SUCCESS IN IMPLEMENTING EDUCATION POLICY DIALOGUE IN PERU

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1 EDDATA II WORKING PAPER SERIES WORKING PAPER NO. 1 SUCCESS IN IMPLEMENTING EDUCATION POLICY DIALOGUE IN PERU JUNE 2006 This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared by Betty Alvarado Pérez, consultant to RTI International. The work described in this document was funded by the World Bank and the British Department for International Development (DFID) under the RECURSO Project.

2 Success in Implementing Education Policy Dialogue in Peru EDDATA II WORKING PAPER SERIES WORKING PAPER NO. 1 EdData II Technical and Managerial Assistance Contract EHC-E Prepared for Office of Education Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade United States Agency for International Development (USAID/EGAT/ED) Prepared by RTI International 3040 Cornwallis Road Post Office Box Research Triangle Park, NC The authors views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government.

3 Table of Contents Page List of Figures...iv List of Tables...v Executive Summary...1 The Background Report and the Need for Policy Dialogue...5 Rapid Appraisal Used During Fieldwork...5 Results...7 Transmitting Results: From Research Paper to Screen...8 The Videos in Action...10 Policy Dialogue and Dissemination...14 Dissemination Events...16 Complementary Activities...17 Effects and Externalities...21 Factors Behind the Success...22 Lessons Learned...25 Annex 1: Scripts and Sequence of the Videos...28 Annex 2: Some Examples of Press Releases...34 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru iii

4 List of Figures Page Figure 1. The Plan and Process of Dissemination...15 iv The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

5 List of Tables Page Table 1. RECURSO: Implemented Dissemination Plan, January The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru v

6 Executive Summary This paper reports on the results of a successful policy dialogue that took place in Peru during 2005 and the beginning of 2006 between the World Bank and local communities on issues of human development, with a special focus on education. It underlines some factors behind the dialogue s successes and lessons learned. The dialogue was part of the Accountability and Governance in Social Sectors in Peru Program, known by its Spanish acronym RECURSO (Rendición de Cuentas para la Reforma Social). 1 The project was an effort to raise the question of accountability in the social sectors in the political agenda during the run-up to the 2006 presidential elections and to provide the future government with policy advice on evidence-based options on how to approach social sector development and poverty reduction. The project resulted in various publications by a group of authors. 2 This process is considered successful in having raised the policy visibility of certain issues and possible solutions. What stands out in this process is that the agenda was based on the outcomes of applied research plus early consultations with Peruvian stakeholders; the dissemination of the final findings and recommendations was supported with media such as videos; and both of these components worked as a planned and integrated whole. Specifically, for the case of education, the initial steps were taken during fieldwork to compile data on education performance. Researchers measured the reading speed and comprehension of first and second graders in urban and rural areas, using tools and methodologies inspired by the work of the Internal Evaluation Group (IEG) at the World Bank. Enough data were collected to build a credible panorama for the diagnosis, but more importantly, a simple and rapid method of appraisal was applied and tested in the schools that were visited. Once a sample of schools was selected, children were requested to read aloud into a small portable audio recorder. The resulting low level of performance was consistent with that found in national evaluations, but there was a novel difference in that the applied method of evaluation in the schools and classrooms allowed the construction of standards linked to a normal in-classroom task (reading aloud) and from a textbook rather than only from indicators based on one annual exam. 1 Luis Crouch, a Research Vice President at RTI, was the lead and senior economist carrying out the studies and dialogue in the education sector under the RECURSO project, directed by Daniel Cotlear, sector leader in the World Bank s Human Development Department covering the Andean Countries in the Latin America and the Caribbean Region. RECURSO was co-financed by the World Bank and the British Department for International Development (DFID). 2 Daniel Cotlear, ed., Un nuevo contrato social para El Perú: Cómo lograr un país más educado, saludable, y solidario? and English edition, A New Social Contract for Peru: An Agenda for Improving Education, Health Care, and the Social Safety Net (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006). Individual authors included Betty Alvarado Pérez, Leah Belsky, Livia Benavides, Daniel Cotlear, Luis Crouch, Pablo Lavado, Rony Lenz, José R. Lopez-Cálix, William Reuben, Cornelia Tesliuc, Sofía Valencia, and Richard Webb. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 1

7 The overall results which, as noted above, showed the low quality of education were conclusive particularly since they accorded with Peru s own (more complicated) assessments. Thus, the feasibility of this low-cost methodology for performance appraisal in-classroom was successfully tested. It was found that about one third of children at the end of second grade, for example, could not read. Taking these nonreaders into account, the average reading speed was only about 29 words per minute, as compared to a possible standard of 60 words per minute. Other data were collected, for example on school effectiveness, by comparing effective to less effective public schools, and public schools to those of Fe y Alegría (a religious affiliation that runs schools in Latin America). In addition to this primary data collection, a large amount of research was carried out based on secondary sources of data. Importantly, the research involved a careful review of the literature by Peruvian authors, and took this literature seriously. The next step was to transmit the findings and recommendations to the clients, namely policy makers and community, including think tanks, parents, and leaders with a recognized political voice. The strategy used media instruments (specifically a video) to generate awareness about the issue of educational quality and to stimulate debate on possible solutions. Parallel to the fieldwork, the core team began consultations and dialogue, mainly with governmental agencies and think tanks involved or interested in the education sector. 3 Also, a plan for further dissemination was outlined, including better identification of stakeholders. The implementation of the plan finished with large conferences and small workshops, in which more than 2000 attendees participated at the end of January Local partners mobilized academia, civil society, and the media. Local leaders, such as parent-teacher association (PTA) presidents from dozens of PTAs, participated directly in discussing and advocating for the proposals. In addition, a series of press releases was prepared, which resulted in requests for television interviews with the authors of the reports noted above during prime-time broadcasts. The programs received high ratings (especially considering the technical nature of the subject matter). One of the two leading political parties appropriated the key message for its governance plan. Even after almost three months of conference presentations, spontaneous comments of specialists and politicians supporting or rejecting the proposal continued in the media. While the public reception of the results obviously was not unanimously positive, the successes in putting on the agenda the issues of education quality and simple, parent-level standards, were clear. What made this process successful? A series of factors contributed. Among the most important were the facts that the dialogue was initiated at an early stage (during the fieldwork); that the body of recommendations was built upon solid research and gave credence to research by Peruvians; and that the team was made up of national and 3 RECURSO also carried out consultations and dialogue on other topics such as health, social protection, human resources, political voice, and social expenditure. 2 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

