores ambientales que controlan la actividad, en función del microclima o del tipo de ambiente en el que viva cada población (Lorvelec y Daguzan, 99; Iglesias y Castillejo, 996). La estrecha dependencia que presentan los gasterópodos terrestres con respecto de las condiciones ambientales hace de ellos unos modelos ideales para el estudio de la relación existente entre el comportamiento animal y el clima (Rollo, 98). Su carácter de plagas agrícolas es otro aspecto que contribuye a explicar el interés demostrado por numerosos investigadores en el estudio de su actividad en relación con las condiciones climáticas (Dainton, 954ab; Getz, 963; Webley, 964; Newell, 968; Cook y Ford, 989; Young y Port, 99; Young, Port, Emmet y Green, 99; Hommay, Lorvelec y Jacky, 998; Grimm y Kaiser,, Barrada, 3). Una de las formas de abordar ese estudio, que está recibiendo una gran atención en los últimos años debido a su aplicabilidad en el campo del control de plagas, es la elaboración de modelos de predicción o modelos expertos (Bohan et al., 997, Cook, ). Los modelos de predicción de actividad de animales con carácter de plaga representan una herramienta muy útil desde el punto de vista aplicado, puesto que permiten pronosticar períodos en los que los cultivos pueden sufrir un mayor daño y optimizar la utilización de los plaguicidas empleados para su control, reduciendo los costes económicos y ambientales que se derivan de su aplicación en momentos en los que no existe riesgo de daño para los cultivos (Frahm, Johnen, y Volk, T. 996; Hommay et al., 998; Hommay, ; Port y Ester, ). Importancia: los datos obtenidos después de esta investigación nos servirán para desarrollar un modelo estadístico de predicción abundancia y actividad. Assessment of progress and results. Por medio de los informes semestrales y anuales, y por medio de los controles personales que periódicamente el coordinador realiza a cada uno de los partner en el país correspondiente. Methodology The Barrada(3)methodology is followed to develop the activity models, this methodology is based on the ones designed by Young & Port (989) and Young et al. (99). These authors identified, for the diverse environmental conditions, the limits that define the high land snail activity nights, without attempting to mathematically describe the limits that define those lines, but only giving the extreme values to define the 8

20 optimal range values for each variable. These models predict that high activity nights will be those with all the variables comprehend between their optimal ranges. Sampling. The land snail s activity analysis is done in the same study area used to analyze its feeding habits. The samplings are done during three consecutive nights per month; this means a total of 7 nights during the sampling period. Every night two investigators examine during three hours the study area, searching for active land snails. The tours are done thoroughly, searching the soil and vegetation, but no effort is done to locate those out of the observer s sight. At the beginning of each sampling and subsequently, at hour intervals, the soil temperature and the relative humidity are registered at 5 cm above ground. The soil temperature can be registered with an electronic thermometer fixed in the ground at cm deep, and the temperature and the relative humidity are registered with an electronic thermo-higrometer or a similar instrument. Variables and Statistical analysis. In the model, the activity is divided in three categories (low, average and high) according to the number of active land snails registered during 7 nights in each study area. This activity levels made up the dependent models or response variables, in other words, (the variable whose value was expressed in terms of the values of the independent or predicted variables). Within these environmental variables were considered measures on site during the samplings are considered as independent variables measures on site during the samplings is considered as independent variables: i) the atmospheric conditions registered on site during the samplings; ii) atmospheric conditions corresponding to the sampling day and the days before it, according to the data registered in a near thermo-pluviometric station; iii) time variables (month, season); and iv) related variables with the land snails population dynamics in the sample area. All considered variables are compiled in table 5.. Because of the data nature, qualitative response variables with more than two categories (three categories: low, average and high) and a serial of qualitative (factors) and quantitative (co variables) variables as independent variables, the statistical procedure to relate the land snails activity level with the independent variables was the ordinal regression (McCullagh, 98; McCullagh & Nelder, 989). To carry out the data analysis it can be used the SPSS, using the PLUM method for the ordinal regression (SPSS documents), or any related statistic programs (Barrada, 3). 9

ADAPTACIÓN DE REAL TIME WORKSHOP AL SISTEMA OPERATIVO LINUX

ADAPTACIÓN DE REAL TIME WORKSHOP AL SISTEMA OPERATIVO LINUX ADAPTACIÓN DE REAL TIME WORKSHOP AL SISTEMA OPERATIVO LINUX Autor: Tomás Murillo, Fernando. Director: Muñoz Frías, José Daniel. Coordinador: Contreras Bárcena, David Entidad Colaboradora: ICAI Universidad

Más detalles

Este proyecto tiene como finalidad la creación de una aplicación para la gestión y explotación de los teléfonos de los empleados de una gran compañía.

Este proyecto tiene como finalidad la creación de una aplicación para la gestión y explotación de los teléfonos de los empleados de una gran compañía. SISTEMA DE GESTIÓN DE MÓVILES Autor: Holgado Oca, Luis Miguel. Director: Mañueco, MªLuisa. Entidad Colaboradora: Eli & Lilly Company. RESUMEN DEL PROYECTO Este proyecto tiene como finalidad la creación

Más detalles

PROBLEMAS PARA LA CLASE DEL 20 DE FEBRERO DEL 2008

PROBLEMAS PARA LA CLASE DEL 20 DE FEBRERO DEL 2008 PROBLEMAS PARA LA CLASE DEL 20 DE FEBRERO DEL 2008 Problema 1 Marketing estimates that a new instrument for the analysis of soil samples will be very successful, moderately successful, or unsuccessful,

Más detalles

Diseño de un directorio Web de diseñadores gráficos, ilustradores y fotógrafos.

