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2 ENGLISH ABBREVATIONS 1. AIP Acute Intoxication from Pesticides. 2. ANIFODA Asociación de Formuladores y Distribuidores de Agroquímicos. 3. CTE Executive Technical Council. 4. UNEP United Nations Environment Program. 5. MCA-N Millennium Challenge Account-Nicaragua. 6. MCC Millennium Challenge Corporation. 7. IGRs Insect Growth Regulators. 8. INTA Nicaraguan Institute of Agriculture Technology. 9. IPM Integrated Pest Management. 10. MAGFOR Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 11. MARENA Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources. 12. MIFIC Ministry of Industry and Commerce. 13. MINSA Ministry of Health. 14. MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets. 15. OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 16. PCPs Polychlorinated Biphenyls. 17. PERSUAR Preparation of the Pesticide Evaluation Report and Safer Use Recommendations. 18. PIC Prior Informed Consent. 19. POPs Persistent Organic Pollutants. 20. RUP Restricted Use Product. 21. USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency. 22. WHO World Health Organization. 2

3 CONTENTS I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...4 II. INTRODUCTION...5 III REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ABILITY OF THE APPLICANT COUNTRY (NICARAGUA) TO REGULATE OR CONTROL THE DISTRIBUTION, STORAGE, USE AND ELIMINATION OF REQUIRED PESTICIDES CERTAIN IMPORTANT ACHIEVEMENTS TO REDUCE CONTAMINATION:... 9 IV IMPACTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE ENVIRONMENT IMPACTS OF PESTICIDE USE ON HUMAN HEALTH THE CASE OF NICARAGUA V REGIONAL OVERVIEW ON AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION: LEON AND CHINANDEGA.12 VI MAIN CROPS VARIETIES ATTENDED BY THE RURAL BUSINESS PROGRAM BACKGROUND THE AGRICULTURE CLUSTER VII OVERVIEW ON PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT DURING THE CROP STAGES...17 VIII INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...18 IX 8.1 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) PHILOSOPHY Program Design in the Sector Conditions for the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Effective Activities to Promote Integrated Pest Management The Process of Integrated Pest Management PESTICIDE EVALUATION REPORT AND SAFER USE RECOMMENDATIONS Criteria for the Selection and Use of Pesticides Guidelines for the Preparation of the Pesticide Evaluation Report and Safer Use Recommendations (PERSUAR) SAFETY MEASURES FOR PESTICIDE USE AND MANAGEMENT SAFETY MEASURES PESTICIDE USE AND HANDLING RISK PREVENTION IN THE HANDLING OF PESTICIDES In Case of Intoxication First Aid in Case of Intoxication SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PROJECT TECHNICIANS IN RECOMMENDING PESTICIDE USE 28 3

4 I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4

5 II. INTRODUCTION Crops, forests and domesticated animals are susceptible to be harmed or destructed by pests, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, insects, mites, nematodes, birds and other organisms. Crop loss due to pests in the field and after harvest is as high as 25% to 50% around the world and perhaps even more severe in developing countries. Post-harvest loss due to pest outbreaks frequently has devastating effects on the economy and food supply of farmers and communities. The pests responsible for diseases among animals may also infect humans. Diseases transmitted by insects cause pain and suffering and reduce affected individuals capabilities to work (United Nations Environment Program - UNEP, 1992) Synthetic pesticides such as herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and other methods of control involving synthetic chemicals have been the dominant means used to control pests in industrialized countries for more than fifty years. Nevertheless pesticide use in crop production has been suspected of being a major contributor to environmental pollution. New safety standards set forth by the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) have significantly impacted the availability and/or use patterns of important crop protection chemicals used in agriculture, especially organophosphate and carbamate insecticides/miticides To reduce risk in pest management in accordance with national regulations, MCC environmental guidelines and other regulatory activities, the MCC has requested that a Pest and Diseases Management Plan (PDMP) is developed in order to provide the agricultural activities supported by the Program with a guide on pest management techniques and tools that are safe for consumers, workers, and the environment. The main agricultural activities supported by the Rural Business Project (RBP) in León and Chinandega, are sesame, beans, bananas (musaceae), cassava root, cucurbits and vegetables (mainly tomato and sweet pepper.) 5

