Índice. Executive Summary. Part I.: Framing the Issue: Urban Food Security II. Part II: The Local Context: Food Security Policy in Bolivia & La Paz

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2 Índice I. II. III. IV. Executive Summary Part I.: Framing the Issue: Urban Food Security Part II: The Local Context: Food Security Policy in Bolivia & La Paz Part III: The Municipal Food Security Committee of La Paz, Bolivia a. Origins: Joint Government and Civic Initiative b. Committee Structure c. Goals & Objectives: A Committee-led Holistic Approach d. Existing Legal Framework e. Existing Local Policy Initiatives f. Review of Case Studies g. Drafted Law h. Community Engagement i. Future Goals of the Committee Part IV: Lessons Learned Appendixes a. Data on Access, Distribution and Use of Food in La Paz b. Proposed Municipal Food Security Law of La Paz c. References d. Partner Institutions e. Credits

3 Executive Summary In an increasingly urbanized world, the time has come for cities to play an active role in the search for solutions that guarantee individuals and communities can satisfy their universal right to food. Today more than ever communities and governments must work together to adopt the policies, programs and innovations that can provide the foundation for food security of generations to come. This document is a review of an urban food policy model created and used in La Paz, Bolivia that has resulted in the successful creation of a municipal food security law. We aim to provide a detailed example of the origins and process of creating a municipal food policy in the hopes of exchanging best practice information and sharing valuable lessons with other peer organizations or municipalities striving to secure their food supplies, address urban food security, and plan for the future. This document details the process of engaging local actors and analyzing the fundamentals, variables and actions that must be carried out to ensure the right to food. As outlined in the section Municipal Food Security Committee of La Paz, Bolivia, it is our belief that successful food policy councils/committees and strategies include the following key components: Support from government, political leaders and community representatives in the form of a legal decree that creates and calls for the creation of the committee. Attention to committee structure, including identifying frequency of meetings, expectations of committee members, and sustainable staffing Multi-stakeholder involvement in the committee including representation from both government agencies, independent organizations and local professionals from various disciplines. This creates external credibility of the work of the committee. A committee-led, holistic approach to problem identification including a food system assessment exercise that guides a future food policy strategy and creates clarity on scope, goals and objectives of committee work. Identification of existing legal frameworks and policy initiatives that compliment or directly relate to food security. 1

4 Dossier of case studies that provide examples of food policy programs and approaches in identified focus areas. Case studies help promote debate on opportunities to adopt practices from other municipalities and sharpen the focus of what is viable in the local context. Opportunities for community engagement so as to build champions and provide space for public dialogue and feedback on the structure and contents of food policy initiatives. Simple, holistic legislative proposals that complement existing legal frameworks and other city strategic plans. This makes the law easier to move through the legislative approval process and easier for citizens to understand. A clearly documented action plan for passage of the law and role of the committee in monitoring implementation. Despite growing attention amongst city governments and international organizations on the importance of urban food and agriculture, there is a need to shift scale from isolated and ad hoc projects to sharing and scaling best practices. Certainly each municipality and region faces specific cultural, social, and political contexts, but adapting evidence based-practices allows for greater efficiency in use of resources and ultimately creates greater effectiveness in addressing urban food insecurity. We hope your city might consider this model as you aim to achieve similar goals and join the growing movement for a food secure world. We look forward to engaging with you. Sincerely, Maria Teresa Nogales Executive Director Fundación Alternativas 2

5 Part I: Framing the Issue- Urban Food Security Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations While nations collectively produce enough food to feed the world, nearly one billion people are chronically hungry or malnourished, an increasing number of whom live in cities. Close to 6 million children die each year before reaching the age of five as a result of malnutrition. At the same time, it is estimated that close to two billion people suffer from overweight and obesity-related diseases that the World Health Organization reports will be the number one killer of poor people globally by In fact, these diseases now cause close to 60 percent of all deaths worldwide and nearly 80 percent of these deaths occur in developing countries. While food-related issues may manifest themselves differently around the world from urban to rural areas, developed to developing countries they are particularly worrisome for growing urban centers. Urbanization will continue at an accelerated pace, and by 2050 it is estimated 70 percent of the world s population will live in urban areas. In order to feed this larger, more urban population, food production must increase and the system must adapt. This global scenario has forced nations in every region of the world to spend more time and resources than ever before devising strategies on how to ensure food security for their people. Increasingly, local authorities and citizens are working together to devise and implement programs and policies that improve availability and access to food within municipalities. Innovation in all sectors of production, distribution, quality, and safety must be addressed to create efficiencies in food systems and in effect create greater access and affordability of food for urban residents. Importantly, efforts to improve the appropriate use of food have also increasingly become a theme of focus. 3