Diseño de un directorio Web de diseñadores gráficos, ilustradores y fotógrafos. Universidad Nueva Esparta Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas Escuela de Administración de Diseño de un directorio Web de diseñadores gráficos, ilustradores y fotógrafos. Tutor: Lic. Beaujon, María Beatriz

Más detalles

Mi ciudad interesante

Mi ciudad interesante Mi ciudad interesante A WebQuest for 5th Grade Spanish Designed by Jacob Vuiller jvuiller@vt.edu Introducción Tarea Proceso Evaluación Conclusión Créditos Introducción Bienvenidos! Eres alcalde de una

Más detalles

GENERAL INFORMATION Project Description

GENERAL INFORMATION Project Description RESULTADOS! GENERAL INFORMATION Project Description The campaign "Adopt a car " had as its main objective to position Autoplaza, the main automotive selling point of Chile, as a new car sales location

Más detalles

UTILIZACIÓN DE UN BOLÍGRAFO DÍGITAL PARA LA MEJORA DE PROCEDIMIENTOS DE CAMPO EN UNA CENTRAL NUCLEAR.

UTILIZACIÓN DE UN BOLÍGRAFO DÍGITAL PARA LA MEJORA DE PROCEDIMIENTOS DE CAMPO EN UNA CENTRAL NUCLEAR. UTILIZACIÓN DE UN BOLÍGRAFO DÍGITAL PARA LA MEJORA DE PROCEDIMIENTOS DE CAMPO EN UNA CENTRAL NUCLEAR. Autor: Ruiz Muñoz, Rafael. Director: Muñoz García, Manuel. Entidad Colaboradora: Empresarios Agrupados.

Más detalles

Los ensayos que se van a desarrollar son los siguientes:

Los ensayos que se van a desarrollar son los siguientes: I Resumen El objetivo principal del proyecto es desarrollar un software que permita analizar unos datos correspondientes a una serie de ensayos militares. Con este objetivo en mente, se ha decidido desarrollar

Más detalles

Descripción de contenidos del E-FORM Capítulo Proyectos de cooperación europea

Descripción de contenidos del E-FORM Capítulo Proyectos de cooperación europea Descripción de contenidos del E-FORM Capítulo Proyectos de cooperación europea DOCUMENTO NO VÁLIDO PARA PRESENTAR LA SOLICITUD* *Documento-resumen del formulario online (eform) de la 2ª convocatoria de

Más detalles

iclef-2002 at Universities of Alicante and Jaen University of Alicante (Spain)

iclef-2002 at Universities of Alicante and Jaen University of Alicante (Spain) iclef-2002 at Universities of Alicante and Jaen University of Alicante (Spain) ! Introduction! Passage Retrieval Systems! IR-n system! IR-n system at iclef-2002! Conclusions and Future works ! Introduction!

Más detalles

Agustiniano Ciudad Salitre School Computer Science Support Guide - 2015 Second grade First term

Agustiniano Ciudad Salitre School Computer Science Support Guide - 2015 Second grade First term Agustiniano Ciudad Salitre School Computer Science Support Guide - 2015 Second grade First term UNIDAD TEMATICA: INTERFAZ DE WINDOWS LOGRO: Reconoce la interfaz de Windows para ubicar y acceder a los programas,

Más detalles

Reinforcement Plan. Day 27 Month 03 Year 2015

Reinforcement Plan. Day 27 Month 03 Year 2015 BETHLEMITAS SCHOOL Reinforcement Plan Day 27 Month 03 Year 2015 TERM: I Date: COMPREHENSION GOAL: The students develop comprehension about the Living and Non- living things, plants, animals and their main

Más detalles

PROGRAMA. Operaciones de Banca y Bolsa SYLLABUS BANKING AND STOCK MARKET OPERATIONS

PROGRAMA. Operaciones de Banca y Bolsa SYLLABUS BANKING AND STOCK MARKET OPERATIONS PROGRAMA 4º Curso. Grado en Administración y Dirección SYLLABUS BANKING AND STOCK MARKET OPERATIONS 4 rd year. Pág. 1 / 8 Colegio Universitario de Estudios Financieros Leonardo Prieto Castro, 2 Tel. +34

Más detalles

HERRAMIENTA PARA LA OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL PORFOLIO DE PRODUCTOS DE LAS REDES DE VENTAS DE UN LABORATORIO FARMACÉUTICO

HERRAMIENTA PARA LA OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL PORFOLIO DE PRODUCTOS DE LAS REDES DE VENTAS DE UN LABORATORIO FARMACÉUTICO HERRAMIENTA PARA LA OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL PORFOLIO DE PRODUCTOS DE LAS REDES DE VENTAS DE UN LABORATORIO FARMACÉUTICO Autor: Tárano Pastor, Ramón. Director: Moreno Alonso, Pablo. Director: Ruiz del Palacio,

Más detalles

UNIVERSIDAD PONTIFICIA COMILLAS ESCUELA TÉCNICA SUPERIOR DE INGENIERÍA (ICAI) INGENIERO INDUSTRIAL RESUMEN. Resumen

UNIVERSIDAD PONTIFICIA COMILLAS ESCUELA TÉCNICA SUPERIOR DE INGENIERÍA (ICAI) INGENIERO INDUSTRIAL RESUMEN. Resumen RESUMEN Resumen 1 RESUMEN El uso de túneles de viento ha ido proliferando al mismo ritmo que la aeronáutica y otras disciplinas relacionadas con la ingeniería lo han hecho a lo largo del s. XX. Este tipo

Más detalles

CENTRO AGRONÓMICO TROPICAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN Y ENSEÑANZA

CENTRO AGRONÓMICO TROPICAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN Y ENSEÑANZA CENTRO AGRONÓMICO TROPICAL DE INVESTIGACIÓN Y ENSEÑANZA ESCUELA DE POSGRADO Análisis económico para entender la forma en que se asignan los bosques y otros usos de la tierra en el Corredor Biológico San

Más detalles

Entrevista: el medio ambiente. A la caza de vocabulario: come se dice en español?

