Scientific meeting of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean

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3 37 Scientific meeting of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean Reunión Científica de la Asociación de Laboratorios marinos del Caribe (ALMC) Hosted by the Carmabi research station on Curacao May 18-22, 2015 This event intends to bring students, long time scientists and all with an interest in marine science and policy together for a five day meeting, focusing on presentations (including as I see it -type presentations), productive interactions and field trips. The meeting is open to anybody. The meeting will focus on all aspects of marine science and management, but focuses especially on the science and management of marine ecosystems at present day that likely adhere to rules and principles different from those used to understand these ecosystems in the past. By bringing together participants from a broad collection of marine related fields, science and management, this meeting will provide a setting for even further consideration and synthesis of new ecological ideas. The meeting will consist of standard presentations, four key note speakers (Dr. Nancy Knowlton, Dr. Bob Steneck, Dr. Juan Sanchez and Dr. Stuart Sandin), perspective talks and fieldtrips to see Curacao s marine ecosystems. Este evento tiene la intención de traer a estudiantes, científicos de mucho tiempo y todos con un interés en la ciencia y la política marina juntos durante una reunión de cinco días, centrándose en las presentaciones (incluyendo como yo lo veo presentaciones de tipo), las interacciones productivas y excursiones. La reunión está abierta a cualquiera. La reunión se centrará en todos los aspectos de la ciencia y la gestión del medio marino, sino que se centra especialmente en la ciencia y la gestión de los ecosistemas marinos en el día de hoy que probablemente se adhieren a las normas y principios diferentes de los utilizados para entender estos ecosistemas en el pasado. Al reunir a los participantes de una amplia colección de campos relacionados con el mar, la ciencia y la gestión, esta reunión servirá de escenario para aún más consideración y síntesis de nuevas ideas ecológicas. La reunión consistirá en presentaciones estándar, cuatro altavoces nota clave (Dr. Nancy Knowlton, el Dr. Bob Steneck, Dr. Juan Sánchez y el Dr. Stuart Sandin), habla de perspectiva y excursiones para ver los ecosistemas marinos de Curazao.

4 Welcome message On behalf of the AMLC, I would like to welcome you to Curaçao and to AMLC s 37th Scientific Meeting. This year the meeting will be hosted by Carmabi, which will celebrate its 60th birthday during the AMLC meeting. Let this meeting be the beginning of new collaborations and a new era of novel perspectives and insights on the workings of Caribbean coral reefs. Decades after major impacts hit Caribbean reefs, they still haven t disappeared. In some places, such as here on Curaçao, they have even grown back, although in a different composition compared to their historic predecessors. If anything, such observations show that reefs could thrive in locations where we think they cannot. Understanding how such reefs work makes for new conservation goals and the testing of existing theory and provides a welcome contrast to the omnipresent doom-and-gloom perspectives characterizing coral talk these days. I hope this AMLC meeting will provide the setting to deepen and expand our knowledge of Caribbean reef systems. A major benefit of a small meeting like this one is to meet new people, and I sincerely hope that everyone attending will strive toward this goal. At Carmabi we have tried to create a setting where everyone can discuss ideas freely and start new collaborations. I sincerely hope that you ll enjoy your stay on Dushi Korsou! Mark Vermeij AMLC President Science Director of Carmabi Research Station About the AMLC The Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean (AMLC) was founded in 1956 by marine researchers with interests in the marine science of the tropical Atlantic and the Caribbean. Founded primarily as a scientific organization, the strength of AMLC lies in the diversity of its member laboratories and the extensive expertise of its membership. Institutional, Individual Scientist, and Student memberships are available. Goals of AMLC To advance common interests in the marine sciences To encourage the exchange of research results To foster cooperative research projects To expose students to established scientific methods of research and resource management information, advance the cause of marine and environmental education in the region, and facilitate cooperation and mutual assistance among its membership. The AMLC also has more than 500 Individual Members with professional research and management interests in the region. The AMLC is a 501(c)(3) corporation governed by an Executive Board consisting of one Institutional Representative from each Institutional Member plus a slate of officers elected by the Executive Board. A list of current officers can be found below. AMLC meetings are hosted by member laboratories actively conducting marine research in the Caribbean. The host laboratory provides overall management of the meeting, arranging facilities for research presentations, receptions, and participant accommodations. The host also provides field trip opportunities during one designated Field Trip Day of the conference to provide occasions for participants to relax and network in informal environments. The AMLC has no designated official language so researchers are free to make their presentations in their native language. Scientific Meetings are held every other year, for which peer-reviewed Proceedings are published in a respected peer-reviewed journal. The AMLC also publish English and Spanish language newsletters twice per year. Current Officers (2015) Executive Director: Dr. Rita Peachey, CIEE Research Station, Bonaire President: Dr. Mark Vermeij, Carmabi Research Station, Curaçao Vice President: Dr. Clare Morrall, St George s University, Grenada Treasurer: Dr. Laurie Richardson, Florida International University, Florida, USA Secretary: Dr. Ligia Collado-Vides, Florida International University, Florida, USA Membership Director: Dr. Sarah Manual, Bermuda Department of Conservation Services, Bermuda Members-at-Large: Dr. David G. Zawada, US Geological Survey, Florida, USA For more information on the AMLC visit: To participate in decisions made by national and international organizations concerning the marine environment The AMLC is currently a confederation of 27 marine research, education, and resource management institutions endeavoring to encourage the production and exchange 4

5 Theme of the 37 th AMLC meeting on Curaçao The ecological complexity of the Caribbean provides countless opportunities for students of community ecology, as well as a similar number of challenges for managers of these ecosystems. We invite participants to share new findings on the fundamental workings of intact or degraded coral reef ecosystems, and adjacent ecosystems such seagrass beds, mesophotic communities, and mangrove areas. The meeting will encompass all aspects of marine science and management. One particularly important aspect that will be addressed during this meeting is the changed dynamics that shape present day reefs. Better understanding these dynamics, which are fundamentally different from processes shaping reef communities in the past, will help inform the science and present day management of tropical marine ecosystems. The theme of the meeting will therefore be: Marine Ecosystem Conservation and Policy - The Way Forward Studies using coral reef systems to test classical ecological theories or to develop new ones are encouraged. Experimental and observational studies of demography, behavior, and physiology provide the raw material for scientists, managers, and the public to advance their understanding of coral reef ecosystems. Effective management and conservation depends upon such fundamental appreciation of the basic ecological workings of reef organisms. By bringing together participants from a broad collection of geographic and taxonomic specialties, the AMLC hopes that this meeting provides a setting for the synthesis of new ecological ideas. Plenary speakers Dr. Nancy Knowlton National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., United States of America Biography: Nancy Knowlton received her undergraduate degree from Harvard University and her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. She was a professor at Yale University, then joined the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, after which she joined the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego. While at Scripps, Knowlton also founded the Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation. She was elected to the Board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in Currently, she is the Sant Chair in Marine Science at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Knowlton s research interests lie in determining the biodiversity of coral reefs and in protecting these fragile habitats. She is a leader of the Census for Marine Life and the author of the book Citizens of the Sea, which was published by National Geographic in 2010 to celebrate the end of the Census of Marine Life. Presentation: Success Stories in Coral Reef Conservation Doom and gloom dominates the news about coral reefs, and the published scientific literature is little better. It has even been argued that some scientists (perhaps unconsciously, perhaps to feed the if it bleeds it leads headlines) have exaggerated the threats. For reef conservation this situation is doubly problematic. First, psychologists have known for decades that if the public is confronted with a huge problem that has no apparent solution, the typical response is to become disengaged. This is exactly what we don t want to happen and represents a lost opportunity for telling the stories (the most powerful form of communication) that underlie all conservation successes. Second, much of the losses that reefs have suffered to date stem from local human stressors things we can do something about. I will review what is working locally in five main areas: saving species, protecting places, harvesting wisely, reducing pollution, and restoring habitats. Solutions like these need to be publicized (scientific articles are not enough), providing the social momentum needed to scale them up. This will buy us invaluable time while we figure out how to manage the carbon dioxide threats that are becoming ever more severe. Though there is plenty of bad news to be had, we do reefs and the field of reef conservation no favors by focusing almost exclusively on the negative. Dr. Robert Steneck School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, United States of America Biography: Bob Steneck is a marine ecologist whose laboratories are coral reefs in the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific oceans, and kelp forests in North America. There, he has studied sea urchins, fish, corals and lobsters as well as historical ecology, global climate change and the science of managing marine resources. Currently, his research focuses on what drives the resilience of coral reef ecosystems. Since he began studying Caribbean coral reefs in 1972 he has seen remarkable declines. Specifically he is interested in how degraded coral reefs recover from disturbances. This stimulated his current focus on what drives the recruitment of corals and other marine organisms, especially the relative