6 In every region of the world, governments, policymakers, academics, international agencies, scientists, engineers, and many others have placed a special emphasis on finding sustainable solutions to ensuring food security for the world population. While many efforts will and do focus on devising strategies that can bolster rural development and large-scale agricultural production, cities can and must increasingly play a role in the search for innovation and solutions to guarantee access to food. All people have the right to water and food The State has the obligation to guarantee food security through healthy, suitable and sufficient food for the entire population - Article 16, Constitution of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (2007). 4

7 Part II: The Local Context- Food Security Policy in Bolivia and La Paz The Bolivian Constitution indicates that all people have the right to food. Nonetheless, shortcomings related to wealth distribution, employment and inefficiencies in the food chain inhibit many from obtaining sufficient amounts of fresh, healthy food. Today, Bolivia is ranked last for food security in Latin America and is ranked 61st in the world, far from other countries in the region. (The Economic Intelligence Unit, nd). According to the latest census conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (National Statistics Institute) in 2010, Bolivia has a population of close to 10.5 million inhabitants. As a result of significant migration from rural townships to urban centers in the past two decades, Bolivia s spatial distribution is at present characterized by a predominantly urban population. Today the country s ten largest cities are home to approximately 70 percent of the country s total population, while 50 percent are concentrated in only four cities: La Paz, El Alto, Santa Cruz and Cochabamba. Demographic data on Bolivia shows that 50 percent of the country s population is characterized as poor and largely marked by considerable nutritional deficiencies. Given the poorest sectors of society typically spend between 60 and 80 percent of their income on food, it appears the urban poor will continue to be the most vulnerable to market volatility and the fluctuating costs of food. The capital city of La Paz is the third largest municipality in Bolivia and concentrates a striking number of poor households with high-risk of chronic food insecurity. According to data collected by the local government, more than 50 percent of the population registers some degree of food insecurity. While this data generates concern, it also underscores the importance of prioritizing food security in the public agenda and the need to adopt actions that can serve as mechanisms to reduce household vulnerability to access, availability and appropriate use of food the three variables that determine food security. 5

8 Food Policy Councils Food Policy Councils (FPC) act as both forums for discussion on food-related issues and platforms for coordinated policy action. The central aim of most FPCs is to identify and propose innovative solutions to improve local or regional food systems, ensuring sustainable food security for the population. To this end, FPCs often engage in food system research, putting forth policy recommendations or writing food policies. Given an urban or regional food system is impacted by a number of government agencies and community elements, FPCs work across both governmental and non-governmental sectors, empowering multi-stakeholder groups, often including anti-hunger and food justice advocates, educators, non-profit organizations, civic leaders, government officials, producers, processors, distributors, grocers, restaurants, and workers. This allows FPCs to serve an important role in giving voice to diverse perspectives and concerns to ensure food policy and proposals are democratic and are responsive to community needs. Because they are often initiated by government actors - through executive orders, public acts or joint resolutions - FPCs tend to enjoy a formal relationship with local, city or state officials and take responsibility to educate policy makers and the public about the food system. Given the predicted challenges to ensure the right to food by 2050, FPCs have sprung up all over the world in municipalities and regions to address issues of food security and implement strategies that enable sustainable food production and supply to growing urban areas. - Harper, A. et al. Food Policy Councils: Lessons Learned. Institute for Food and Development Policy. (2009) 6