Entrevista: el medio ambiente. A la caza de vocabulario: come se dice en español? A la caza de vocabulario: come se dice en español? Entrevista: el medio ambiente 1. There are a lot of factories 2. The destruction of the ozone layer 3. In our city there is a lot of rubbish 4. Endangered

Más detalles

SISTEMA DE CAPTACION DE AGUA DE LLUVIA Y ROCIO 4.1. RAINWATER (AND DEW) HARVESTING SYSTEMS 4.1. SISTEMA DE CAPTACION DE AGUA DE LLUVIA Y ROCIO La Región de Murcia es una de las principales zonas productoras

Más detalles

Karina Ocaña Izquierdo

Karina Ocaña Izquierdo Estudié Ingeniería en Sistemas Computacionales (1997) y una Maestría en Ingeniería de Cómputo con especialidad en Sistemas Digitales (2000), ambas en el Instituto Politécnico Nacional (México). En el 2003,

Más detalles

ANÁLISIS Y DESARROLLO DE UNA PLATAFORMA BIG DATA

ANÁLISIS Y DESARROLLO DE UNA PLATAFORMA BIG DATA ANÁLISIS Y DESARROLLO DE UNA PLATAFORMA BIG DATA Autor: de la Cierva Perreau de Pinninck, Leticia Director: Sonia García, Mario Tenés Entidad Colaboradora: VASS RESUMEN DEL PROYECTO Tras la realización

Más detalles

From e-pedagogies to activity planners. How can it help a teacher?

From e-pedagogies to activity planners. How can it help a teacher? From e-pedagogies to activity planners. How can it help a teacher? Elena de Miguel, Covadonga López, Ana Fernández-Pampillón & Maria Matesanz Universidad Complutense de Madrid ABSTRACT Within the framework

Más detalles

SIGUIENDO LOS REQUISITOS ESTABLECIDOS EN LA NORMA ISO 14001 Y CONOCIENDO LAS CARACTERISTICAS DE LA EMPRESA CARTONAJES MIGUEL Y MATEO EL ALUMNO DEBERA

SIGUIENDO LOS REQUISITOS ESTABLECIDOS EN LA NORMA ISO 14001 Y CONOCIENDO LAS CARACTERISTICAS DE LA EMPRESA CARTONAJES MIGUEL Y MATEO EL ALUMNO DEBERA SIGUIENDO LOS REQUISITOS ESTABLECIDOS EN LA NORMA ISO 14001 Y CONOCIENDO LAS CARACTERISTICAS DE LA EMPRESA CARTONAJES MIGUEL Y MATEO EL ALUMNO DEBERA ELABORAR LA POLITICA AMBIENTAL PDF File: Siguiendo

Más detalles

Facilities and manufacturing

Facilities and manufacturing Facilities and manufacturing diseño y producción design and production Roomdimensions Ibérica,s.l (RDI) es una empresa experta en la fabricación de mobiliario técnico, diseño integral de soluciones arquitectónicas

Más detalles

Reducción de Riesgos En Deep Web

Reducción de Riesgos En Deep Web Reducción de Riesgos En Deep Web Puesta en Marcha 1. Antecedentes: Dr.X 2. Justificación: 1. Outreach virtual RdR: allá donde están las personas usuarias 2. Conocimiento directo, real e inmediato de nuevas

Más detalles

Plan de negocio para la explotación de un sistema de alquiler de bicicletas en la Comunidad de Madrid

Plan de negocio para la explotación de un sistema de alquiler de bicicletas en la Comunidad de Madrid Plan de negocio para la explotación de un sistema de alquiler de bicicletas en la Comunidad de Madrid Autor: Directores: Lago Vázquez, Óscar. Ortíz Marcos, Susana. Entidad Colaboradora: ICAI-Universidad

Más detalles

RDA in BNE. Mar Hernández Agustí Technical Process Department Manager Biblioteca Nacional de España

RDA in BNE. Mar Hernández Agustí Technical Process Department Manager Biblioteca Nacional de España RDA in BNE Mar Hernández Agustí Technical Process Department Manager Biblioteca Nacional de España RDA at the National Library of Spain: BNE preparation for new Cataloguing Rules Since 2007 BNE has been

Más detalles

UNIVERSIDAD NUEVA ESPARTA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS ADMINISTRATIVAS ESCUELA DE ADMINISTRACIÓN DE EMPRESAS TURÍSTICAS

UNIVERSIDAD NUEVA ESPARTA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS ADMINISTRATIVAS ESCUELA DE ADMINISTRACIÓN DE EMPRESAS TURÍSTICAS UNIVERSIDAD NUEVA ESPARTA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS ADMINISTRATIVAS Lineamientos estratégicos para un plan de marketing de la Feria Internacional de San Sebastián, en San Cristóbal, Estado Táchira Tutor Juan

Más detalles

ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UNA RED DE DISTRIBUCIÓN EFICIENTE EN TERMINOS DE COSTES OPERACIONALES.

ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UNA RED DE DISTRIBUCIÓN EFICIENTE EN TERMINOS DE COSTES OPERACIONALES. UNIVERSIDAD PONTIFICIA COMILLAS ESCUELA TÉCNICA SUPERIOR DE INGENIERÍA (ICAI) INGENIERO INDUSTRIAL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UNA RED DE DISTRIBUCIÓN EFICIENTE EN TERMINOS DE COSTES OPERACIONALES. Autor: Castillo

Más detalles

LA FIRMA THE FIRM QUIENES SOMOS ABOUT US

LA FIRMA THE FIRM QUIENES SOMOS ABOUT US LA FIRMA THE FIRM QUIENES SOMOS Somos una firma de abogados especialistas en derecho laboral, comercial y administrativo que entrega a sus clientes su conocimiento y experiencia de manera eficiente, oportuna

Más detalles

Final Project (academic investigation)

Final Project (academic investigation) Final Project (academic investigation) MÁSTER UNIVERSITARIO EN BANCA Y FINANZAS (Finance & Banking) Universidad de Alcalá Curso Académico 2015/16 GUÍA DOCENTE Nombre de la asignatura: Final Project (academic

Más detalles

Questionnaires for the Evaluation of Awareness in a Groupware Application

Questionnaires for the Evaluation of Awareness in a Groupware Application Questionnaires for the Evaluation of Awareness in a Groupware Application Technical Report DIAB-12-11-1 Montserrat Sendín a, Juan-Miguel López-Gil b, and Víctor López-Jaquero c a GRIHO HCI Research Lab.,

Más detalles

IRS DATA RETRIEVAL NOTIFICATION DEPENDENT STUDENT ESTIMATOR

IRS DATA RETRIEVAL NOTIFICATION DEPENDENT STUDENT ESTIMATOR IRS DATA RETRIEVAL NOTIFICATION DEPENDENT STUDENT ESTIMATOR Subject: Important Updates Needed for Your FAFSA Dear [Applicant], When you completed your 2012-2013 Free Application for Federal Student Aid

Más detalles

CONVOCATORIA ERASMUS.ES

CONVOCATORIA ERASMUS.ES -Novedad de la convocatoria: 1 de Abril de 2014 financiadas por el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte en el marco del Programa Erasmus + - El plazo finalizaba el 23 del mismo mes!! -La estancia

Más detalles

EVALUACIÓN DE CONTENEDORES PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE PLÁNTULAS DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica L.) EN ETAPA ALMÁCIGO BRAIAN ALEJANDRO LÓPEZ OSORIO

EVALUACIÓN DE CONTENEDORES PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE PLÁNTULAS DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica L.) EN ETAPA ALMÁCIGO BRAIAN ALEJANDRO LÓPEZ OSORIO EVALUACIÓN DE CONTENEDORES PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE PLÁNTULAS DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica L.) EN ETAPA ALMÁCIGO BRAIAN ALEJANDRO LÓPEZ OSORIO CORPORACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA SANTA ROSA DE CABAL, UNISARC FACULTAD DE

Más detalles

manual de servicio nissan murano z51

manual de servicio nissan murano z51 manual de servicio nissan murano z51 Reference Manual To understand featuring to use and how to totally exploit manual de servicio nissan murano z51 to your great advantage, there are several sources of

Más detalles

Learning Masters. Fluent: Wind, Water, and Sunlight

Learning Masters. Fluent: Wind, Water, and Sunlight Learning Masters Fluent: Wind, Water, and Sunlight What I Learned List the three most important things you learned in this theme. Tell why you listed each one. 1. 2. 3. 22 Wind, Water, and Sunlight Learning

Más detalles

Welcome to lesson 2 of the The Spanish Cat Home learning Spanish course.

Welcome to lesson 2 of the The Spanish Cat Home learning Spanish course. Welcome to lesson 2 of the The Spanish Cat Home learning Spanish course. Bienvenidos a la lección dos. The first part of this lesson consists in this audio lesson, and then we have some grammar for you

Más detalles

PERSISTENT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (POC S) ARE VERY TOXIC AND THEY PROVOKE DISEASES LIKE: -- Genetics damage from the birth.

PERSISTENT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (POC S) ARE VERY TOXIC AND THEY PROVOKE DISEASES LIKE: -- Genetics damage from the birth. 1 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BIOACUMULATION OF POC S AND GENETIC DAMAGE IN LIVER OF Goodea atripinnis FISH And THE PELECAN Pelicanus erythrorhyncus OF THE LAKE OF CHAPALA AND OF THE LAGOON OF SAYULA According

Más detalles

OSH: Integrated from school to work.

OSH: Integrated from school to work. SST: Integrada desde la escuela hasta el empleo. OSH: Integrated from school to work. ESPAÑA - SPAIN Mª Mercedes Tejedor Aibar José Luis Castellá López Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo

Más detalles

Sistemas de impresión y tamaños mínimos Printing Systems and minimum sizes

Sistemas de impresión y tamaños mínimos Printing Systems and minimum sizes Sistemas de impresión y tamaños mínimos Printing Systems and minimum sizes Para la reproducción del Logotipo, deberán seguirse los lineamientos que se presentan a continuación y que servirán como guía

Más detalles

Tesis de Maestría titulada

Tesis de Maestría titulada Tesis de Maestría titulada EL ANALISIS DE CONFIABILIDAD COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA OPTIMIZAR LA GESTIÓN DEL MANTENIMIENTO DE LOS EQUIPOS DE LA LÍNEA DE FLOTACIÓN EN UN CENTRO MINERO RESUMEN En la presente investigación

Más detalles

ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE DIFERENTES TECNOLOGÍAS DE

ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE DIFERENTES TECNOLOGÍAS DE ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE DIFERENTES TECNOLOGÍAS DE GENERACIÓN SOLAR EN FUNCIÓN DE LA CURVA DE DEMANDA Autor: Laura García Martín Director: Francisco Fernández Daza Mijares Entidad colaboradora: ICAI Universidad

Más detalles

TIPS: Understanding Overspray

TIPS: Understanding Overspray TIPS: Understanding Overspray In any pneumatic spray application, overspray is an area of concern that should be addressed early on. Fortunately if it does occur, it s easily remedied through the use of

Más detalles

ESTUDIO DE FACTIBILIDAD PARA LA CREACIÓN DE UNA PLANTA GENERADORA DE ELECTRICIDAD MEDIANTE APROVECHAMIENTO DE BASURA COMO FUENTE DE BIOGÁS