6 demographic importance of larval connectivity versus the receptivity of the habitats into which larvae recruit. Bob has written more than 140 peer-reviewed scientific publications. He received the research award from the International Lobster Congress, he is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and he was selected as a Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation. His research has been highlighted in Newsweek, The New York Times, The New Yorker, Atlantic Monthly and National Public Radio, and in books such as The Secret Life of Lobsters and The View from Lazy Point: A Natural Year in an Unnatural World. He earned a bachelor s degree in biology/geology at Baldwin-Wallace College, a master s degree in botany and plant pathology at the University of Maine and a Ph.D. degree in earth and planetary sciences at the Johns Hopkins University. Presentation: The Eastern Caribbean: A laboratory for studying the resilience and management of coral reefs Degradation is almost synonymous with the phrase Caribbean coral reefs. The most commonly cited causes of decline are global warming, ocean acidification, pollution and overfishing. However, determining the relative contribution of these stressors is difficult because often all occur simultaneously. We assessed reef condition over a 736 km region of the eastern Caribbean from Anguilla to Grenada focusing on (when possible) the windward shores of low islands with little or no runoff. Islands of this archipelago are oceanographically and biologically distinct from adjacent islands due to the strong Equatorial Current and Trade Winds. My team focused on coral reefs with no-take reserves (NTR) and high compliance (based on interviews and observations) compared to adjacent control reefs. We studied 55 reefs among 15 islands with 642 fish transects (n = 36,905 fish), and 217 coral/algal transects. Overall, NTR had twice the fish and parrotfish biomass, significantly less macroalgae and significantly greater abundance of adult and juvenile corals than the adjacent fished areas. Coral cover in some reserves averaged over 35% (twice the abundance of fished reefs). In St. Croix where I documented a 30% decline in coral cover from 1982 to 1995, revisiting the same sites in 2014 revealed live coral at nearly 1982 level with expansive stands of elkhorn coral in places. I conclude that local management of reef fish and particularly herbivorous fish can have a strong positive impact on coral reefs thereby facilitating their recovery and improving resilience to a healthy state. 6 Dr. Juan Sanchez Laboratorio de Biología Molecular Marina (BIOMMAR), Universidad de los Andes Bogotá, Columbia Biography: Juan A. Sánchez has been actively working on coral reef research and marine ecology since He was a Fulbright doctoral grantee ( , State University of New York-Buffalo) and now leads a broad program in research and consultancy. He has extensive experience in the molecular and environmental areas, including postdoctoral training in the USA (Smithsonian Institute, ) and New Zealand (National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, ). His research interests range from octocoral phylogenetics to Symbiodinium molecular ecology. Current research interests are marine ecology, evolution in octocorals, deep-sea octocoral phylogenetics/phylogeography, socio-ecological studies (in collaboration with Economics colleagues) and zooxanthellae associated with Caribbean sponges and non-living substrates. He was the director of research and graduate studies (Faculty of Sciences) at the University of the Andes during Presentation: Ecological divergence and the fate of coral reefs The changes that marine ecosystems are facing today are unprecedented. Marine species richness remains constant but the composition of species assemblages is changing. Yet, it is surprising how little we understand species adaptation, coexistence and shifts in marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. Still, a common observation in coral species is divergence to adapt at different ecological opportunities. In corals, there are plastic phenotypic responses along several environmental gradients, most notably depth (shallow-deep) and sedimentation (near-far runoff), in both cases interacting with light attenuation. Morphology changes dramatically with depth in most species and there are already documented cases of ecological speciation at the extremes. Coral species with wide bathymetric ranges involve dramatic changes in symbiosis with Symbiodinium and/or Ostreobium. Octocoral assemblages from habitats with similar depths and overall conditions do not share similar communities between continental and coastal reef types. Ecological divergence has been an imperative pressure in coral evolution and community assembly. Exploring the signatures from ecological divergence and rapid diversification events in gorgonian corals, there seems to be a genomic canvas for rapid adaptation. Diversification in corals happens so fast that populations seem already pre-adapted to divergent conditions (i.e., re-speciation). But, can we extrapolate this adaptive capacity to the ecosystem level? Will coral reefs prosper under a changing environment? There may be several scenarios where coral reefs can reconfigure and

7 thrive. However, fundamental ecological information has been overlooked to link the adaptive capacity of corals to ecosystem functioning in coral reefs. Dr. Stuart Sandin Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation and Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America Biography: Sandin s research focuses on community ecology, specifically investigating how organisms interact in complex marine communities. His particular interests involve fish and fisheries (but recently also benthic organisms) with the goal of determining the best way to balance fishing demands today with the perpetuity of fisheries for generations to come. Especially in areas where fisheries target a wide range of species, the insights derived from community ecology are an essential addition to more classical single-species fisheries models. The majority of his work is conducted in tropical coral reef ecosystems of the Pacific and Caribbean. Sandin has coordinated multiple ship- and land-based expeditions to the remote islands of the central Pacific Ocean, with much work conducted in the Line Islands archipelago. Of particular interest in the Line Islands is the gradient of human disturbance across the archipelago from uninhabited, pristine reefs to moderately inhabited and anthropogenically impacted ecosystems. Sandin has been using this island gradient to explicitly study the roles that local human activities play in the fisheries dynamics and general functioning of coral reef ecosystems. This work in the Pacific is complemented by experimental studies of basic questions of reef ecology and species interactions conducted in various regions of the Caribbean. Born in Los Angeles, Calif., Sandin received a B.S. in ecology, behavior, and evolution from UC San Diego, and a Ph.D. in ecology and evolutionary biology from Princeton University. He was a lecturer and research associate at Princeton before joining Scripps. Presentation: The struggle for existence: How competition reigns, especially when predation abounds The seminal work of Gause and colleagues led us to consider the prominent role of competition in constraining the development of communities. When considering pairwise combinations of similar species in a closed environment, one species will exclude the other in the so-called struggle for existence. In nature, though, we observe quite the contrary with countless species coexisting, challenging the strength of competitive dynamics in regulating community structure. Our group has been considering how complex ecological communities are organized, focusing on highly-diverse coral reef ecosystems and exploiting natural experimental conditions linked with human harvest and manipulation across replicate coral reef ecosystems (islands of the central Pacific). By including relatively untouched coral reef ecosystems as ecological end-members into the study, we have identified the profound importance of predator-prey dynamics in structuring communities. Critically, within the context of intensive predation we find a complementary increase of competitive dynamics -- both with prey competing with prey and predators competing with predators. These observations lead us to consider a new framework in which Gause s struggle for existence is brought into increasing focus in well-developed ecological communities, and in which predation and competition are synergistic processes that lose their rhythm as the trophic structure of ecosystems is perturbed. Carmabi Research Station Carmabi was founded as the Caribbean Marine Biological Institute research station in His Royal Highness, the late Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, laid the first stone of the institute. From the start, aside from research, applied nature conservation and education were also important areas of activity. These activities were brought together in 1962 under the allied National Parks Foundation of the Netherlands Antilles (better known as STI- NAPA). In 1999 Carmabi and STINAPA merged into one organization, the Caribbean Research and Management of Biodiversity Foundation, better known under the original acronym Carmabi. Carmabi s facilities at the original location in Piscaderabaai now include a new four-story research and lodging building, which can currently house up to 30 people in rooms that oversee the ocean. An air-conditioned lecture room seats up to 50 people. Large groups of students can dive/snorkel directly in front of the station or at nearby sites. Because the island is relatively small, a large number of different ecosystems can be visited during day-trips around the island. Packages are available should one want to combine a marine oriented course with historic, cultural or terrestrial aspects of Curacao. A wet lab with running seawater and 30 80x40x40cm aquaria are present. Two large dry labs with all basic laboratory equipment (e.g. fume hoods, microscopes, drying ovens, scales, basic chemical supplies etc.) are also present with 50 m of available bench space. The dormitory facilities consist of two types of rooms: two-person rooms on the third floor with two beds and central shared bathrooms, and single person rooms on the top floor that fit one person and have their own bathroom and A/C. The relatively large kitchen on the ground floor is shared by everybody, though each floor also has additional kitchenettes for preparing small meals. The lecture room is available for classes and is equipped with computers and projectors. This lecture room can also be used for workshops and meetings. Carmabi presently owns three boats that are available for research purposes. An enormous collection of histor-