9 Part III: The Municipal Food Security Committee of La Paz, Bolivia ORIGINS: JOINT GOVERNMENT AND CIVIC INITIATIVE Due to the increasing concerns surrounding urban food security, the progressive Mayor Luis Revilla Herrero of La Paz and Fundación Alternativas a non-profit organization dedicated to generating sustainable approaches to greater food security in Bolivia s growing cities generated a plan to create the Municipal Food Security Committee of La Paz. It was decided the committee should be composed of both municipal authorities and local actors so as to add diversity to discussions and outcomes. The Mayor and Fundación Alternativas worked in coordination to create a list of government officials and independent professionals to appoint to the committee, and formal invitations were sent. The committee was named the Municipal Food Security Committee of La Paz, and was established in December of 2013, with the function of creating "a space for debate, analysis and drafting of municipal public policies that allow the municipality of La Paz to enjoy a healthy, more sustainable, and more resilient local food system." COMMITTEE STRUCTURE Selection of committee members was seen as a critical element of committee formation. Getting engagement from the right mix of stakeholders has been essential to the success of debate and proposed recommendations of the committee. Multi-stakeholder representation has increased the credibility of the work conducted and has been critical to the sustainability of the initiatives put forth to date. Expectations for the work to be conducted were set from the onset. It was decided the committee would met on a monthly basis and work collaboratively. Subcommittees would be formed when needed to address specific issues or challenges. 7

10 Fundación Alternativas has supported the ongoing work of the committee, guiding discussions and serving as a moderator during analysis and discussion sessions. This has become an essential element of the success given Fundación Alternativas has dedicated staff to planning and organizing meetings, putting together research material on food security and local food policies, as well as coordinating the participatory events that have taken place over the year. See below the mix of committee members representing private sector, civil society, municipal government, advocacy and educational institutions, urban planners, and producers. MEMBERS REPRESENTING THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT OF LA PAZ Director of the Office of Human Development Director of the Office of Economic Promotion Director of Plan 2040 (strategic urban planning office) Director of Regional Coordination Director of School Feeding Programs Director of Rural Planning and Development INDEPENDENT PROFESSIONALS Representative of CIDES-UMSA Local post graduate academic institution that focuses on the social sciences, economics and the humanities. Representative of Bio Bolsas Local sustainable agriculture initiative that follows a community supported agriculture (CSA) model. Representative Plan International - International organization that works to promote and protect the rights of children. Representative of Green Building Council of Bolivia A private non-profit organization that promotes sustainable design and construction in Bolivia. Representative of Sociedad Católica de San José - Community health and education organization working in underserved communities in La Paz. Representative of the Asociación de Municipalidades de Bolivia - Association of capital cities of Bolivia. 8

11 Why so many different stakeholders? Unlike some urban issues that clearly fall within the jurisdiction of one or a few government agencies, food systems are complex and often connected to the work of more than one municipality and government department. For instance, transportation agencies are concerned with infrastructure through which food travels from places of production to places of consumption as well as consumer access to markets and producers. Components of the system are critical to food access and affordability. Educational institutions are often large purchasers of food for school feeding programs as well as important mechanisms through which to deliver nutrition education programs. Economic development offices can create incentive programs for local producers and local markets in underserved neighborhoods. They can develop food processing facilities and support small food business and urban agriculture initiatives. Health departments play a role in public health programs related to food safety and nutrition and can promote programs aimed at addressing diet-related chronic disease. Human development and social service agencies can create support programs for marginalized populations. While each of the agencies work on aspects related to urban and regional food systems they are typically not linked to each other through a common vision or strategic plan regarding the food system. Linking each agency s work to another through a comprehensive food policy can create enormous opportunities for efficiencies in the system and lay the foundations needed to achieve goals successfully. 9

12 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: A COMMITTEE-LED HOLISTIC APPROACH The work of the Municipal Food Security Committee of La Paz began in December of From the onset, specific deliverables of the group included: 1 Unir 2 Generar 4 Monitorear 3 Interactuar Joining (Unir) experience and knowledge to generate discussions and debate, analyzing and creating actual food system sustainability strategies. Generating (Generar) food policy proposals supported by research, reports and other documents. Interacting (Interactuar) with stakeholders from various sectors related to the food system. Monitoring (Monitorear) feedback on the work of the committee and the implementation of proposed regulations once adopted. The first order of business was to review data that had been collected on the nature of food insecurity in the municipality of La Paz. Additionally, in order to provide 10