6 III REGULATORY FRAMEWORK All MCA-N activities must comply with the MCC Environmental Guidelines where Section 605(e)(3) of the Millennium Challenge Act of 2003 prohibits MCC for providing assistance for any project that is likely to cause a significant environmental, health, or safety hazard. Specifically the MCA-N Program will not be involved with the production, procurement or intentional release of: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified as of greatest concern to the global community. These include: Aldrin, Chlordane, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, Toxaphene, DDT (DDT may continue to be used specifically for malaria control via interior residual spraying if local regulations permit), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Dioxins, and Furans; Any pesticide or industrial or consumer chemical that is listed by the USEPA as banned or severely restricted under the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Program; or A product (including an emission of effluent) that is prohibited or strictly regulated via Restricted Use Product (RUP) status in the United States because of its toxic effects on the environment, or creation of a serious public health risk In this sense, any project that includes the purchase or use of pesticides with funds from MCC will need an Action Plan for the safe use and handling of pesticides, since this activity is considered to require special management due to the potential risks to humans and the environment. Each plan must also include an annexed environmental assessment which includes reference to Good Agriculture Practices (soil & plant health/analyses and water management) for each crop and off the shelf Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tactics used successfully in other countries. If the specific pesticides to be used on a determined crop cannot be identified at the time when the initial environmental assessment is prepared, then a prudential time period for its submission will be negotiated. These guidelines and procedures should be reviewed and updated, if necessary on an annual basis in particular, the list of banned pesticides. 3.1 Ability of the Applicant Country (Nicaragua) to Regulate or Control the Distribution, Storage, Use and Elimination of Required Pesticides. Nicaragua has a National Policy for the Integral management of Chemical substances and wastes (Presidential Decree ). This decree has the main objective of establishing the national policy for the integral management of substances and dangerous waste, its reference framework, the guidelines, programs, strategies and actions of the public administration, the civil society and the Nicaraguan population in general as well as building a system to achieve an 6

7 efficient management of the chemical substances and dangerous waste during the different steps of its life cycle intended to protect human health and environment, improve the quality of life and to get a sustainable development. The Scope and field of application of the policy includes: 1. Substances, product, residues and waste that have one of the following features: corrosiveness, reactivity, explosiveness, toxicity, eco-toxicity, flammability, bio-accumulative, bio-magnificence and persistence. 2. Chemical pesticides and organic persistent contaminant (OPC) of the Stockholm Convention and other substances and dangerous waste. 3. The management at all the stages of the substances lifecycle and dangerous waste since import, export, transport, commercialization, distribution, storage, use, recycling, treatment, final disposal and restoration of contaminated sites. Nevertheless, in Nicaragua as in the majority of countries in Latin America there is a lack of necessary resources and a limited operating structure to ensure completion of the laws and regulations regarding pesticides. Therefore, it is the responsibility of each project or program to supervise and promote pesticide manipulation in accordance with national laws. In the specific case of the CRM s Rural Business Program, the regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) must also be fulfilled. The General Law of Environment and Natural resources (Law 217 from 1996) declares that the environment is essential to the country s economic and social development. The Law enables establishment of norms to conserve, protect, improve and restore the environment and natural resources based on rational and sustainable use in accordance with the Constitution. The Law designates the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) as the national authority in charge of the management of toxic and hazardous waste and its transportation abroad for destruction. The Law also establishes that any citizen can initiate administrative, civil or criminal actions for infringement of the law. The Basic Law for the Regulation and Control of Pesticides, Toxic and Hazardous, and other High-risk Substances (Law 274, approved in 1998) has the objective of establishing the norms for the regulation and control of pesticides, toxic substances and other similar as well as determine the institutional responsibilities assuring the protection of human health, sustainable agricultural activities, natural resources, security and labor hygiene and the environment in general to avoid any damage that this products can cause due to inappropriate selection, handling and misuse. The Law establishes the institutional competences and applies to all activities related to management of import, export, distribution, sale, use, management and destruction of pesticides, toxic and other hazardous substances. It determines MAGFOR as the application authority and grants other competences to MARENA, MINSA, MITRAB, MTI, DGA and the municipal and regional governments. This 7