ESTUDIO DE FACTIBILIDAD PARA LA CREACIÓN DE UNA PLANTA GENERADORA DE ELECTRICIDAD MEDIANTE APROVECHAMIENTO DE BASURA COMO FUENTE DE BIOGÁS RESUMEN DE LA TESIS ESTUDIO DE FACTIBILIDAD PARA LA CREACIÓN DE UNA PLANTA GENERADORA DE ELECTRICIDAD MEDIANTE APROVECHAMIENTO DE BASURA COMO FUENTE DE BIOGÁS RESUMEN El propósito es generar energía eléctrica

Más detalles

DISEÑO DE UN MOLDE DE INYECCIÓN DE PIEZAS DE PLÁSTICO MEDIANTE LA UTILIZACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍAS DE PROTOTIPADO RÁPIDO

DISEÑO DE UN MOLDE DE INYECCIÓN DE PIEZAS DE PLÁSTICO MEDIANTE LA UTILIZACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍAS DE PROTOTIPADO RÁPIDO DISEÑO DE UN MOLDE DE INYECCIÓN DE PIEZAS DE PLÁSTICO MEDIANTE LA UTILIZACIÓN DE TECNOLOGÍAS DE PROTOTIPADO RÁPIDO Autor: Arribas Gridilla, Pedro. Director: Manini Gumz, Javier. Entidad Colaboradora: ICAI

Más detalles

Título del Proyecto: Sistema Web de gestión de facturas electrónicas.

Título del Proyecto: Sistema Web de gestión de facturas electrónicas. Resumen Título del Proyecto: Sistema Web de gestión de facturas electrónicas. Autor: Jose Luis Saenz Soria. Director: Manuel Rojas Guerrero. Resumen En la última década se han producido muchos avances

Más detalles

Barclaycard Center Identidad Visual / Visual Identity Uso de la marca como referencia / Use of the brand as reference

Barclaycard Center Identidad Visual / Visual Identity Uso de la marca como referencia / Use of the brand as reference Barclaycard Center Identidad Visual / Visual Identity Uso de la marca como referencia / Use of the brand as reference Julio 2014 / July 2014 Contenidos / Contents 02 Eventos / Eventos 3 14 15 16 Aplicacion

Más detalles

DESARROLLO DE UN SISTEMA INTEGRADO DE GESTIÓN DE PROYECTOS: PLANIFICACIÓN OPERATIVA, PLANIFICACIÓN ECONÓMICA Y PLANIFICACIÓN DE LA EJECUCIÓN.

DESARROLLO DE UN SISTEMA INTEGRADO DE GESTIÓN DE PROYECTOS: PLANIFICACIÓN OPERATIVA, PLANIFICACIÓN ECONÓMICA Y PLANIFICACIÓN DE LA EJECUCIÓN. DESARROLLO DE UN SISTEMA INTEGRADO DE GESTIÓN DE PROYECTOS: PLANIFICACIÓN OPERATIVA, PLANIFICACIÓN ECONÓMICA Y PLANIFICACIÓN DE LA EJECUCIÓN. Autor: Ramírez Vargas, Gema. Director: Muñoz García, Manuel.

Más detalles

http://mvision.madrid.org

http://mvision.madrid.org Apoyando el desarrollo de carrera de investigadores en imagen biomédica Supporting career development of researchers in biomedical imaging QUÉ ES M+VISION? WHAT IS M+VISION? M+VISION es un programa creado

Más detalles

Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Mangroves in the Southeast Pacific

Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Mangroves in the Southeast Pacific Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Mangroves in the Southeast Pacific Fernando Félix Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur CPPS www.cpps-int.org Permanent Commission for the South Pacific - CPPS

Más detalles

Gestión del Mantenimiento de una Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas. Autor: Albarrán Cuevas, Sergio. Directora: Fernández Membrillera, Vanesa.

Gestión del Mantenimiento de una Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas. Autor: Albarrán Cuevas, Sergio. Directora: Fernández Membrillera, Vanesa. Gestión del Mantenimiento de una Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas. Autor: Albarrán Cuevas, Sergio. Directora: Fernández Membrillera, Vanesa. Resumen La tendencia actual en la industria es un aumento en el

Más detalles

80 hm 3 de agua al año. 80 hm 3 water annually DESALINATION PLANT DESALADORA TORREVIEJA ALICANTE (ESPAÑA) ALICANTE (SPAIN)

80 hm 3 de agua al año. 80 hm 3 water annually DESALINATION PLANT DESALADORA TORREVIEJA ALICANTE (ESPAÑA) ALICANTE (SPAIN) 80 hm 3 de agua al año 80 hm 3 water annually DESALADORA DESALINATION PLANT TORREVIEJA ALICANTE (ESPAÑA) ALICANTE (SPAIN) SITUACIÓN SITUATION La desaladora de Torrevieja, situada en la localidad del mismo

Más detalles

Estudio y analisis en el diseño de una canal de comunicaciones para el desarrollo de la interactividad en la televisión digital RESUMEN

Estudio y analisis en el diseño de una canal de comunicaciones para el desarrollo de la interactividad en la televisión digital RESUMEN Estudio y analisis en el diseño de una canal de comunicaciones para el desarrollo de la interactividad en la televisión digital Autor: Alberto Cuesta Gómez Director: Dr. Sadot Alexandres Fernández RESUMEN

Más detalles

CETaqua, a model of collaborative R&D, an example of corporate innovation evolution

CETaqua, a model of collaborative R&D, an example of corporate innovation evolution CETaqua, a model of collaborative R&D, an example of corporate innovation evolution CETaqua: manage projects, create value Tomas Michel General Manager, CETaqua September 2011 1. AGBAR: R&D indicators

Más detalles

Diseño y fabricación de expositores PLV. Design and fabrication of POP displays

Diseño y fabricación de expositores PLV. Design and fabrication of POP displays Diseño y fabricación de expositores PLV Design and fabrication of POP displays Empresa Company Soluciones para el diseño y fabricación de expositores PLV Solutions design and manufacture POP displays Con

Más detalles

DISEÑO DE UN CRONOTERMOSTATO PARA CALEFACCIÓN SOBRE TELÉFONOS MÓVILES. Entidad Colaboradora: ICAI Universidad Pontificia Comillas.