8 ic reef-related literature is present in Carmabi s on-site library. All dive operations are handled through an onsite, PADI dive center named The Diveshop. Permits for collecting, CITES, and sample shipping are obtainable through Carmabi and generally require approximately one day to complete. Carmabi staff is glad to assist you in applying for collecting and export permits, in forwarding field samples and in helping you to meet any other needs you might have. Internet during the meeting All attendants to the meeting will receive a code during registration that will allow them access to the fastest internet currently possible on Curacao (which could be slower than what you re used to). Organized field trips on Wednesday May 20 Diving: Dive trips will take place on Wednesday May 20th and several options are available. If you are interested joining on one of these trips, please make reservations through The Diveshop directly. Taking part in these dive trips requires a valid diving certification. All other questions regarding diving during your stay on Curacao (during the meeting or before or after) are best directed by contacting The Diveshop directly: contact Jeroen Blokzeijl at Three different trips are planned for Wednesday May 20th. Trips focus on visiting some of the better reefs around Curacao, recently ranked among the best left in the Caribbean in a study by Jackson et al. (2013). Description from The Diveshop: Visit those untouched dive spots that aren t accessible from the shore with us on our custom built dive boats Explorador and Freedom. The Explorador is the only jet-driven dive boat on the island, making it the safest for getting on and off the vessel for your dives. All of our boat dives are guided by our highly trained professional staff, so we can assure your safety and that you ll get the best out of your dives. We take a maximum of 22 divers per trip. The boat is fully equipped with all safety equipment including VHF radio and dive spares as well as drinks, fruit and snacks, a fresh water shower, and a dedicated rinse tank for underwater cameras. Geology: David Meyer will guide a tour along the Pleistocene windward and leeward fossil reefs of NW Curaçao. The trip 8 leaves at the Hilton on May 20th at 08h00 in the morning and will last to 17h00 in the afternoon. Bring snorkel gear. For questions and reservations, contact Dave Meyer directly at ucmail.uc.edu. Nature and culture: Carmabi will arrange a visit to the Christoffel Park, one of the natural parks that Carmabi manages. Here you ll also visit the Savonet Museum. A bus will pick you up at the Hilton Hotel at 08h00. On arrival in the Park, there will be a welcome refreshment. The trip will then start with a visit to the Savonet Museum followed by a hike to the spectacular North Coast of the Christoffel Park. The museum gives visitors inside information and a peek into the lives of the former inhabitants of the area, starting with the first Arowak Indians, who came to the island almost 5,000 years ago, and continuing into modern history. Modern audio-visual displays, historical artifacts, faces of descendants of the former slaves, photographs, completely restored antiques and much more give the museum the tools to tell a diverse story of the interdependence between humans and nature, cultural history and natural history. After the visit to the museum, we will hike through the Christoffel Park, the largest national park of Curacao and a must-see for visitors. The park has a rich variety of local flora and fauna, which are not easily seen elsewhere on the island. This includes wild orchids, the Palabrua (the rare native barn owl), the Curacao White Tailed deer (of which there are only about 250 left), and much more. Carmabi s guides wll also show you some of the restored buildings of the former plantation that forms the heart of the Christoffel Park. Several methods by which people conserved water during the plantation era are present on site, including the so-called pos-di-pia (small water lakes used to water bigger animals). The hike will continue to Boka Grandi, a spectacular beach with white sand and a spectacular view on the rough waves hitting the island s north shore. Lemonade and fruit will be available for refreshments. Then we will hike back to the main entrance where a local lunch awaits you around 12h00. Local guides will accompany during the entire trip. Field trip cost including transportation, lunch, park entry, etc. is US$45. Make reservations by contacting Cyrill Kooistra or Sabine Berendse directly. Questions and inquiries can be directed to the same persons. Submersible and deep reefs: Substation Curaçao runs the Curasub, the world s most spectacular certified mini-submarine for tourists. The Curasub descends four times a day from Bapor Kibra to unreachable depths for divers - as deep as 1000 feet (320 m). Onboard, submarine passengers make a memorable journey to places where very few people have ever been. The weird-looking fish, corals, and old shipwrecks are perfectly visible in the crystal clear waters as Curasub passengers have a clear view with visibility of over 30 m. The design of the Curasub is based on the well-proven, 30-year-old Aquarius submarine, which today is still operational. All systems have been certified by Germanischer Lloyd s, meeting and exceeding the highest safety standards. Because the Curasub travels at greater depths than divers can reach, the submarine is also used for scientific marine research. The bottom of the ocean is a vast and greatly unknown frontier that in the future will contribute to the research and development in biochemical structures and marine biology. Visit the Curasub website for the different programs

9 that they offer. Especially for AMLC participants, the regular prices have been greatly reduced to allow those interested to descend and see the island s deepest parts. On May 20th, four dives (approximately 90 minutes each) will be made especially for AMLC participants. A minimum of 3, but a maximum of 4 persons is required per dive. People that want to book a seat on one of the dives should contact Mark Vermeij directly. Seats will be filled on a first-come, first-served basis. The costs per person are US$350 and must be paid to Substation Curaçao on the day you make the dive. Participants have to arrange their own transportation to Substation (which is easy). For any additional questions and reservations, please contact Mark Vermeij at Conference venue and ground transportation The AMLC meeting will be held at the Hilton Curacao Resort, John F Kennedy Boulevard, Willemstad, Curacao. (You may use this address to fill in on your immigration form). Their telephone number is Cab rides to the Hilton from the airport cost US$25-35 for up to 4 people. If the number of people sharing a taxi exceeds 4, the charge is typically US$6 per additional person. Meeting attendees will be staying primarily at the Hilton, at Carmabi, and at Piscadera Bay Resort. All are all within close walking distance of one another (see map below). Sunday evening icebreaker For those present on Curacao on Sunday May 17 th (the day before the meeting officially begins), an icebreaker event will be held at Carmabi s beach. Drinks and some light dinner options will be available for purchase between 17h00 and 20h00. You can also register for the meeting during this event. Please join us! Food options during the meeting Food is not included in AMLC registration costs in order to allow guests maximum flexibility. There are a variety of options close to the meeting venue at nearby hotels and restaurants. During the meeting, Carmabi has also arranged some lunch and dinner options on-site, which we tried to make as affordable as possible. Breakfast: For those staying at the Hilton, breakfast is included during your stay. Other meeting attendees may eat breakfast at the Hilton for a cost of US$21 (excl. 9% tax). Breakfast is available between 06h30 and 11h00 AM. If you choose to eat at the Hilton, plan to give yourself plenty of time prior to the start of morning sessions. The Hilton also has a small cafe near the swimming pool with coffee, juices, fruit, small snacks, and pastries. For those staying at Carmabi and Piscadera Bay Resort, where kitchen facilities are available, you could consider purchasing food at the local supermarket and preparing breakfast yourself. Centrum Supermarket is the closest grocery store, located 4 km north of Carmabi by car or taxi. Lunch: Each day (except for during field trips on Wednesday), a local chef will prepare lunches for purchase at Carmabi for NAF 13 (~US$7). There will be different lunches each day: Monday: Tuesday: Thursday: Spaghetti Bolognese or Vegetarian Spaghetti with a tomato-vegetable sauce Bami (Asian noodles) with 3 skewers of Chicken sate, peanut sauce, Atjar and prawn crackers or Vegetarian Bami (Goedang-Ang) Paella or Mixed salad with goat cheese

10 Friday: Local chicken stew ( stoba ) or tomatogarlic Tofu Risibisi and green beans Lunch is also available at various restaurants within walking distance including at the Hilton, the Mariott next door, and at Pirate Bay and Tomatoes next to Carmabi. (Do take into account that ordering at such places generally takes longer than you might expect.) Happy Hour: During the daily Happy Hours at Carmabi (except for after Wednesday s field trips), the following food and drink items will be available. Note that all prices below are in Netherlands Antilles Florins (NAF also known locally as guilders ) NAF corresponds to US$1.00. US Dollars are accepted many places on the island but it is advised to pay in NAFs during your stay. Cash in either currency is available from ATMs at the airport, at Centrum Supermarket, or at one of the ATMs close to Carmabi (see site map above). Drinks: Soft drinks NAF 2,-- Bottled water NAF 3,-- Juices (Punch, cranberry juice, tropical juices) NAF 4,-- Beer (Amstel, Polar, Zulia) NAF 4,-- Wine (White, Rose, Red) NAF 5,-- Food: Hamburgers/ hotdogs NAF 5,-- Candy bars/ chips NAF 3,-- Various bread rolls (cheese/ sausage) NAF 4,-- Local food (Francais Bakijauw, local stew aka stoba, grilled vegetables) NAF 6,-- To speed up food service, all transactions will occur through pre-paid food and drink tickets, available on site. Offsite Dining: Several other restaurants and bars (Pirate Bay, Tomatoes) can be found around the conference areas (see map) in addition to the facilities provided by the hotels themselves. Many other restaurants are located downtown, a short cab ride away. Your Curacao hosts can provide suggestions. Wherever you dine, we would like to encourage meeting guests to spend some time after the sessions each day at the beach of Carmabi to allow poster viewing, fruitful conversation, discussion, and hopefully the formation of new collaborations. For additional questions regarding food and events, please contact Mark Vermeij by Registration Participants can officially register during the ice breaker event at the Carmabi beach (17h00 to 20h00 on Sunday May 17th) and during the first meeting day (08h00 to 21h00 on Monday May 18th). During registration you will receive your badge, conference booklets, etc. The registration table on May 18th will be directly outside the conference room. If you show up later and need to register (or need help with anything else), find one of the 10 AMLC assistants (see below). Banquet On May 21st (which coincides with Carmabi s 60th birthday to the day!), there will be a banquet from 17h00 to 21h00 at the Carmabi premises. The banquet is open to all those attending the meeting. Tickets will be for sale during the meeting before May 21st and are expected to cost US$40, which will include an open bar between 17h00 and 21h00 and pasta-, Thai- and grill-buffets that will be located across the Carmabi terrain. We sincerely invite everyone to attend this event. The caterer that organizes everything at Carmabi has requested that all transactions will occur through pre-paid food and drink tickets. These will be for sale during the meeting and at Carmabi during happy hours and for the duration of the banquet. Guidelines for session chairs Some attendees have volunteered to chair a session - the chairs of all sessions are indicated in the program below. The chair s main tasks are to introduce each speaker (name and affiliation) and note whether the speaker is a student (indicated by a S in the program). Chairs should make sure each talk starts on time and signal a speaker when s/he has been talking for 10 minutes (e.g., by standing up or showing a sign). Session chairs should help to end each talk after 12 minutes so that people in the audience can ask questions before starting with a new speaker. Please encourage each speaker to repeat audience questions through the audio system. If you are unable or no longer willing to chair a session, please contact Mark Vermeij by gmail.com) to organize a replacement. If you want to involve colleagues to help chair your assigned session, you re more than welcome to do so. Poster sessions Poster sessions will take place at Carmabi from 17h00 to 20h00 on Monday and Tuesday. You do not need to stand next to your poster the entire time, but make sure to clearly add contact info (a picture is also encouraged!) so people can find you. Posters will be attached to indicated locations along the outsides of the old (yellow) and new (blue) Carmabi buildings. Materials to attach the posters will be provided. Poster guidelines There are no strict formatting rules for AMLC posters. You are free to bring any poster that you ve already printed. If you have not yet finalized your poster, here are a few suggestions: Poster Size: We suggest using a vertical orientation and keeping maximum paper size of approximately A0 format (about 0.85m x 1.2m). Poster Clarity: We suggest using font sizes of 70 to 85 point for the title, 36 to 48 for headings, and 24 to 30 for the main text. Avoid any text smaller than 18-point font. Use clear, simple fonts and be sure colors contrast against the background. Handouts: You are welcome (but not required!) to provide small handouts of your poster. This is particularly useful for a