8 Law derogated Decree #32-93, that created the National Commission on Agrochemicals as an inter-institutional body to coordinate all aspects related to advising, consulting and support for the application of existing norms involving the registration, use and handling of pesticides. The complete text of the law can be found at the following website: The following are key points of the Basic Law for the Regulation and Control of Pesticides, Toxic and Hazardous, and other High-risk Substances: - The national Application Authority is supported by the Executive Technical Council (CTE), conformed by representatives from MAGFOR, the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) and the Ministry of Health (MINSA). - Responsibilities are defined for the government ministries, municipalities and autonomous governments within the framework of the law. - For the first time in Nicaraguan history (and as an exceptional case in Central America), a positive health report and a positive environmental report are required for each substance for which registration in the country is requested. - It is stipulated that revenues from the different tariffs must be part of the budget available to the CTE so that it may implement oversight and control actions. This aspect is considered critical for sustainability and will be difficult to ensure. In addition, the Ministry of Industry and Commerce (MIFIC) National Commission On Technical Regulation and Quality prepared and published NTON : Technical Environmental Regulations for the Toxicological Classification and Labeling of Pesticides and Toxic, Dangerous and Other Substances. (See: Nicaragua signed in May 2001 the Stockholm Convention or Persistent Organic Pollutant Treaty (POP Treaty). Under the POP treaty the signatory s countries compromise to reduce or eliminate the production and use of 12 POP. In July 2001, trough the Ministerial Agreement No , the Minister of Agriculture and Forestry (MAGFOR), banned the import, commercialization and use of active ingredients, formulated products and any mixture of 17 pesticides, 12 of them included in the Stockholm Convention. In May 2004, the MAGFOR issued the Ministerial Resolution banning the Monocrotophos molecule and establishing severe restriction for the introduction, formulation, packing and use of: Carbofuran, Chlorpirifos, Endosulfan, Etoprophos, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Terbufos, Paraquat, Methyl parathion, Aldicarb and Aluminum Phosphide. 8

9 3.2 Certain important achievements to reduce contamination: In addition to the POPs and PIC treaties and seeking to help reduce the number of harmful pesticides and thus to reduce contamination, an international campaign entitled The Dirty Dozen was launched in 1985 to reduce the use of the twelve most common and most dangerous pesticides, some of which had also been prohibited in the United States by that country s Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The Dirty Dozen list has since grown from 12 to 18 products, and it provided original impetus for development of the POPs Treaty. (Allan check with PAN) This new list of 18 Dirty Dozen pesticides includes: Aldicarb, Aldrin, BHC (Benhexachlor, a gamma isomer of HCH, also called Lindane), Camphechlor, Chlordane, Chlordimeform, DBCP (1,2-DiBromo-3-ChloroPropane), DDT (Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane), EDB (Ethylene DiBromide), Endrin, Heptachlor, HCH (1,2,3,4,5,6-HexaChlorocycloHexane, generally a mixture of isomers), Methyl Parathion, Paraquat, Parathion, PentaChloroPhenol (PCP), and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid). IV IMPACTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH 4.1 Potential Impacts of Pesticides on the Environment Pesticide use in crop production has been suspected of being a major contributor to environmental pollution. The post-war period has seen continued increases in both agricultural productivity and pesticide use. There are widespread and growing concerns of pesticide over-use, relating to a number of dimensions such as contamination of ground water, surface water, soils and food, and the consequent impacts on wildlife and human health. The use and abuse of pesticides has disturbed the ecological balance between pests and their predators in developed and developing countries. The lesser developed countries still don t use as much pesticide as does the industrialized world, however pesticide use in many third world countries is not as regulated as it is in the developed countries In the developed regions, the pesticide market is dominated by herbicides, which tend to have lower acute, or immediate, toxicity than insecticides. In most developing nations, the situation is reversed, and insecticide use predominates, with a correspondingly higher level of acute risk. Although the volume of pesticides that developing countries use is small relative to that in developed countries, it is nonetheless substantial and is growing steadily. FAO estimated that in the 21st century, pesticides use would increase in the developing countries. 9