DISEÑO DE UN CRONOTERMOSTATO PARA CALEFACCIÓN SOBRE TELÉFONOS MÓVILES. Entidad Colaboradora: ICAI Universidad Pontificia Comillas. DISEÑO DE UN CRONOTERMOSTATO PARA CALEFACCIÓN SOBRE TELÉFONOS MÓVILES Autor: Sánchez Gómez, Estefanía Dolores. Directores: Pilo de la Fuente, Eduardo. Egido Cortés, Ignacio. Entidad Colaboradora: ICAI

Más detalles

SOFTWARE PARA LA GESTIÓN INFORMÁTICA DE UNA CLÍNICA DENTAL

SOFTWARE PARA LA GESTIÓN INFORMÁTICA DE UNA CLÍNICA DENTAL SOFTWARE PARA LA GESTIÓN INFORMÁTICA DE UNA CLÍNICA DENTAL Autora: Laura Martín García Director: Alberto Ciudad Sánchez RESUMEN El objetivo de este proyecto es realizar el análisis, diseño y desarrollo

Más detalles

Universidad de Guadalajara

Universidad de Guadalajara Universidad de Guadalajara Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico-Administrativas Maestría en Tecnologías de Información Ante-proyecto de Tésis Selection of a lightweight virtualization framework to

Más detalles

Guide to Health Insurance Part II: How to access your benefits and services.

Guide to Health Insurance Part II: How to access your benefits and services. Guide to Health Insurance Part II: How to access your benefits and services. 1. I applied for health insurance, now what? Medi-Cal Applicants If you applied for Medi-Cal it will take up to 45 days to find

Más detalles

Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Díptera: Tephritidae), pero dado el poco rendimiento de nuestra población mantenida en laboratorio, se tomó como modelo la

Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Díptera: Tephritidae), pero dado el poco rendimiento de nuestra población mantenida en laboratorio, se tomó como modelo la RESUMEN El primer objetivo de este trabajo fue aislamiento cepas de hongos entomopatógenos a partir de suelo de olivar de Andalucía (España).El método de la " trampa Gallería" permitió identificar y aislar

Más detalles

Learning Masters. Fluent: Animal Habitats

Learning Masters. Fluent: Animal Habitats Learning Masters Fluent: Animal Habitats What I Learned List the three most important things you learned in this theme. Tell why you listed each one. 1. 2. 3. 22 Animal Habitats Learning Masters How I

Más detalles

Cambridge IGCSE. www.cie.org.uk

Cambridge IGCSE. www.cie.org.uk Cambridge IGCSE About CIE CIE examinations are taken in over 125 different countries Cambridge qualifications are recognised by universities, colleges and employers across the globe Sobre CIE Los exámenes

Más detalles

COSTOS DIRECTOS DE PRODUCCIÓN DEL CULTIVO DE TOMATE DE ÁRBOL

COSTOS DIRECTOS DE PRODUCCIÓN DEL CULTIVO DE TOMATE DE ÁRBOL COSTOS DIRECTOS DE PRODUCCIÓN DEL CULTIVO DE TOMATE DE ÁRBOL (Solanum betaceum) EN LA ETAPA DE ESTABLECIMIENTO EN LA FINCA EL VERGEL UBICADA EN LA VEREDA SAN RAMÓN DEL MUNICIPIO DE SANTA ROSA DE CABAL

Más detalles

Edgar Quiñones. HHRR: Common Sense Does Not Mean Business. Objective

Edgar Quiñones. HHRR: Common Sense Does Not Mean Business. Objective Edgar Quiñones HHRR: Common Sense Does Not Mean Business Objective Share experiences & insight gained in the last two decades in the management consulting business regarding why Common Sense Does Not Mean

Más detalles

Connection from School to Home Science Grade 5 Unit 1 Living Systems

Connection from School to Home Science Grade 5 Unit 1 Living Systems Connection from School to Home Science Grade 5 Unit 1 Living Systems Here is an activity to help your child understand human body systems. Here is what you do: 1. Look at the pictures of the systems that

Más detalles

Esta fase termina presentando el producto diseñado para cumplir todas estas necesidades.

Esta fase termina presentando el producto diseñado para cumplir todas estas necesidades. Resumen Autor: Directores: Alfonso Villegas García de Zúñiga Eduardo García Sánchez Objetivo El objetivo de este proyecto es estudiar la creación e implantación de un módulo de habitabilidad portátil.

Más detalles

Propiedades del Mineral en Molinos SAG y AG Ahorrando tiempo y dinero con MetSMART: Probando y Simulando la Dureza del Mineral

Propiedades del Mineral en Molinos SAG y AG Ahorrando tiempo y dinero con MetSMART: Probando y Simulando la Dureza del Mineral Propiedades del Mineral en Molinos SAG y AG Ahorrando tiempo y dinero con MetSMART: Probando y Simulando la Dureza del Mineral Ore Properties in AG/SAG Mill Saving Time and Money with MetSMART: Testing

Más detalles

Nos adaptamos a sus necesidades We adapt ourselves to your needs

Nos adaptamos a sus necesidades We adapt ourselves to your needs Nos adaptamos a sus necesidades We adapt ourselves to your needs Welcome to Select Aviation The largest and most successful airline representation group in Spain, SELECT AVIATION (GSA) Airline Representatives