13 greater context to the importance of the work to be performed, an analysis of the state of food security at the global, national and local level was conducted. This data served to instruct the mission of the committee and created coherence among committee members regarding a common set of goals and objectives. See below some of the research and data used by the committee: Risk Maps: Local government maps that identify areas within a municipality including neighborhoods with higher food insecurity indexes; deficits of food supply centers; low income communities; and, neighborhoods with precarious road access. Food Policy and Urban Agriculture Case Studies: Case studies on international urban food policy and urban agriculture initiatives aimed at curbing food insecurity and ensuring citizens have access to healthy fresh foods. Legal Dossiers: National laws, ordinances and complimentary legal instruments that reinforce the need to prioritize food security and that allow and encourage public and private bodies to invest in the search for mechanisms that guarantee people s right to food. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Data: Studies, reports and surveys regarding food security in Bolivia and the world that provide valuable statistical and analytical information on access, availability and trends regarding the use of food. The next important step of the committee was identification, agreement on, and analysis of key challenges. Questions posed to the committee included: Is there food security in this city? In urban and rural areas? Is food insecurity more related to the unavailability of food in neighborhoods, poor purchasing power or the inappropriate use of food? What municipal legislation already exists that is relevant to food security? Is it feasible to build upon this existing legislation? Why is it important to invest in mechanisms and means to ensure food security? Which strategies are most relevant to the city s socio-cultural and economic context? The committee discussed each question thoroughly and was able to reach an agreement regarding conclusions which in turn led to a consensus on the need to work on and identify proposals within five interconnected focus areas (detailed below). Sub-committees were established to analyze each focus area and members were distributed into working groups based on their professional background. 11

14 The five focus areas and aims are: Nutrition and Education (Nutrición y Educación) Markets and Food Distribution (Mercados y Distribución) Origins and Nature of Food Demand (Origen y Naturaleza de los Alimentos) Transportation Infrastructure, Geography and Social Behavior (Coyuntura Vial, Geográfica y Comportamiento Social) Demand and Purchasing Power (Demanda y Poder Adquisitivo) MERCADOS Y DISTRIBUCIÓN NUTRICIÓN Y EDUCACIÓN ORIGEN Y NATURALEZA DE LOS ALIMENTOS COYUNTURA VIAL, GEOGRÁFICA Y COMPORTAMIENTO SOCIAL DEMANDA Y PODER ADQUISITIVO EXISTING LEGAL FRAMEWORK Highlighting the existing legal framework was an essential element of empowering the committee as well as laying the foundation for the work that laid ahead. Language highlighted below comes from various pieces of national and regional legislation. The Constitution of the Plurinational State of Bolivia states in Article 16 that: "Everyone has the right to water and food" and "the State has an obligation to ensure food security through a healthy, adequate and sufficient supply of food for all people." The Constitution of the Plurinational State of Bolivia through Article 302 empowers municipal governments to Plan and promote human development within their jurisdiction. 12

15 Law 144 of Revolutionary Productive and Community Agriculture states in Article 27 "the Bolivian population must have adequate nutrition and this should be ensured through the consumption of diverse foods which guarantee nutritional requirements over the course of life, supported through food and nutrition programs that are culturally appropriate, educational and informative." Law 3525 of Regulation and Promotion of Agricultural Production and Ecological Forestry states in Article 1 "the fight against hunger in the world is not only linked to the production of sufficient food but also to quality food, safe for human health and for biodiversity, that is accessible and available to all people." Law 300 of Mother Earth and Integral Development for Living Well states in Article 6 the importance of Knowing How to Eat which means eating quality food and natural products; knowing how to combine meals and beverages according to each season, respecting fasts and offering food to Mother Earth." In addition, there exist laws in Bolivia that mention the importance of feeding programs for vulnerable groups including children and adolescents. At the national level, the Education Law 70 Avelino Siñani - Elizardo Pérez and Law 2026 for Children and Adolescents, emphasizes the obligation of the State as regards food subsidies for school-age children who attend public schools. At the local level, there also exists specific legislation regarding food including Law 4081 which declares building farmers markets in the city of El Alto a priority; and the Municipal Law on the Regulation of Manufacturing and Sale of Food, Edibles, Beverages and Soft Drinks in Schools within the municipality of Santa Cruz de la Sierra which seeks to regulate the sale of food in kiosks close to educational facilities. EXISTING LOCAL POLICY INITIATIVES The long term municipal strategic plan also known as Plan 2040 The City We Desire is a document that sets forth goals for the municipality of La Paz within a 25 year timeframe. Plan 2040 is the third strategic plan designed to date for La Paz. This document is constructed with citizen participation and focuses on giving continuity and consolidating the city s urban transformation. The plan focuses on achieving six goals, one of which is sustainability and eco efficiency and stipulates the city must become environmentally safe and eco-friendly while also addressing food security. 13