10 Almost all synthetic pesticides are potent and dangerous chemicals. Many pesticides, especially those used in large quantities in developing countries, are very toxic for human health and harmful to the environment (UNEP, 1984). In other words, their effects are always unspecific to the pests against which they are applied, causing broad and unexpected effects against many types of living creatures, from beneficial insects and birds that act as natural pest controllers, to human beings. Many large bodies of water, such as the Gulf of Fonseca and San Juan River, have been contaminated by the drainage of pesticides from surrounding agricultural zones. This resulted in the deterioration of health and the environment in many areas of Central America during the 1990s, including a high rate of sickness due to pesticides (PAHO/WHO, 1996). -Deficient Quality Control. Almost one third of all pesticides sold in developing countries are of poor quality, containing impurities or excessively high concentrations of active ingredients (FAO/WHO, 2001). -Inappropriate Usage. The impact of synthetic pesticides on developing countries is intensified by the way in which they are used. These pesticides must be handled by personnel trained to target identified pest problems, with materials specific to said pests, special application equipment, special protective gear and clothing, and with careful attention to directions in terms of the quantity, frequency and time of application for each affected crop. These controls are almost never respected in developing countries. -Resistance to Pesticides and Increasing Use Cycles. The use of any synthetic pesticides against organisms that have developed resistance leads to a cycle in which new and increasingly costly pesticides are required to control the pest. 4.2 Impacts of Pesticide Use on Human health The Case of Nicaragua Acute and chronic exposure to pesticides can be extremely harmful. 1 Those at greatest risk include individuals who are exposed to larger quantities of pesticides, such as manufacturers, farmers, farm workers and their families. These groups are almost always among society s poorest sectors. Acute and chronic effects vary according to the type and grade of pesticide. The effects of acute exposure to certain pesticides include vomiting, strong headache, skin afflictions and even death. Chronic exposure, combined with other factors, can lead to the development of cancer, fetal mutations, and reductions in fertility, sterility, chronic degenerative 1 Acute exposure involves the inhalation, ingestion or absorption through the skin of large doses of pesticide within a short period of time. Chronic exposure involves small quantities of pesticide that enter the organism over longer periods of time. 10

11 diseases like Parkinson, and permanent damage to the eyes, lungs, liver and other organs. Among the synthetic pesticides used today, some compounds are known to cause these effects. In certain cases, the most generalized and unexpected serious effects do not appear until many years after the agent has been introduced. In this respect, DDT is perhaps the most famous case; it was found to bioaccumulate in the food chain and cause unexpected toxic effects against reproduction. When this occurs, the respective pesticides are generally prohibited in industrialized nations (programs). However, many continue to be sold legally and illegally in developing countries. In Nicaragua, the inappropriate use of agrochemicals causes some 1,500 cases of intoxication per year. However, with the agrochemical distributors application of the International Code of Conduct for Pesticide Distribution and Use, efforts will be made to reverse this trend (Núñez, 2006). According to the Pesticide Commission, agrochemical intoxications have decreased in the country from 1,600 cases in 2000 to 1,400 cases in In the author s opinion, this reduction is due to the constant educational campaign that different institutions have implemented at the national level, along with restrictions placed on the most dangerous products, such as Fosfina. The consumption of this famous tablet to cure grains formerly caused the deaths of 200 out of 1,000 people affected. In 2005, however, the mortality rate dropped to 45 (Salmeron, 2006). In 1997, 226 intoxications were reported in the department of Chinandega alone, and 39 in León. The pesticides most commonly involved in AIPs include: methamidophos, methomyl, aluminum phosphide and chlorpyrifos, and to a lesser extent deltamethrin, cypermethrin, paraquat, propoxur and methyl parathion. 2 The spraying of crops (maize, beans and coffee) is the most frequent activity (66%). Pesticides in Human Plasma. Studies have been carried out on organochlorine pesticide contamination in human blood, breast milk, dairy milk and foods in general, water and sediments (Klein et al. 1987) in Chinandega and León, finding toxaphene values ranging from 0.19 to 21 micrograms per liter. The highest concentrations of pesticides were found among inhabitants of Chinandega (El Viejo). CNDR/MINSA (1989) found organochlorine pesticide residuals in 50% of dairy derivative samples (N=20), including alpha-bhc, pp-dde, pp-ddt, chlordane and toxaphene. This is 4% higher that the maximum permissible level in Europe. 2 The pesticides in bold type were used in Nicaragua even after they had been banned internationally. 11