Más detalles

INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL

INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL ESCUELA SUPERIOR DE TURISMO SECCIÓN DE ESTUDIOS DE POSGRADO E INVESTIGACIÓN MAESTRÍA EN ADMINISTRACIÓN E INNOVACIÓN DEL TURISMO ANÁLISIS DEL PROCESO DE GESTIÓN DEL TALENTO

Más detalles

Reporte de Prensa: elaborado el 4 de junio, 12:00 (GMT+2) www.euroclima.org. -Reporte de Prensa-

Reporte de Prensa: elaborado el 4 de junio, 12:00 (GMT+2) www.euroclima.org. -Reporte de Prensa- Este reporte recoge algunas de las notas de los medios de comunicación y de varias instituciones de América Latina y de la Unión Europea sobre la visita a la Comisión Europea del Director Ejecutivo del

Más detalles

Instructor: Do you remember how to say the verb "to speak"? Instructor: How do you ask a friend Do you speak Spanish?

Instructor: Do you remember how to say the verb to speak? Instructor: How do you ask a friend Do you speak Spanish? Learning Spanish Like Crazy Spoken Spanish Lección Dos. Listen to the following conversation: Male: Hablas inglés? Female: Sí, hablo inglés porque practico todos los días. Male: Dónde? Female: Practico

Más detalles

Pages: 205. Authors: Dr. Carmen Bestué, Ph. D. Dr. Mariana Orozco Jutoran, Ph. D. Chapters: 6

Pages: 205. Authors: Dr. Carmen Bestué, Ph. D. Dr. Mariana Orozco Jutoran, Ph. D. Chapters: 6 Pages: 205 Authors: Dr. Carmen Bestué, Ph. D. Dr. Mariana Orozco Jutoran, Ph. D. Chapters: 6 1 Course Description and Objectives The aim of this course is to provide an in depth analysis and intensive

Más detalles

ARIS Solution for Governance, Risk & Compliance Management. Ensure Business Compliance

ARIS Solution for Governance, Risk & Compliance Management. Ensure Business Compliance ARIS Solution for Governance, Risk & Compliance Management Ensure Business Compliance El exito en la implementacion de GRC consiste en mantener el balance correcto 7 June 2012 Software AG - Get There Faster

Más detalles

The Home Language Survey (HLS) and Identification of Students

The Home Language Survey (HLS) and Identification of Students The Home Language Survey (HLS) and Identification of Students The Home Language Survey (HLS) is the document used to determine a student that speaks a language other than English. Identification of a language

Más detalles

Registro de Semilla y Material de Plantación

Registro de Semilla y Material de Plantación Registro de Semilla y Material de Plantación Este registro es para documentar la semilla y material de plantación que usa, y su estatus. Mantenga las facturas y otra documentación pertinente con sus registros.

Más detalles

An explanation by Sr. Jordan

An explanation by Sr. Jordan & An explanation by Sr. Jdan direct object pronouns We usually use Direct Object Pronouns to substitute f it them in a sentence when the it them follows the verb. Because of gender, him and her could also

Más detalles

Speak Up! In Spanish. Young s Language Consulting. Young's Language Consulting. Lesson 1 Meeting and Greeting People.

Speak Up! In Spanish. Young s Language Consulting. Young's Language Consulting. Lesson 1 Meeting and Greeting People. Buenos días Good morning Buenos días Good afternoon Buenas tardes Good evening Buenas tardes Good night Buenas noches Sir Señor Ma am/mrs. Señora Miss Señorita Buenas tardes Culture Note: When greeting

Más detalles

Sistema de Control Domótico

Sistema de Control Domótico UNIVERSIDAD PONTIFICIA COMILLAS ESCUELA TÉCNICA SUPERIOR DE INGENIERÍA (ICAI) INGENIERO EN ELECTRÓNICA Y AUTOMATICA PROYECTO FIN DE CARRERA Sistema de Control Domótico a través del bus USB Directores:

Más detalles

Patters of evolution of the Mexican clearing house system (1940-1980) Demography or Levels of Economic Activity? Gustavo A.

Patters of evolution of the Mexican clearing house system (1940-1980) Demography or Levels of Economic Activity? Gustavo A. Patters of evolution of the Mexican clearing house system (1940-1980) Demography or Levels of Economic Activity? Gustavo A. Del Angel 2 Some facts for the period 1940-1980: Between the 1940s and the late

Más detalles

Improving Rates of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Never Screened Individuals

Improving Rates of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Never Screened Individuals Improving Rates of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Never Screened Individuals Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine Contents Patient Letter Included with Mailed FIT... 3 Automated Phone

Más detalles

Tres componentes importantes del programa Título I El propósito del Título I es de asegurar que todos los estudiantes tengan la oportunidad de

Tres componentes importantes del programa Título I El propósito del Título I es de asegurar que todos los estudiantes tengan la oportunidad de Qué es Titulo I? El programa Título I para la Educación Primaria y Secundaria es el programa educacional más grande que recibe fondos federales El gobierno federal proporciona asistencia financiera a las

Más detalles

Qué viva la Gráfica de Cien!