16 The short term five year strategic plan (Plan Estratégico Institucional or PEI ) translates the goals of Plan 2040 into applicable strategies, and sets forth desired outcomes and deliverables. This document also identifies city offices and secretariats responsible for implementation, monitoring and evaluation. REVIEW OF CASE STUDIES The committee reviewed a series of case studies compiled by Fundación Alternativas and consultants from the Harvard Food Law and Policy Clinic and the Harris School of Public Policy of the University of Chicago. The case studies were organized within each of the five identified focus areas (previously detailed) and provided a variety of examples of international food policy and food security programs. This research material was used by the committee to gain a more robust understanding of how cities around the world are attempting to reduce food insecurity, and as a means to set the tone for debates on existing opportunities to replicate practices from other municipalities. The debates allowed committee members to focus on what strategies are viable and appropriate for the municipality of La Paz, as well as identify locally appropriate alternatives. DRAFTED LAW Once goals for the committee were set, members identified focus areas on which to work and became familiar with the existing local legal framework and international approaches to deal with the challenge of urban food security, a draft of a Municipal Food Security Law was created. While drafting the law, the committee was careful to ensure the feasibility of implementation within current government programs. The law was drafted with close recognition of short- and long-term strategic municipal plans. Importantly, during the review process, government agencies were called upon to identify first-round implementation strategies. After some analysis, the committee decided the most appropriate approach was to introduce the law into the municipal council as a citizen initiative. A citizen initiative would ensure a fast track for the law, once submitted into the council, and a higher probability of adoption. To this end, the committee and Fundación Alternativas organized public events to share the law with different constituencies and conducted signature drives. 14

17 Highlights and Outline of the Municipal Food Security Law (See Appendix for the full text of the draft law.) CHAPTER I: General Provisions, including the purpose and nature of the law, the scope, and institutional framework. The scope defines the law as binding to all persons within the jurisdiction of La Paz and the institutional framework identifies the Department of Human Development as the agency responsible for developing and implementing the policy and coordinating with all government agencies and third parties. The Municipal Food Security Committee of La Paz is appointed to serve as an advisory body to the local government as regards implementation of the law. The policy s implementation plan will be detailed within a Municipal Food Security Plan. CHAPTER II: Scope of the Municipal Food Security Plan. This chapter states the Municipal Food Security Plan shall be a comprehensive plan and include all strategies related to activities within the food chain, including food production, distribution and nutritional education programs. CHAPTER III: Sustainable Food Production. The government must conduct an inventory of food productive areas within the municipality of La Paz and determine current and potential food production areas and patterns. A census of farmers and food producers must also be conducted. Potential areas for crops, fisheries, and livestock should also be identified. The Plan should delineate actions to stimulate and encourage food production in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Different strategies must be taken into account for each category. The city must also consider building on currently implemented productive initiatives while also expanding its interventions to include technical assistance to interested parties. CHAPTER IV: Supply, Distribution, and Marketing of Food. The Municipal Food Security Plan must take into account supply strategies. It must define the most efficient food transportation routes and propose alternatives to increase efficiency and access. Based on feasibility studies, the Plan should strategically implement and monitor food supply distribution centers that will increment geographical and economic access to food, especially in food insecure neighborhoods. It is noted the city must consider creating job opportunities for private entrepreneurs interested and capable of managing said distribution centers. 15