12 Triazines (anticryptogamics or herbicides). These are the herbicides most used in farming. They also severely contaminate the environment, can enter ground drinking water sources, and cause intoxication among humans and animals. Non-selective, total or absolute, Gramoxone, and Reglone, contact Gramoxone and Surcopur, translocation: 2,4-D Trifluralin, 2,4,5-T dalapon (Carrazana and Rodríguez, 1979). In direct interviews carried out by Zamorano specialists with farmers in León and Chinandega in 2001, the farmers expressed concern about the increase in suicides caused by the ingestion of paraquat and especially aluminum phosphide tablets. The farmers were aware of the sterility problems caused by DBCP in the past, as well as the possible chronic effects of pesticide use. In their own words, they said that insecticide kills you little by little. V REGIONAL OVERVIEW ON AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION: LEON AND CHINANDEGA The regions of Leon and Chinandega are located in the Pacific Macro Region occupying the northern part of the country and extending over an area of 9, square kilometers which means proximately 8 percent of the total surface of the Nicaragua. Its limits are: in the North to the Regions of Las Segovias and Golfo de Fonseca, South and West to the Pacific Ocean, East to the Departments of Estelí and Matagalpa and Southwest to the department of Managua. The two regions are highly productive and their economies are mainly based on farming, specifically in agro export including sugar cane, peanut, banana, sesame and in a less extension fruit, coffee and soya, as well as grains and natural and improved grass varieties for feeding cattle. Historically, it has been the agroindustrial region per excellence and actually it seems to be important for fishing, geothermic energy, mines, livestock and tourism. Inside the region of Leon and Chinandega is located the zone denominated in PRORURAL 3 as of agro-industrial productive reactivation because it presents the best conditions for the development of intensive farming activities and agroindustry. The region is of great importance for those activities and projects were fast results are sought. In this region are found the best soils of the country, good climate and infrastructure supporting the farm production with a good irrigation potential. Corinto, the main international harbor is located in the region and is the main door for the commercial shipping to the markets connected to the Pacific Ocean (west cost of the US, Mexico, South American countries such as Chile and the Asian continent). El Guasaule, is the main border post that facilitates the regional 3 12

13 commerce mainly with Honduras and El Salvador where ocean communication take place through the Golfo de Fonseca. The West region has an important participation on the primary production. It represents 11 percent of the agricultural surface and 12 percent of the agricultural exploitation (or exportation) of the country. Between 98 and 99 percent of the farmers are individuals producers, with the remaining farming distributed between public owned, cooperatives, indigenous communities and other companies. Around 24 % of the national active cooperatives are found in the region. The western region is characterized by its sesame production which contribution to the Gross Internal Product (Producto interno Bruto) in 1995 and 2001 was of 0.55% and 0.12% respectively. In relation to the PIBA for the same years it was of 2 and 4% respectively. It also concentrates more the 90% of the soy production which is mainly used for the oil production and manufacturing of animal feed concentrates. The region has the biggest cultivated surface of sugar cane in the country, it also concentrates the shrimps farming activity which contribution to the annual exports has reach more than 100 million dollars between 1995 and 2002 (BCN/3). The region has an important transport, electric and water infrastructure in better condition than those in other parts of the country 4. On the energy sector the region has a developing potential from its geothermic resources such as the geothermic plant called Patricio Arguello Ryan, located in the Volcan Momotombo as well as the San Jacinto Tizate project (in the Municipality of Malpaisillo). The sugar refinery San Antonio generates it own energy out of biomass from the sugar canes and eucalyptus growth in their own land. The sugar refinery sells the remaining generated energy to the national red and could increase its energy importance if the cooperation Brasil Central America for the use of ethanol should materialize. This region has the mayor amount of aquifers on the national territory, especially in the department of Chinandega. The watershed Estero Real Rio Negro, has an available volume of water of 90 millions of CM per year and a surface of 447 sq. Km. The Tonala Villa 15 de Julio watershed has available volume of water of 90 millions of CM per year and a surface of 307 sq. Km. Both of the watersheds drain to the Pacific Ocean 5. This aquifer potential is important for the agricultural and forest sector development. Furthermore, the region has marine resources that contribute to the local and national economy such as industrial and artesian fishery, mollusks extraction and other species native of the mangrove ecosystems. 4 La región se vio beneficiada por los esfuerzos de reconstrucción post Huracán Mitch, por lo que es la única región que presenta mejoras en la red vial en su área rural. 5 PROTIERRA,