Qué viva la Gráfica de Cien! Qué viva la Gráfica de Cien! La gráfica de cien consiste en números del 1 al 100 ordenados en cuadrilones de diez números en hileras. El resultado es que los estudiantes que utilizan estás gráficas pueden

Más detalles

Disfruten su verano! Hola estudiantes,

Disfruten su verano! Hola estudiantes, Hola estudiantes, We hope that your experience during Spanish 1 was enjoyable and that you are looking forward to improving your ability to communicate in Spanish. As we all know, it is very difficult

Más detalles

GUIDE FOR PARENT TEACHER CONFERENCES

GUIDE FOR PARENT TEACHER CONFERENCES GUIDE FOR PARENT TEACHER CONFERENCES A parent-teacher conference is a chance for you and your child s teacher to talk. You can talk about how your child is learning at home and at school. This list will

Más detalles

Trading & Investment In Banking

Trading & Investment In Banking Trading & Investment In Banking MÁSTER UNIVERSITARIO EN BANCA Y FINANZAS (Finance & Banking) Universidad de Alcalá Curso Académico 2015/16 GUÍA DOCENTE Nombre de la asignatura: Trading & Investment In

Más detalles

Certificación en España según normas UNE-EN-ISO 9000 y 14000

Certificación en España según normas UNE-EN-ISO 9000 y 14000 Certificación en España según normas UNE-EN-ISO 9000 y 14000 Sexto informe de Forum Calidad Es este el sexto informe que Forum Calidad presenta sobre el número y distribución de las organizaciones españolas

Más detalles

UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE ODONTOLOGÍA ESCUELA DE POSTGRADO Dr. José Apolo Pineda

UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE ODONTOLOGÍA ESCUELA DE POSTGRADO Dr. José Apolo Pineda UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE ODONTOLOGÍA ESCUELA DE POSTGRADO Dr. José Apolo Pineda EVALUACIÓN IN VITRO DE LA FILTRACIÓN APICAL EN RAICES DE DIENTES EXTRAIDOS, UTILIZANDO DOS MÉTODOS DE OBTURACION:

Más detalles

~ 1 ~ Propuestas desde el sector pesquero representado por el clúster pesquero reunido en torno a la Cooperativa de Armadores del Puerto de Vigo

~ 1 ~ Propuestas desde el sector pesquero representado por el clúster pesquero reunido en torno a la Cooperativa de Armadores del Puerto de Vigo ~ 1 ~ WHY DOES THE COMMISSION IGNORE THE FAO WHEN SETTING THE MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD AND THE PRECAUTIONARY CRITERIA? Propuestas desde el sector pesquero representado por el clúster pesquero reunido

Más detalles

Introducción a la Ingeniería de Software. Diseño Interfaz de Usuario

Introducción a la Ingeniería de Software. Diseño Interfaz de Usuario Introducción a la Ingeniería de Software Diseño Interfaz de Usuario Diseño de la Interfaz de Usuario Normalmente no se contratan especialistas Hay casos en los cuales es más normal: videojuegos y sitiosweb

Más detalles

ANALISIS DE VIABLIDAD ECONÓMICA DE UNA PLANTA DE RECICLADO DE BATERÍAS PLOMO ÁCIDO

ANALISIS DE VIABLIDAD ECONÓMICA DE UNA PLANTA DE RECICLADO DE BATERÍAS PLOMO ÁCIDO ANALISIS DE VIABLIDAD ECONÓMICA DE UNA PLANTA DE RECICLADO DE BATERÍAS PLOMO ÁCIDO Autor: Gallardo Gómez, Gloria Director: de Rábago Marín, Jaime Entidad Colaboradora: ICAI- Universidad Pontifica de Comillas

Más detalles

PROYECTO INFORMÁTICO PARA LA CREACIÓN DE UN GESTOR DOCUMENTAL PARA LA ONG ENTRECULTURAS

PROYECTO INFORMÁTICO PARA LA CREACIÓN DE UN GESTOR DOCUMENTAL PARA LA ONG ENTRECULTURAS PROYECTO INFORMÁTICO PARA LA CREACIÓN DE UN GESTOR DOCUMENTAL PARA LA ONG ENTRECULTURAS Autor: García Lodares, Victor. Director: Castejón Silvo, Pedro. Entidad Colaboradora: Entreculturas. Resumen del

Más detalles

RESUMEN DE TRABAJO DE GRADO

RESUMEN DE TRABAJO DE GRADO RESUMEN DE TRABAJO DE GRADO Universidad Nueva Esparta. Facultad de Ciencias de la Informática. Escuela de Computación. Autores: Barrios M. Cesar E, Céspedes Nelson Tutor: Gabriel Méndez Titulo: Implantación

Más detalles

e-respyme Sistema de Gestión Ética y Socialmente Responsable para la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa

e-respyme Sistema de Gestión Ética y Socialmente Responsable para la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa e-respyme Sistema de Gestión Ética y Socialmente Responsable para la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa LLP-LdV/TOI/2007/ES/149022 1 Project Information Title: Project Number: e-respyme Sistema de Gestión Ética

Más detalles

July 2011. Graduations & Learning After High School. Español/Spanish

July 2011. Graduations & Learning After High School. Español/Spanish July 2011 Graduations & Learning After High School Español/Spanish Last month our schools graduated 1,734 students from high school. These are students who met all the graduation standards from the State

Más detalles

Real Time Systems. Part 2: Cyclic schedulers. Real Time Systems. Francisco Martín Rico. URJC. 2011

Real Time Systems. Part 2: Cyclic schedulers. Real Time Systems. Francisco Martín Rico. URJC. 2011 Real Time Systems Part 2: Cyclic schedulers Scheduling To organise the use resources to guarantee the temporal requirements A scheduling method is composed by: An scheduling algorithm that calculates the

Más detalles

PEMEX E&P South Region OMC 2015

PEMEX E&P South Region OMC 2015 PEMEX E&P South Region OMC 2015 Austin, TX. USA Por: Mario Alejandro Mosqueda Thompson (PEMEX) Juan D. Osorio Monsalve (OVS GROUP MEXICO) The system is based on integrating databases and capture of different

Más detalles

Palabras clave: adoquines, agregado RCD, agregado natural, flexo-tracción y método Füller.

Palabras clave: adoquines, agregado RCD, agregado natural, flexo-tracción y método Füller. RESUMEN El objetivo general del presente estudio consiste en estudiar el uso de agregados reciclados de residuos de construcción y demolición (RCD) provenientes de la ciudad de Cali en la construcción

Más detalles