18 The city must also take into account strategies that aim to strengthen existing markets while also promoting healthy market alternatives such as organic food fairs, farmers markets, farm-to-table programs, etc. CHAPTER V: Food Quality and Adequate Consumption. The Municipal Food Security Plan must identify and put forth strategies that strengthen the capacity of the local government to control the quality, safety and origin of foods. The Municipal Food Security Plan shall create a locally-produced certification program whereas producers in the municipality of La Paz who meet quality and safety controls attain certification. Certified products will receive preferential sale locations at food shows and markets so as to improve their visibility. The Municipal Food Security Plan should generate mechanisms to actively promote Food and Nutrition Education programs that take into account specific strategies for different demographic brackets. The local government must in addition reinforce existing programs (i.e. school meals). Mechanisms put forth should include efforts related to the promotion of responsible food consumption and good dietary practices so as to encourage and increase healthy eating habits. CHAPTER VI: Final Provisions All organizational units and offices of the local government must consider food security within their planning, budgeting processes and research initiatives. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT Once the committee had a draft of the soon-to-be-proposed municipal food security law for La Paz, it was agreed upon that representatives of different sectors related to the local food chain should review the drafted law and provide feedback. An event was organized to this end and a total of 28 institutions from the public and private sector participated. A delegation from the Harvard Food Law and Policy Clinic, a partner institution of Fundación Alternativas, arrived from Boston to participate in this occasion. A rich debate ensued and provided a range of diverse perspectives and recommendations, all of which lent valuable feedback on the initial draft of the law. The meeting served to validate the structure and objectives of the initial draft of the law as well as provide visibility to the work performed by the committee. This participatory work was subsequently applauded by the municipal council and played a role in leveraging member s support in the adoption process. 16

19 Given that building support for the food policy is a continual process, Fundación Alternativas has worked towards disseminating the draft law at community events and has been equipping committee members with talking points so they may also contribute to building local support and buy-in for the law. Fundación Alternativas additionally uses social media outlets to build public awareness and support. Previously noted, as the committee sought to introduce this legislation into the La Paz Municipal Council, signatures were collected from community members, local businesses, local NGOs, citizen groups, and international non-governmental organizations. Attaining support from local constituencies was fundamental given the law was introduced as a citizen initiative. As such, creating important momentum from within the community was a critical element to leveraging support for the passage of the law. FUTURE GOALS OF THE COMMITTEE The future goals of the committee are as follows: Monitoring the progress of the implementation of the law and counseling local government regarding food security initiatives. Following up with local government offices to obtain feedback and coordinate drafting of the law s regulatory framework which is a complimentary document to the law and details the application of the law s objectives. Continuing to seek opportunities to empower citizens on nutrition and food security issues and leverage their involvement in future food policy work. Initiating dialogues with other municipalities and state governments to identify: Intra-municipal opportunities for joint food supply initiatives Joint challenges that go beyond individual municipal jurisdictions Opportunities to create state and national policy advocacy agendas 17

20 Part IV: Lessons Learned While strategizing the work of the Municipal Food Security Committee and crafting the Municipal Food Security Law, Fundación Alternativas has acquired a number of lessons learned to highlight and share. An illustration of lessons learned follows: What works in one place may not work in another. As with any policy activity, one must gauge the readiness and suitability of each operating environment. In La Paz, the progressive Mayor and municipal government made possible what, in other municipalities, may not have been supported. Having champions at the highest level in the municipal government was essential to creating the momentum for the committee and law, and enabled fast movement through the legislative process. This was an ideal situation, and in other municipalities it may be necessary to invest much more time building champions upfront or getting buy-in and commitment from local authorities. Engage a multi-stakeholder group to improve the quality of work and build credibility. Partners become essential champions of the work conducted by a committee and help build relations across different spectrums. These relations enable reaching different audiences and rallying support for proposed initiatives. In La Paz, engaging a diverse set of committee members contributed significantly to the outcome of proposals. The collaborative approach agreed-upon from the beginning allowed all members to feel ownership of the work being done. Being flexible on committee participation is fundamental. Important to note, important stakeholders emerged throughout the La Paz process that were not initially identified but who proved a great value add once onboard the committee. Timing is everything. Thinking through the political calendar is a critical component before embarking on any food policy work. Elections in La Paz offered windows of opportunity for new legislation to resonate and be championed by politicians. Planning backwards from election periods proves helpful in creating a timeline for successful passage of legislative initiatives. 18

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