14 According to the estimations made by The Cleaner Development National Office at the Ministry of Environment and National Resources (MARENA from Spanish) throughout the Vulnerability Actual Assessment of the Water Resources System and Agriculture in the Watershed No. 64, the potential of the Chinandega Leon aquifer is estimated in 1, million cubic meters/year. It is understood that out of a total extraction of million cubic meters/year, 98.7 % corresponds to drilled wells (pozo perforado) extraction and 1.3% corresponds to volumes extracted from digged wells (pozo excavado) used specifically for domestic activities. The main extracted water volume corresponds to the one used for irrigation systems equivalent to 74.5% of the total volume. According to the FAO s 1998 report, the irrigated area in the zone was 21,766 Ha with a potential irrigation area of 91,175 Ha. According to the Water Resources Management Action Plan of 1997, the main irrigated areas en the watershed No. 64 are those of the San Antonio Sugar refinery (11,000 Ha of sugar cane) in the municipality of Chichigalpa, Monterosa Sugar refinery (1,743 Ha of sugar cane) in the municipality of El Viejo, Nicaragua Standard Fruit (2,410 Ha of banana plantation) located in the department of Chinandega. Studies conducted in year 2000 by the National Institute for Territorial Studies (INETER) indicate that the irrigated areas on the plains of Chinandega Nagarote are covering 70,370 Ha. The study on the Nicaragua s 6 exports offer shows that several primary agricultural products reached more scores in an assessment using commercialization and production parameters. Peanut appears in second place, followed by honey in fourth place, beans (red, white and black) in fifth place and sesame in sixth. In the same order, these products are considered as stars products with exception of sesame which is considered as a product that could be successful if business opportunities are taking into account. During the years , 82% of the workers from Chinandega and 76% of the workers from Chinandega were hired in temporal bases, 89 and 85% of the jobs created in Leon and Chinandega respectively were occupied by men while women occupied 11 and 15% respectively in the same departments. Approximately 9 out of 10 permanent employments are occupied by men 7. Out of 100 manzanas of land near 86 manzanas are in men s hands and around 14 manzanas are handled by women. 6 Estudio de Oferta Exportable Real y Potencial de Nicaragua del Proyecto de Fortalecimiento de la Gestión del Comercio Exterior, CINASE/Dr. Javier Ferrer. MIFIC/BID. Mayo, CENAGRO III. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos. 14

15 The region showed important advances on Poverty Reduction between 1993 and 2001 possibly due to the post-mich efforts supported by the international cooperation. VI MAIN CROPS VARIETIES ATTENDED BY THE RURAL BUSINESS PROGRAM 6.1 Background Despite a comparative advantage in the production, processing and marketing of agricultural products, more than 70% of the rural population in León - Chinandega is poor. Producers, suppliers, service providers, processors, and marketing agents frequently work in isolation or are absent in the region. Women generally are less likely than men to participate in agricultural organizations, receive technical assistance or credit or plant higher profit-yielding crops, despite their significant presence as producers. The region also suffers from pronounced deforestation and inadequate irrigation for farming and other productive activities, especially the poor communities in the Northern Highlands and in the peninsula of Cosiguina. The Rural Business Development Project support services that help develop higher-profit agriculture and agribusiness enterprises. The Project focuses on reaching poor farmers who require more help in making the transition into these businesses. In addition, the Project helps sustain these enterprises by linking and coordinating businesses throughout the farm to market value chain producers, entrepreneurs, buyers, service providers, and investors. Investments in public goods such as applied research and investment promotion promise to attract investment and expand productivity in the region. The RBDP supports activities to improve water supply in order to facilitate higher-value, sustainable agriculture and forestry in the upper watershed areas of the region. 6.2 The Agriculture Cluster Through the Agricultural Value Chain and Cluster Development project, the operator of the agriculture cluster, Chemonics, is working to develop the agricultural value chain and to diversify farmers income to increase economic stability. By establishing linkages among farmers, entrepreneurs, exporters, processors, and related service providers, Chemonics will help to develop agricultural clusters to improve agricultural incomes and standards of living. The project expects to increase incomes for more than 3,000 beneficiaries in Leon and Chinandega, the regions of the country with the greatest productive potential. The main crops attended by the cluster are: Sesame 15