11 multilingual audience. Additional Poster Advice: poster-design and articleno/31071/title/poster-perfect/ Talk guidelines File Formats: Please prepare your final slides with the most recent versions of Keynote or PowerPoint that you can access. Be sure to embed all video files and fonts. To avoid any problems, you are encouraged to bring a PDF version of your slides as well. We will have one MacBook (running Keynote 6 and PowerPoint for Mac 2011) and one PC (running PowerPoint 2013). We will supply all of the needed adaptors, laser pointers, and remotes. Plan for Disaster: Before you leave for Curaçao, save a digital copy of your talk via , WeTransfer, or Dropbox. If you are showing video, bring a backup copy of all video files. Uploading: Bring your presentation and extra files on a USB stick or external hard drive. You can load your files during all conference breaks. Time Yourself: Speakers will have 12 minutes to present and 3 minutes to answer questions while the next speaker is setting up. Session chairs will warn you when you are 10 minutes into your talk and the microphone will be turned off after 12 minutes to aggressively ensure that we stay on the planned time-schedule during the meeting. We suggest timing your talk at least three times before you arrive on Curaçao. Which leads us to... Prepare to do some meeting during the Meeting: Finalize your slides before arriving on Curaçao. We want to hang out with you on the beach, not wait for you to finish your talk in your hotel room! Additional Advice for Talks: ticles.view/articleno/37697/title/opinion--how-to-give-better- Talks/ and No/28818/title/Pimp-your-PowerPoint/ Suggestions for posters and talks Don t Rush: The AMLC audience includes many different native languages - speak slowly and clearly! Cut content from your presentation or explanation when needed. Focus on Result and Ideas: At AMLC, the audience will be familiar with many of your methods and study systems. For example, you do not need to spend a lot of time or space introducing coral reefs (We all know that they re not doing that well!) or transect methods. Instead, we want to see and hear your results! We suggest that you keep your introduction and methods sections brief to leave more time for results, conclusions, next steps, new insights and novel ideas. To encourage big thinking and big ideas, we will hand out an award for the Best New Research Idea. Make Conclusions Clear: Rather than labeling your slides or poster sections as Intro, Methods, Conclusions, etc., consider using this space to summarize the main point of the slide or section. This is also a good cue for you if you lose your train of thought while explaining your work, and it is a nice courtesy to viewers or readers who may join halfway through your explanation. Entertain Us: This is a friendly audience that loves Caribbean research and natural history. We are on your side and interested in your world view. Show amazing pictures! Present new observations! Share your failures! Ask for collaborators! If you don t have a graph for a recent meaningful result, tell us about it anyway! Let s use this meeting to make fabulous new connections and push our field forward. AMLC Prizes for Best Student Talk and Best Student Poster Prizes will be awarded for the best student posters and the best student talks. Before each talk, session chairs will note whether the presenter is a student. The prize for each winner is US$250. The judges will use the following criteria: Scholarly Contribution: How much does the work advance our understanding of a problem, species, system, or topic? How much does the work produce new concepts, novel tools, or interesting natural history insights? Effective Communication: How well does the poster/presenter communicate the rationale, findings, and conclusions of the research? Are visuals easy to understand? Are explanations clear and convincing? Scientific Best Practices: How well does the research uphold best practices in experimental design, statistical analysis, and scientific ethics? Perseverance: What challenges and limitations were overcome to produce the research? Carmabi s 60th Anniversary Prize for the Best AMLC Research Idea During the week of AMLC, Carmabi will turn 60 years old. After six decades, we know that one of the most important roles of a marine laboratory is to create the energetic environment where new ideas are born and to create the productive environment where these ideas can be tested. To encourage AMLC presenters to share their best ideas here at the conference, we will be awarding a prize to the presenter with the Best Research Idea. All presenters of talks and posters are eligible for the prize. The winner will be awarded a 2-week stay at Carmabi to conduct research on their idea, including paid accommodation and station fees at Carmabi (for the winner and their dive buddy) and up to $1500 for airfare to Curacao and diving expenses on-site. The prize is sponsored by Carmabi and Carmabi scientist Kristen Marhaver.

12 Who can help you with stuff during the meeting? Who can answer questions about Curacao and Carmabi? During your stay on Curacao, the following Carmabi staff, students, and alumni can be approached at any time in case you need help with something, from internet passwords to driving directions to restaurant advice. They have all been on Curacao and Carmabi for a long time and even if they don t know the answer directly, they ll for sure be able to direct you to the appropriate persons. Kelly Latijnhouwers Bruce Sellmeijer +(5999) Mirthe Wiltink +(5999) Kristen Marhaver +(5999) or +1(858) Ben Mueller +(5999) Mark Vermeij +(5999) Valerie Chamberland +(5999) Jasper de Goeij +(5999) Frequently asked questions about visiting Curacao (FAQs) What is the power on Curacao? The island itself mostly runs on 120V/50Hz. At Carmabi, 120V/50Hz and 220V/50Hz are available. What language do they speak on Curacao? Papiamentu (the local language), Spanish, English and Dutch. Basically everybody on the island speaks all four and communication is hence extremely easy. Do I need shots when I go to Curacao? Is the water safe to drink? No special vaccinations are needed. Due to the island s modern RO-water plant, it is perfectly safe to drink tap water on the island. (In fact, locally-branded bottled water for sale is actually just tap water stuck in bottles by the local water company...) What money is used on Curacao? Netherlands Antillean Florin aka Netherlands Antilles Guilders aka Nafl aka NAF are the official currency, but you can pay almost everywhere with US dollars as well. Most vendors will use the exchange rate of NAF 1.75 to USD$1.00. Money from the ATM is often dispensed at a very slightly better rate (NAF 1.79/USD). Many places also have the option of paying with major debit and credit cards, though many credit cards charge a foreign transaction fee. Make sure to let your bank know that you ll be going abroad as many banks will block the use of your card abroad if you didn t let them know beforehand. What kind of driver s license can I use? It s always best to have an international driver s license. However, depending where you re from, different rental companies have different policies. It s therefore a good idea to inquire beforehand whether your license will be accepted or if you have to get an international driver s license. Licenses from the U.S.A. and the Netherlands are however commonly accepted. What about immigration rules etc.? From the Government of the Netherlands: If you are planning a short stay in the Netherlands or the Caribbean parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, you may need a visa. Generally tourists holding a valid passport may enter Curaçao without a written permit and remain with us for a period of up to 90 days. However, several nationalities (e.g. Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Peru) must present a tourist visa as part of our entry requirements. A visa should be applied for at least one month in advance at any representation of the Netherlands (in the concerning country). US visitors require a passport to get back into the USA. Nationals from Colombia and the Dominican Republic do not need to apply for a visa if they are in possession of a valid multiple entry visa for the United States, Canada or the Schengen countries (Europe). Tourists should be in possession of: (1) valid passport, (2) a return or outward ticket on arrival, (3) sufficient funds for accommodations and food and (4) necessary documents for returning to the country of origin, or further travel elsewhere. The following nationalities DO NOT require a Visa to enter Curaçao (Carmabi Note: We have edited the following list to include only countries relevant to attendees the AMLC meeting): 12

13 Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Australia Austria Bahamas Barbados Belize Brazil Canada Chili Costa Rica Dominica Germany Ecuador France Germany Grenada Jamaica Mexico Netherlands Portugal St. Christopher (St. Kitts) & Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Spain Suriname Trinidad & Tobago United Kingdom (UK) USA Uruguay Venezuela For a complete overview, see: visa-for-the-netherlands-and-the-caribbean-parts-of-the-kingdom/visas-for-the-caribbean-parts-of-the-kingdom-of-the-netherlands. To start your PeerJ submission for the AMLC conference proceedings, simply follow these steps: 1) Create an account at https://peerj.com/signup/and follow the steps to activate your account; 2) Once your account is activated, click My Manuscripts and Submit Article (or click on https://peerj.com/manuscripts/ start/); 3.1) Start the submission choosing Life, Biological and Health Sciences as research area; 3.2) Check the author guidelines (https://peerj.com/about/author-instructions/); 3.3) Choose Peer-reviewed article as article type; 4) Start your submission and follow the submission steps. 5) One of the submission fields is Confidential Information for PeerJ Staff. Please include the following text in this field: This is an article intended for the AMLC Collection. Conference proceedings The organizers of AMLC have made an arrangement with PeerJ to create a themed AMLC Proceedings Collection at PeerJ. PeerJ is a respected open access publisher in the biological, computational, and medical sciences. More information about PeerJ can be found at: https://peerj. com/about/publications/. A list of their Academic Editors in Marine Biology can be found at: https://peerj.com/academic-boards/subjects/24/marine-biology/. A selection of articles in the field of marine biology can be found at: https://peerj.com/ subjects/marine-biology/. PeerJ policy is to peer review manuscripts only for scientific and methodological soundness, not to judge importance of a given contribution. They currently get first decisions back to authors in a median of 22 days. Therefore, once the conference has finished, we encourage you to write up your results as a formal journal article and submit them to PeerJ. Any article that passes peer review and goes on to be published will then appear in an AMLC-themed Collection on the PeerJ website (for examples, see: https://peerj.com/collections/). PeerJ has a unique business model for open access publication authors pay a single, low, one-time fee, which gives them the ability to publish additional articles for free thereafter (provided that each co-author on the paper has a publication plan). Details are available at: https://peerj.com/pricing/. Their lowest-priced publishing plan is just US$99 per author. As an extra incentive to participate, the AMLC will pay these dues for the first 20 submissions that are accepted.

14 PROGRAM: Overview of oral and poster presentations FINAL PROGRAM 37th AMLC SCIENTIFIC MEETING CURACAO (MAY 18-22, 2015) MAY 17 17:00 Registration (optional) and "ice breaker" on the beach at Carmabi END of DAY 0 (MAY 17) 8:00 Registration at the Hilton Hotel 9:00 Official opening 37th AMLC Meeting 9:30 PLENARY: DR. B. STENECK 10:30 Coffee break Time Authors Title 11:00 * Lapointe B, Herren L, Tarnowski, M, Dustan P Session chair: Kristen Marhaver 11:15 S Camacho R, Steneck R 11:30 * 11:45 * De Goeij JM Lyons P, Arboleda E, Benkwitt C, Davis B, Gleason M, Howe C, Mathe J, Middleton J, Sikowitz N, Untersteggaber L, Villalobos S 12:00 S Dungan A, Hall ER, DeGroot BC, Fine M 12:15 * Palmer SE, Lang JC MAY 18 The Eastern Caribbean: A laboratory for studying the resilience and management of coral reefs Shifting baselines: three decades of nitrogen enrichment on two Caribbean coral reefs Finding a new path towards reef conservation: Antigua s communitybased no-take reserves The effect of recreational scuba diving on the benthic community assemblage and structural complexity of Caribbean coral reefs Perspective on how fast and efficient sponge engines drive and modulate the food web of reef ecosystems Lesion recovery of two scleractinian corals under low ph: implications for restoration efforts The status of coral reefs and marine fisheries in Jamaica s Portland Bight Protected Area to inform proposed development decisions 12:30 13:30 13:45 14:00 14:15 14:30 14:45 Session chair: Kristen Marhaver Special session: Cuiguatera * * * * * * Lunch (can be obtained at the Hilton, Carmabi (next to Hilton) or nearby restaurants and bars Mancera-Pineda JE, Celis JS, Gavio B Historical analysis of ciguatera incidence in the Caribbean islands during 31 years: Smith TB, Richlen ML, Robertson A, Liefer JD, Anderson DM, Ciguatera fish poisoning: long-term dynamics of Gambierdiscus spp. Morris Jr. JG, Parsons ML on coral reefs in St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands Parsons ML, Richlen ML, Pitz K, Anderson DM, Ellsworth A, How can the benthic behavior of Gambierdiscus influence ciguatera Leynse AK, Brandt A monitoring efforts? Litaker W, Holland W, Hardison R, McCall J, Elliott E, Bourdelais A, Baden D, Morris J, Tester P Ciguatoxin concentrations in Caribbean lionfish Tester PA How climate change is expected to affect ciguatera poisoning in the Caribbean Suddleson M, Magnien R, Dowgiallo M Advancing research and management of ciguatera fish poisoning and related harmful algae in the United States and globally 15:00 Coffee break 15:30 * Konglerd P, Hammel J, Chua CM, Dries R, Jansson F, Leggat W, Kaandorp J 15:45 S Barreras RR, Cabanillas-Terán N, Cuevas E, Sabat AM Session chair: Kristen Marhaver 16:00 * Bradley P, Santavy DL, Gerritsen J, Jackson SK 16:15 S Kindinger TL, Albins MA, Hixon MA 16:30 * Tewfik A, Burns V, Gibson J 16:45 * Roye C, Trench C, Hall K 17:00 * Johnson A 17:30 Happy Hour (till 20h00) and Poster sessions at Carmabi END of DAY 1 (MAY 18) Quantitative 3D micro-ct analysis of Acropora millepora larvae from different developmental stages in future CO2 levels Assimilative omnivory displayed by the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in the northeastern Caribbean Developing a biological condition gradient for the protection of Puerto Rico s coral reefs Consumptive and non-consumptive effects of invasive lionfish on native herbivores: potential consequences for ecological resilience of coral reefs A comparison of fisheries-based and independent monitoring data at Glover s Reef Marine Reserve A case study of ecological restoration in Portland cottage, Jamaica - is mangrove restoration worth the trouble? Science-based, Community-driven ocean management: The Blue Halo Initiative 14 MAY 19 8:30 * Moulding AL, Moore JA Recovery plan for elkhorn and staghorn corals Characterizing mesophotic coral reef benthic communities: a Nemeth RS, Armstrong RA, Singh H, García-Moliner G, 8:45 * comparative analysis of seabed Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Blondeau J, Kadison E, Herzlieb S, Whiteman E (AUV) and scuba diver operated video camera on chair: Jorge Cortez 9:00 S Randall CJ, Van Woesik R Thermal stress and coral diseases in the Caribbean