16 Sesame is an herbaceous plant with abundant angular and very graft roots and opposite leaves. Its flowers are of white reddish or yellow color and its fruit is a capsule that contains a great number of smallest seeds of grey color with a nut flavor. Out of the seeds it can be extracted a great amount of comestible oil, whose first extraction is clean and of pleasant flavor. Beans The kidney bean belongs to the leguminous or the fabaceas family out of which comes eatable plants like chick-peas, lentils, and peanut. The bean together with the corn forms the chain that generates proteins that are fundamental for the nourished of human being. Cassava Root (Yucca) The yucca is a perennial crop with high production of roots that served as a source of carbohydrates and foliages for the elaboration of flour that has a high percentage of proteins. The features of this crop allow their total use: the stem for their vegetative propagation, its leaves to produce the flours and roots for consumption, agro-industry or exportation. Plantain The banana is the fourth more important crop of the world, after the rice, the wheat and the corn. Besides is being considered as a basic product as well as for exportation. It constitutes an important source of job and income in numerous developing countries. From the 12 million tons of banana that are produced in the world, 10 million come from the Latin American countries and the Caribbean. Plantain is also considered the main crop of the humid and warm regions of southwest Asian countries. Cashew Cashew is a perennial fruit tree. It grows in clay and sandy soils of the tropical and subtropical coasts. The cashew nut has 21 to 29.9% of protein, and between 45 and 47% of fatty acids, of which 81.5% are non saturated fatty acids. Also the fruit is very rich in calcium and phosphorus and the false fruit, is rich in vitamin C. Besides the above mentioned crops, the Agriculture Program also provides funds for cultivating vegetables and honey. 16

17 VII OVERVIEW ON PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT DURING THE CROP STAGES Table 1. Main pest-related problems in the Northern Pacific Region Leon and Chinandega 8 Crop Insects Insecticides Diseases Fungicides Weeds Herbicides Corn Gallina ciega Chicharrilla Cogollero Gusano alambre Gorgojo Carbofuran* Chlorpyriphos Methamidophos Deltamethrin Terbufos* Aluminum Achaparramiento Pudrición de mazorca - Coyolillo Lechosa Flor amarilla Rottboellia Zacate gallina Bledo Atrazine Paraquat* Metolachlor Pendimethalin Sesame Soybeans Chinches Maya Gallina ciega Gusano cuerudo o falso alambre Gusano peludo Spodoptera Anticarsia phosphide* Chlorpyriphos Methamidophos Deltamethrin Chlorpyriphos Bacillus thuringienis Sorghum Mosca Chlorpyriphos Methamidophos Deltamethrin. It is important review the concentration) Dry Beans Mosca blanca Diabróticas (maya) Chinche Gusano peludo Gorgojo Methamidophos Deltamethrin* Aluminum phosphide* *Not recommended by MCA-N Pata negra Anthracnose Benomyl* Mancozeb Copper * oxychloride Cyproconazole Coyolillo Lechosa Ipomoea Zacate gallina Bledo Lechosa Jalacote Flor amarilla Bledo - - Coyolillo Zacate Johnson Lechosa Flor amarilla Mancha angular Mosaico Anthracnose Mustia Hilachosa Mancozeb* Benomyl* Rottboellia Zacate chompipe Flor amarilla Manga larga Bledo Mozote Trifluralin Paraquat* Imazaquin Metolachlor Trifluralin Atrazine 9 Paraquat* Metolachlor Pendimethalin Paraquat* 8 Source: Environmental Impact Assessment for Pesticides in Nicaragua. USDA-USAID/Zamorano updated November Could be an issue in groundwater. 17

18 VIII INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 8.1 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Philosophy There are many different definition of integrated pest management (IPM). In General, IPM can be considered a philosophy as well as a long-term preventive strategy that combines various compatible practices with insignificant or minimal negative effects against human health and the environment to reduce the populations of organisms to levels that do not cause significant economic loss among crops (Hilje, 1993). This is different from supervised control, which involves the use of pesticides only when necessary (Edwards, 1993). The World Bank definition is clear and concise: The integrated pest management approach focuses on the farmer and on his or her knowledge of intensive techniques to promote the natural control of pests. Its objective is to anticipate causal problems and prevent them from reaching economically damaging levels. Appropriate techniques are applied, such as intensifying the activity of natural enemies, cultivating pest-resistant species and adapting cultural management. As a last resort, sensible pesticide use is applied (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD, 1999). These guidelines seek to assist project designers and managers who, in turn, provide technical assistance for small-scale agricultural activities. It does not constitute a technical guidebook for integrated pest management. Rather, its purpose is to present important aspects and elements of the program. It is based on the document entitled Beyond Compliance: Guidelines for Promoting Safe and Effective Pest Management in the Developing World (Hruska, 2000). This document, together with the other resources cited at the end of these guidelines, should be consulted in order to obtain more detailed information. The definition of IPM has broadened to include a wide range of visions and goals, from supervised chemical applications to organic production. In this way, the term IPM has been adapted to accommodate contrasting objectives, from those who hope to increase pesticide sales to those who would rather eliminate pesticides completely. Among the central or fundamental ideas of IPM that constitute the basis of its implementation are 1) a necessary knowledge of the components of the respective agro-ecosystem (pests, their natural enemies, plant & soil health, water management), and 2) an understanding of crop phenology and physiology, the main focus of plant protection. However, it is not strictly necessary to have expert knowledge about all aspects in order to carry out IPM practices. Most farmers lack the time, know-how and financial resources to implement complicated pest management plans. Indeed, a majority of producers feel comfortable with chemical pesticides, since they are effective, fast acting, easily available, relatively simple to 18