15 17:30 Happy Hour (till 20h00) and Poster sessions at Carmabi END of DAY 1 (MAY 18) Initiative MAY 19 8:30 * Moulding AL, Moore JA Recovery plan for elkhorn and staghorn corals Characterizing mesophotic coral reef benthic communities: a Nemeth RS, Armstrong RA, Singh H, García-Moliner G, 8:45 * comparative analysis of seabed Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Blondeau J, Kadison E, Herzlieb S, Whiteman E (AUV) and scuba diver operated video camera Session chair: Jorge Cortez 9:00 S Randall CJ, Van Woesik R Thermal stress and coral diseases in the Caribbean 9:15 * 9:30 S Montilla LM, Ramos R, Croquer A Yates KK, Rogers CS, Herlan JJ, Brooks GR, Smiley NA, Larson Diverse coral communities in mangrove habitats suggest a novel RA refuge from climate change Enzymatic responses against anthracene are compromised in yellow band disease tissues of the reef-building species Orbicella faveolata 9:45 * Hackerott S, Valdivia A, Cox CE, Bruno JF Low lionfish, no problem? The effect of lionfish on reef fish communities along the Mesoamerican barrier reef in Belize 10:00 Coffee break 10:30 PLENARY: DR. J. SANCHEZ Ecological divergence and the fate of coral reefs 11:30 S Duran A, Burkepile DE, Collado-Vides L Herbivory and structural complexity as drivers of algal dynamics on a coral reef Session chair: Jorge Cortez 11:45 S Shantz AA, Ladd MC, Shrack E, Burkepile DE Fish-derived nutrient hotspots shape coral reef benthic communities 12:00 * Cover M, Marin O, Croquer A Effects of heat stress treatments on photosynthetic efficiency in healthy and yellow band disease tissues in the coral Orbicella faveolata 12:15 * Zawada DG, Yates KK, Kellogg CA An integrated study of a reefscape in the Florida Keys 12:30 Lunch (can be obtained at the Hilton, Carmabi (next to Hilton) or nearby restaurants and bars 13:30 * Jackson J Historical perspective, global change, and the adaptive management of Caribbean coral reefs 13:45 S Binder B, Boswell K, Taylor C Integrating local knowledge with fisheries technology to study fish spawning aggregations in south Florida 14:00 * Cortés J History of coral reef research in Latin America: the importance of local scientific communities for conservation 14:15 * Cramer K, Norris R, O'Dea A Reconstructing historical change in Caribbean reef ecosystems to pinpoint mechanisms of recent reef decline 14:30 * Norris RD, Trumbo S, cramer K, O'Dea A Fish teeth as an ecosystem proxy: biodiversity and productivity of the ancient Caribbean Session chair: Aarom O'Dea 14:45 * O'Dea A Size selective evolution in the Caribbean conch Strombus pugilis 15:00 Coffee break 15:30 S Aldana Aranda D, Enríquez Díaz M, Paris- Limouzy CB Session chair: Tali Vardi Special session: Historical ecology 15:45 * Estep A Larvae behavior of queen conch, Strombus gigas in function of moon phases and depth Ecological assessment and benthic mapping inform development of new coastal regulations in Barbuda 16:00 S Agudo-Adriani E, Cappelletto J, Cavada F, Croquer A Geometry of patches of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis explains the structure of their associated fish assemblages 16:15 S Correia KB, Gilliam DS Outplant success of nursery reared staghorn coral: spawning observations and fecundity 16:30 * Deutekom ES, Dries RM, Allemand D, Kaandorp JA Spatial scleractinian coral calcification model 16:45 S Benkwitt CE, Hixon MA Movement and ecological effects of invasive lionfish across multiple habitats 17:30 Happy Hour (till 20h00) and Poster sessions at Carmabi END of DAY 2 (MAY 19) MAY 20 DAY OFF AND/ OR FIELDTRIPS Fieldtrip options [1] Diving. Please visit the AMLC webpage overviewing the possibilities (incl. diving at Eastpoint) for diving on Curaçao during the AMLC meeting. [2] Geological tour around the island with David Meyer and Leon Pors [3] Visit the Christoffel Park, the largest national park on Curaçao, and the Savonet Museum. [4] Dive Curaçao's deep reefs (320m) in the Curasub. For more details, see: END of DAY 3 (MAY 20) 8:30 S Harper JW, Mozumder P Session chair: Laurie Richardson MAY 21 Investigating stakeholders preferences for coral reef research funding in Florida 8:45 S Brandtneris VW, Brandt ME, Glynn PW, Gyory J, Smith TB Seasonal variability in energy content is greater in mesophotic corals 9:00 * Hammock J, Schulz K 9:15 S Pratte ZA, Richardson LL 9:30 * Galvan VM Data dissemination tools for organism attributes and new data records A comparison of transcriptomes of two closely related scleractinian coral species and their differential response to stressors Active restoration of the endangered, Acropora cervicornis corals in the Dominican Republic

16 For more details, see: END of DAY 3 (MAY 20) 16 8:30 S Harper JW, Mozumder P 9:45 S Brown T, Rodriguez-Lanetty M 10:00 Coffee break 10:30 PLENARY: DR. S. SANDIN 11:30 11:45 12:00 12:15 12:30 Session chair: Laurie Richardson Pedro Frade Session chair: Pedro Frade Session chair: Judy Lang Session chair: Julie Belmont Session chair: Julie Belmont Special session: GCRMN * * * * Belmont J, McField M Vardi T, Moore J McField M, Alvarez Filip L, Drysdale I, Rueda M, Pott R, Giro A Debels P Dominican Republic Analysis of proteins involved in immunological memory in a basal metazoan, Exaiptasia pallida The struggle for existence: How competition reigns, especially when predation abounds Improving and revitalizing the global coral reef monitoring network (GCRMN) for the wider Caribbean: new monitoring guidelines and network structure Corals and the US endangered species act: the need to improve accessibility of Caribbean reef data 2015 Mesoamerican reef eco-health report card resources Lunch (can be obtained at the Hilton, Carmabi (next to Hilton) or nearby restaurants and bars Linking monitoring & evaluation of the state of the environment to enhanced arrangements for the governance of shared living marine 13:30 * Lang JC, Kramer PR, Marks KW, Kramer PA Extending the AGRRA vision to include Caribbean reef monitoring 13:45 * Vega Thurber R, Burkepile DE, Zaneveld JR, Shantz AA, Pritchard CE, McMinds R, Payet J, Welsh R, Correa AMS, Lemoine NP, Rosales S, Fuchs C Burkepile DE, Zaneveld JR, Shantz AA, Pritchard CE, 14:00 * McMinds R, Payet J, Welsh R, Correa AMS, Lemoine NP, Rosales S, Fuchs C, Vega Thurber R 14:15 * Kolijn D 14:30 * Bergfelt DR, West KL 14:45 * Engelen AH, Frade PR, Aires T, Baraka S, Serrão E, Pabon JT, Vermeij MJA 15:00 Coffee break 15:30 * Williams DE, Miller MW, Bright AJ, Paus RE 15:45 * Ruzicka R, Gleason D, Fogarty N 16:00 S Kabay LB, Gilliam DS, Lunz KS, Neely KL 16:15 S Ladd MC, Shantz AA, Bartels E, Burkepile DE Tracing the impacts of overfishing, eutrophication, and thermal stress on corals and their microbiomes Top-down and bottom-up forcing of coral-algal-microbial interactions Effectiveness of a multipurpose artificial underwater structure as a coral reef canopy: hydrodynamic and ecological connectivity Reproductive endocrinology during pregnancy and pregnancy loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus ) A new coral on curaçaoan reefs, comparison with an old invader Impact of the 2014 bleaching event on upper Florida Keys (USA) Acropora palmata Investigating how coral recruitment and juvenile survivorship varies along the Florida Reef Tract Reproductive capacity of the pillar coral, Dendrogyra cylindrus, along the Florida reef tract Genotpyic diversity and identity influence restoration potential of the threatened coral species Acropora cervicornis 16:30 * Hundley Jr. PL, Vaughan DE Aquatic mesocosm design for effective climate change research 16:45 * Marhaver KL, Medina MM, Vermeij MJA Progress in coral settlement at CARMABI: New tools and new species 17:30 Happy Hour (till 20h00) 18:30 Banquet on the beach and terrains at Carmabi END of DAY 4 (MAY 21) 8:30 * Sherman C, Appeldoorn R 8:45 S Speare KE, Bruno JF, Darling ES, Goodbody-Gringley G 9:00 * Weil E, Croquer A, Soto D, Flynn K, Lucas M 9:15 * Giraldo C, Mesa M, Gavio B, Galeano E 9:30 * Kaandorp JA, Chindapol N, Vermeij MJA 9:45 * Cróquer A, Cavada F, Zubillaga AL, Agudo E 10:00 Coffee break Geomorphology of mesophotic coral ecosystems in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands Combined effects of sedimentation and seawater temperature on the growth and development of juvenile coral spat Temporal dynamics of diseases of the sea-fan Gorgonia ventalina in la Parguera, southwest coast of Puerto Rico Population dynamics of Thalassia testudinum in San Andres island, southwestern Caribbean Towards a multi-scale model of the impact of flow on growth and form of branching scleractinian corals Is Acropora palmata really coming back? An analysis from los Roques, Venezuela 10:30 PLENARY: DR. N. KNOWLTON Success Stories in Coral Reef Conservation : Microbes 11:30 * MAY 22 Frade PR, Schwaninger V, Glasl B, Sintes E, Hill RW, Simó R, Herndl GJ Investigating stakeholders preferences for coral reef research funding in Florida 8:45 S Brandtneris VW, Brandt ME, Glynn PW, Gyory J, Smith TB Seasonal variability in energy content is greater in mesophotic corals 9:00 * Hammock J, Schulz K 9:15 S Pratte ZA, Richardson LL 9:30 * Galvan VM MAY 21 Data dissemination tools for organism attributes and new data records A comparison of transcriptomes of two closely related scleractinian coral species and their differential response to stressors Active restoration of the endangered, Acropora cervicornis corals in the Coral dimethylsulfoniopropionate: responses to light and stress, and interrelations with bacterial assemblages in surface mucus Potential role of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in structuring the black

17 17:30 Happy Hour (till 20h00) 18:30 Banquet on the beach and terrains at Carmabi END of DAY 4 (MAY 21) MAY 22 Geomorphology of mesophotic coral ecosystems in Puerto Rico and 8:30 * Sherman C, Appeldoorn R US Virgin Islands Session chair: Mark Vermeij Session chair: Tyler Smith Session chair: Pedro Frade Session chair: Pedro Frade 8:45 S Speare KE, Bruno JF, Darling ES, Goodbody-Gringley G 9:00 * Weil E, Croquer A, Soto D, Flynn K, Lucas M 9:15 * Giraldo C, Mesa M, Gavio B, Galeano E 9:30 * Kaandorp JA, Chindapol N, Vermeij MJA 9:45 * Cróquer A, Cavada F, Zubillaga AL, Agudo E 10:00 Coffee break Special session: Microbes Frade PR, Schwaninger V, Glasl B, Sintes E, Hill RW, Simó R, Coral dimethylsulfoniopropionate: responses to light and stress, and 11:30 * Herndl GJ interrelations with bacterial assemblages in surface mucus Potential role of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in structuring the black 11:45 S Waikel PA, Gillevet PM, Richardson LL band disease community of corals Bhedi CD, Prevatte CW, Lookadoo MS, Campagna SR, Effect of temperature on quorum sensing signal molecules in black 12:00 S Richardson LL band disease heterotrophs Caribbean Acroporid tissue loss: toward a new paradigm of coral 12:15 * Peters EC disease 12:30 Lunch (can be obtained at the Hilton, Carmabi (next to Hilton) or nearby restaurants and bars The impact of coral species diversity on White Plague Disease 13:30 S Williams LM, Brandt ME transmission 13:45 * Carne L, Kaufman L 14:00 * Eddy C, Smith SR, Pitt JM, Chequer AD, Goodbody-Gringley G 14:15 S Mueller B, van Duyl FC, Vermeij MJA 14:30 * Brandt ME, Smith TB, Clemens E, Sevier M 14:45 * Hughes T 15:00 Coffee break 15:30 S Chamberland VF, Vermeij MJA, Petersen D 15:45 * Adam TC, Kelley M, Ruttenberg BI, Burepile DE 16:00 * Archer SK, Layman CA 16:15 * van Tussenbroek BI, Molina Hernández AL 16:30 S Welicky RL, Sikkel PC Combined effects of sedimentation and seawater temperature on the growth and development of juvenile coral spat Temporal dynamics of diseases of the sea-fan Gorgonia ventalina in la Parguera, southwest coast of Puerto Rico Population dynamics of Thalassia testudinum in San Andres island, southwestern Caribbean Towards a multi-scale model of the impact of flow on growth and form of branching scleractinian corals Is Acropora palmata really coming back? An analysis from los Roques, Venezuela 10:30 PLENARY: DR. N. KNOWLTON Success Stories in Coral Reef Conservation Strengthening reef resilience via active Acroporid restoration: can 8 years of results in Belize be replicated in other replenishment zones? Distribution and abundance of the invasive lionfish along a depth gradient in Bermuda: identification of deep reef hotspots Shedding light on dissolved organic carbon release by benthic reef algae Disease in the deep: coral white plague in mesophotic coral ecosystems Herbivory, recruitment failure, and four decades of slow regime shifts on Jamaican coral reefs Sexual coral restoration: shortened nursing periods and new settlement substrates improve the effectiveness of restoration methodologies Resource partitioning along multiple niche axes drives functional diversity in parrotfishes on Caribbean coral reefs Presence of a second foundation species alters seagrass ecosystem structure and function Patch dynamics and species shifts in seagrass communities under moderate and high grazing pressure by sea-turtles Infection by the parasitic isopod, Anilocra haemuli on french grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum ) is associated with changes in host movement patterns 16:45 * Eytan RI, Hellberg ME, Dornburg A, Near TJ Historical biogeography of recently diverged coral reef fish lineages 17:00 Official closing of 37th AMLC Meeting 17:30 Happy Hour at Carmabi (till 20h00) END of DAY5 (MAY 22) Accepted Posters (to be put up at Carmabi Monday and Tuesday) Aldana-Arana A, Muciño-Márquez RE, Sánchez-Crespo M, Hernández- Almeida OU, Figueroa-Torres MG Barber K, Middlebrooks M, Pierce S Beasley V, Brant M Beasley V, Duggan A, Mitchell S, Williams L, Arencibia M, Brown J, Primack A, Wyllie-Echeverria S Beggs LD, Barber T, McFarlane J S S S S * First record of epibiont diatom from larval stage of shellfish gastropod Strombus gigas Cyerce antillensis is a small marine sacoglossan sea slug that feeds on and inhabits siphonous green macroalgae White pox prevalence and its relation to the human pathogen, Serratia marcescens, in the US Virgin Islands Seagrass biome protection in the USVI: a conservation biology perspective Worldwide reef ball coastal restoration Carne L, Cho-Ricketts L Costaregni AR, Walker BK, Waters L, Chen C Cover M, Marin O, Croquer A * S * No evidence of reduced growth rate trade-off for Acropora cervicornis harboring symbiodinium trenchii (clade d1a) in southern Belize The our Florida reefs coastal use survey : an online survey to support stakeholder management recommendations for southeast Florida Yellow band disease disrupts coral-zooxanthellae mutualistic relationship in the coral Orbicella faveolata

18 END of DAY5 (MAY 22) Aldana-Arana A, Muciño-Márquez RE, Sánchez-Crespo M, Hernández- Almeida OU, Figueroa-Torres MG Barber K, Middlebrooks M, Pierce S Beasley V, Brant M Beasley V, Duggan A, Mitchell S, Williams L, Arencibia M, Brown J, Primack A, Wyllie-Echeverria S Beggs LD, Barber T, McFarlane J S S S S * Accepted Posters (to be put up at Carmabi Monday and Tuesday) First record of epibiont diatom from larval stage of shellfish gastropod Strombus gigas Cyerce antillensis is a small marine sacoglossan sea slug that feeds on and inhabits siphonous green macroalgae White pox prevalence and its relation to the human pathogen, Serratia marcescens, in the US Virgin Islands Seagrass biome protection in the USVI: a conservation biology perspective Worldwide reef ball coastal restoration Carne L, Cho-Ricketts L Costaregni AR, Walker BK, Waters L, Chen C Cover M, Marin O, Croquer A Cruz M, Schizas N Dennis MM, Stewart K, Bergfelt D Diaz MRE, Valencia JDCS, Morales GIM, Aranda DA Dillon E, O'Dea A, Cramer K, Norris R Engelen AH, Coelho N, Vermeij MJA, Serrão E Enríquez Díaz M, Martínez Morales I Farrell F, Hansen J, Illanes O, Verma A, Soto E Fisco D, Walker B, Kilfoyle K, Smith S, Spieler R Frade PR, Elisabeth NH, Hay KB, Englebert N, Latijnhouwers KRW, Bak RPM, Vermeij MJA, Herndl GJ, Hoegh- Guldberg O, Bongaerts P Fuchs C, Adam TC, Duran A, Burkepile DE García E, Baptista C, Bastidas C, Bone D, Brett C, Debrot D, Lopez A, Nievas Rivas K, Papadakis J, Ramos R, Strubinger P García E, Bone D, Cróquer A, Farache G, Ramos R, Zubillaga AL * S * S * * S * * * S * S S S No evidence of reduced growth rate trade-off for Acropora cervicornis harboring symbiodinium trenchii (clade d1a) in southern Belize The our Florida reefs coastal use survey : an online survey to support stakeholder management recommendations for southeast Florida Yellow band disease disrupts coral-zooxanthellae mutualistic relationship in the coral Orbicella faveolata Population Structure of fireworm Hermodice carunculata in the Caribbean, eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea Environmental factors associated with hatch success in St Kitts leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea ) Gametogenesis and oocyte size variability in the oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from Veracruz lagoons, Mexico Reconstructing Caribbean shark baselines using fossil dermal denticle assemblages Molecular tools for population ecology and genetics of the proliferating seaweed Lobophora variegate Effect of climate change on reproductive strategies of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in tropical lagoon of the Mexican Gulf of Mexico Disruption of the pathogenicity determinant protein a gene (pdpa) in f. Noatunensis subsp. orientalis results in attenuation and a greater susceptibility to oxidative stress. Reef fish spatial distribution and benthic habitat associations on the northern Florida Reef Tract A specialized coral-symbiodinium-bacteria community deep down on a Caribbean reef Sediment removal increases turf algae grazing and alters algal community composition on coral reefs Environmental risk assessment, monitoring and management program of Centro Refinador Paraguana, Venezuela Cetoxmar: seven years assessing the impacts of the Venezuelan oil/gas industry on marine ecosystems Gavio B * Seaweed biodiversity in the international biosphere reserve Seaflower, southwestern Caribbean Glasl B, Herndl GJ, Frade PR Goulié C, Aranda DA Gowacki WA, Bell SS, Pierce SK Henry DJ, Trench C S S * * Corals use mucus to garden their microbiome and stay healthy Determining the home range required by the queen conch in Xel-Ha inlet, Quintana Roo, Mexico Confusion in a redescription of a kleptoplastic slug: Elysia patina (marcus 1980) ortea et al. (2005) is really Elysia papillosa (verrill 1901) Seagrass Stabilization: a technique for coastal zone rehabilitation Horricks R, Herbinger C, Lumsden JS Hynes M, Lukowiak M, O Dea A, Norris R, Cramer K Keller J, Wilson K, Reeve A Larson EA, Gilliam DS Lewis C, Neely K, Richardson LL, Rodriguez-Lanetty M Martinez SJ, Cavada F, Agudo E, Cappelletto J, Croquer A S S * S S S Regeneration in the Caribbean star coral Montastraea cavernosa Millennial-scale ecological change in Caribbean sponge communities Presence of heavy metals and seasonal changes in groundwater flow direction have management implications for mangroves near Bovoni landfill, St. Thomas, USVI Storm driven mortality and the impact on natural and outplanted Acropora cervicornis Black band disease in pillar coral along the Florida reef tract Distribution range and health status of the threaten staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis at Los Roques National Park 18 Matterson K, Easson C, Thacker R S Variable impact of top-down forces and photosymbiont-derived nutrition on Caribbean shallow-water sponges