19 use, and profitable. Farmers tend to view IPM as a complicated strategy that involves too many tactics that must be executed at unusual times of year and that require too much information. The strategies for plant protection differ among producers according to their levels of technology. The predominant strategy for low-income subsistence farmers (0.5-2 manzanas) is co-existence; in other words, pest control is left preferably to natural forces, and a large part of the damage caused by pests is tolerated (CATIE, 1990). Other strategies more common in farming systems with greater resources involve prevention, responding to the uncertainty about the possible presence of pests and their effects. Management strategies are implemented through the use of techniques that, when balanced rationally, constitute IPM programs. These techniques include biological control, genetic control, cultural practices, physical or mechanical control, quarantine or legal measures, autocide control, ethological control and chemical control. IPM does not negate the possibility of using pesticides. However, their use must satisfy several criteria, minimizing their impact on human health and the environment. One of IPM s expectations is precisely to reduce pesticide use substantially without reducing productivity and profitability Program Design in the Sector Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program promoted throughout the world as an alternative in pest management. It s essential elements include: Minimizing the use of pesticides; and Minimizing risks against health and the environment when pesticides are used. There are many definitions of an integrated pest management program. However, all variants must be developed with a clear idea of the groups toward which they are directed and of standardized practices. Small land owners in Latin American countries generally share the following characteristics: Use of synthetic pesticides. Several studies in Latin America have found that almost 90% or more of farmers who cultivate different species use pesticides. The reason is simple: synthetic pesticides have the impression of being efficient, fast acting and economical; they are easy to obtain and use and are culturally acceptable. Use of dangerous pesticides. Organophosphates and carbamates, two families of broad-use pesticides, are among the pesticides that small farmers use most frequently. 19

20 Organophosphates and carbamates cause acute and chronic neurological sequel. The World Health Organization has classified some of these insecticides as very dangerous, including methamidophos and methyl parathion (class 1 according WHO classification). Use of synthetic pesticides in dangerous forms. Small land owner do not respect safe management practices (which advise using protective gear and clothing, etc.) Due to economic and educational situations in developing countries, the safe use paradigm becomes a waste of time in the best of cases and a dangerous myth in the worst-case scenarios (Hruska, Bustamante 2001). In addition, pesticides are applied in excessive quantities. Small farmers know very little about the biology and ecology of many pests, and especially those that are microscopic; however, they may know a great deal about larger pests. It is common for them not to recognize or understand the pests that they cannot see, such as viruses, bacteria and insects that live in hidden habitats. This lack of knowledge may also give rise to pesticide abuse Conditions for the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management In order for integrated pest management to be adopted by small farmers, it must be commercialized effectively. IPM must not only be superior to current practices, but it is also necessary to convince the public toward which it is directed of this superiority. The name integrated pest management is an obstacle in itself, suggesting a very complicated process. What does superior to current practices mean? What most interests a farmer with limited resources is that the type of integrated pest management being promoted will improve pest control, or that it at least be equally effective and not require more time, energy or implementation costs than the current practice. Concerns over the negative impacts of pesticide use against health within the family and community and perhaps the local environment may awaken significant interest in the adoption of integrated pest management. This is especially true if these impacts on health and the environment are communicated in a graphic and moving manner. In addition to its health and environmental benefits, following are among the strongest points in selling IPM: Integrated pest management is more sustainable than synthetic pesticides in the long term. Integrated pest management requires less capital investment. 20

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