19 Rodriguez-Lanetty M S Black band disease in pillar coral along the Florida reef tract Martinez SJ, Cavada F, Agudo E, Cappelletto J, Croquer A S Distribution range and health status of the threaten staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis at Los Roques National Park Matterson K, Easson C, Thacker R S Variable impact of top-down forces and photosymbiont-derived nutrition on Caribbean shallow-water sponges McCammon AM, Tuttle LJ, Loerch SM, Nemeth D, Williams Jr EH, Sikkel PC McLain H, Anderson, R, Morrall C, Balza R, Nimrod S, Berg C McCullough M, Foster K, Jacoby C McMinds R, Fuchs C, Zaneveld JR, Burkepile DE, Vega Thurber RL Middlebrooks M Molina-Ureña H Montañez-Acuña AA, Otaño-Cruz A, Mercado- Molina A, Suleimán-Ramos SE, Hernández-Delgado EA Ortiz D, Villamizar E, Noriega N Otaño-Cruz A, Montañez-Acuña A, Hernández-Delgad EA S S S S * *?? S Ichthyological survey of ectoparasites on coral reef fishes from the northeastern Caribbean Changes in percent coverage of "frame-building" versus "weedy" corals in Grenada s near shore waters A soft spot for sea fans: a study of gorgonia spp. off Little Cayman island Eutrophication and algal competition induce blooms of possible pathogens in the coral mucus microbiome Phototaxic behavior in the photosynthetic sacoglossan sea slug Elysia clarki Management of lionfish invasion in Costa Rica: an overview five years after No-take MPAs benefit low-tech staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis ) rehabilitation efforts: a case study from Culebra island, Puerto Rico Spatial distribution, density, size structure and feeding of Oreaster reticulatus (echinodermata: asteroidea) in an environmentally heterogeneous touristic area of the Venezuelan Caribbean Spatial patterns of coral reef benthic community structure across a land-based source pollution gradient in Culebra island, Puerto Rico: a baseline for watershed management Pelikan KC, Fogarty ND S Petroleum pollutants cause egg degradation, lowered fertilization, and larval viability in variegated sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus Petsche C, Edwards C, Eynaud Y, Smith J Pickering V, Lawrence M, Buckley L, Wyllie-Echeverria S Pinheiro HT, Rocha LA, Jessup ME, Chequer AD, Goodbody-Gringley G Piotrowski S, Foster G, Manfrino C Ramírez-Ramírez RD, Montilla LM, Cavada-Blanco F, Cróquer A Roper Z, Brito-Millan M, Sandin SA S S * S S S Benthic competitors influencing coral competition and aggression interactions on Palmyra atoll Seagrass cultivation for conservation First in situ assessment of mesophotic reef fish communities in Bermuda, western Atlantic Acropora palmata, proponent or inhibitor of reef resilience: evaluating the role of dead-standing skeletons in future projections of coral reef recovery Identification of strengths and weaknesses of cooperative efforts within the wider Caribbean using a network approach Frequency of fission and fusion in colonies of Madracis mirabilis Ruzicka R, Gleason D, Fogarty N Suarez-Ulloa V, Gonzalez-Romero R, Eirin-Lopez JM Thomas SL, Trench C, Webber M Valencia JS, Diaz ME, Morales IM, Arand DA Vallès H, Oxenford HA Valles H, Oxenford HA, Brathwaite A, Roach R, Goodridge R, Warren-Gittens S * * * S * * Investigating how coral recruitment and juvenile survivorship varies along the Florida Reef Tract Environmental epigenetics: a promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates Assessment of initial seedling growth and survival and natural seedling recruitment at a mangrove restoration site in west Falmouth, Trelawney, Jamaica. Abundance, distribution and reproductive activity of large marine gastropods in different habitats along Campeche Bay, México Do fishpot catches and underwater visual fish surveys tell the same story along a gradient of fishing pressure in a small Caribbean island? What saved the corals in 2010? A comparison of the two worst mass bleaching events in Barbados Verde A, Bastidas C, Cróquer A Comparison of linear mortality and tissue regeneration rates in three coral species affected by white band and Caribbean ciliate S infections Villaba M, Gil MG, Croquer A S Quantification of problems of the CARICOMP method to describe coral communities: impacts on statistical inference Vroom P, Peters E, Lumsden J S Regeneration in corallimorpharia

20 Abstracts of oral presentations Monday May 18, /18/15 11:00 AM Shifting baselines: three decades of nitrogen enrichment on two Caribbean coral reefs Lapointe B, Herren L, Tarnowski, M, Dustan P Coral reefs in the wider Caribbean region have experienced dramatic ecosystem change over the past three decades. Coral disease and die-off, combined with expansion of benthic algae and sponges, have transformed reefs in many parts of the Caribbean, especially those adjacent to increasing human activities. Long-term water quality monitoring at Looe Key in the Florida Keys since 1984 showed significant (> 100%) increases in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium + nitrate + nitrite) and chlorophyll a in the 1990s following increased flows of agricultural runoff from the Everglades. The enhanced eutrophication correlated with reduced dissolved oxygen (hypoxia), dramatic increases in coral disease and die-off, and expansion of benthic algae (crustose coralline algae, algal turfs, and frondose macroalgae) despite abundant populations of large-bodied mobile grazers (scarids, acanthurids). The long-term nutrient data also revealed how periods with increased flows of nitrogen-rich (high N :P ratio) water from the Everglades were followed by intense mass bleaching events in 1987, 1997 and Similar replacement of corals with benthic algae (primarily macroalgae) has occurred at Discovery Bay, Jamaica, over the past three decades. Although this phase-shift on Jamaican reefs has been widely attributed to overfishing and die-off of the Diadema antillarum, a comparison of baseline tissue nitrogen in the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata from 1987 with a re-sampling in 2013 showed significant enrichment between depths of 2 to 36 m. Macroalgal blooms on Discovery Bay reefs have very high N:P ratios, pointing to the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a pathway for nitrogen enrichment. Stable nitrogen isotope values in macroalgae from both Looe Key and Discovery Bay suggest that both sewage and fertilizers are contributing anthropogenic nitrogen to these habitats. These case studies illustrate how nitrogen-fueled eutrophication is inter-linked to loss of biodiversity on coral reefs along developing tropical and subtropical coastlines. Keywords: coral, eutrophication, nitrogen, phosphorus, phytoplankton, macroalgae 5/18/15 11:15 AM Finding a new path towards reef conservation: Antigua s community-based no-take reserves 20 Camacho R, Steneck R Most Caribbean reefs have undergone a phase shift from coral-dominated to algal-dominated ecosystems over the last three decades. Persistent algal biomass prevents reef recovery and is the result of fisheries or disease induced reduction in herbivory from grazing fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum) respectively. No-take reserves with high compliance have more herbivorous fishes, less macroalgae and more juvenile and adult corals. However, most Caribbean no-take marine reserves have very low compliance. Antigua and Barbuda s reefs are highly degraded and the lack of governmental resources prevents effective top-down management. My study works to create a community-based, co-managed no-take reserve managed chiefly by the users of the resource, with support from regional organizations. The reserve is designed as a demonstration project to illustrate to the fishing community the positive effects of limiting fishing pressure on herbivorous fish. More than 50% of the fishermen utilizing the study area (n=10) were interviewed in July and August 2014 to gain information about the history and status of fishing. Eighty percent of respondents indicated fishing was declining with over 50% citing overfishing as the principal reason. Sixty percent of participants said fishing practices were not sustainable and 60% provided fisheries related management recommendations. Individual discussions sessions and a group meeting with the fishermen were held in August, at the end of which all participants verbally supported the creation of the reserve and buoys demarcating the area were installed. Atlantic Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment surveys were used to collect baseline data on the reserve and control areas and will monitor the effect that the reserve will have on the marine ecosystem. Time will tell if this form of user-based management is a durable way to create and maintain no-take reserves. Durante las últimas tres décadas, la mayoría de los arrecifes de coral del Caribe han sufrido un cambio de estado desde ecosistemas de arrecifes dominados por coral a arrecifes dominados por algas. La biomasa de algas previene la recuperación de los arrecifes, la cual ha sido resultado de la reducción de pastoreo por parte de peces herbívoros o reducción en el número de erizos de mar (Diadema antillarum), inducidos por la pesca y enfermedades, respectivamente. Las reservas marinas sin capturas con alto nivel de cumplimento poseen más peces herbívoros, menos macroalgas y más corales juveniles y adultos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las reservas marinas sin captura del Caribe tienen un muy bajo nivel de cumplimiento. Los arrecifes de coral de Antigua y Barbuda están altamente degradados y no poseen recursos gubernamentales para un efectivo manejo arriba-abajo. Mi trabajo de investigación pretende crear una reserva sin captura con co-manejo basado en la comunidad,

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