8 international specialists, creating a synergy of local knowledge and best international practice. Also, the process involved nearly two weeks of intense final dissemination activities, during which the World Bank set up conferences in locations close to the participants. It also relied on media instruments, such as videos, to facilitate the communication. The importance of dramatic videos, as opposed to speeches and PowerPoint presentations, cannot be overstated. What lessons can be drawn from the success of this process? The most important are the following. Research findings must be transmitted via simple language, and should be packaged along with attractive and value-added media products such as videos. This requires constant and intense interaction between the research side and the video production team. In this case, the video team received detailed comments, with minute and second markers, from the researchers, over several drafts of the video. The video producers should not be expected to simply produce directly from the research results without ongoing, fine-grained, and intense interaction. Clients and beneficiaries must be clearly identified. Events and products should be adjusted according to the profiles of the clients and beneficiaries. For example, in this case, two videos were prepared, one for policy makers and another for parents. Each video had a different message that matched the clients likely interests, even though both videos used the same information from the same research and, almost, the same filmed scenes. Even if one prioritizes one group for targeting the dissemination, it is important to have products that target the audiences yet share the same information base. It is important for international and local groups with the same interests (such as the right to quality education, or the need for simple standards) to create alliances to increase the chances of success. Otherwise, separate recommendations might compete with each other or with conventionally held views. The ideal allies, local or international, are those with experience mobilizing and convening local stakeholders. For example, a university can organize a massive conference, but a local development project can invite local leaders and public service users to that conference to see the video aimed at parents and to discuss the issues highlighted by the video. Likewise, one should consider the role of public and credible leaders to advocate for the recommendations. In this process, the message was intimately linked with children s right to learn and parents right to know whether their children are learning. This framework was very appealing to Peru s Human Rights Ombudswoman, who championed the approach in education, and also immediately applied the same framework to the health sector. Mass dissemination in the media is key, including radio, the Internet, TV, and the published media. Dissemination refers not only to the messages themselves, but also to notices about seminars and live events. This is needed to generate The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 3

9 interest in the live events, prior to their taking place, but also to continue echoing the message after the live events. The availability of printed and Web materials increases the accessibility of the dialogue. It is key to have slogans and simple messages that can be understood easily by anyone. In this context of reading performance, a catchphrase such as An eightyear-old child should be able to read a 60-word story in one minute and should be able to answer three comprehension questions helps focus audience attention on what one means by a standard. In addition, having a policy message of no more than three actions ( set standards, set accountability based on standards, and develop teacher support programs based on the learning standards ) is key to having audiences (even sophisticated audiences) remember the message well enough to discuss it. More complex messages can be left for the technical reports that will be read by specialists. It is important that all of the broadcast or large-audience dissemination materials, including PowerPoint presentations, be backed up by technical reports. In this case, the broadcast dissemination materials were backed up by a 150-page detailed technical report and policy recommendations, as well as a 20-page version of the same, and some shorter policy notes and abstracts. The videos referenced in this section can be found at the World Bank/Perú s Web site. 4 (The reader should note these videos are in Spanish.) 4 The World Bank, Un nuevo contrato social para El Perú videos [Spanish-language videos], UINSPANISHEXT/0,,contentMDK: ~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:501764,00.html (accessed on May 22, 2006). 4 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

10 The Background Report and the Need for Policy Dialogue The dialogue was part of the Accountability and Governance in Social Sectors in Peru project, known by its Spanish acronym RECURSO 5 and implemented by the World Bank, co-financed by DFID. The project was an effort to raise the question of accountability in the social sectors in the political agenda during the run-up to the 2006 presidential elections and to provide the future government with policy advice on evidence-based options on how to approach social sector development and poverty reduction. The project focused on three sectors (education, health, and social protection) and three cross-sectoral topics (public expenditure evaluation, political voice, and human resources). It was not the first time international institutions had prepared background reports for incoming governments. What was different, then? The answer: The project gave equal weight to the robustness of the analysis, the substance of the message, and the vehicles to transmit the messages. Specifically, a plan was designed to disseminate the findings. This education study led to special outcomes because dissemination was reinforced by the production of an attractive communication tool (a video). The rest of the paper describes the process of dissemination as applied specifically to this education study. The next section presents the research methodology, information about the construction of an attractive message related to indicators of school quality, and ways in which a video can help to transmit the intended message and foster dialogue. Rapid Appraisal Used During Fieldwork Although the education study involved a great deal of secondary data analysis, key informant interviews, and literature reviews, the research base for the video was field work carried out specifically for this policy dialogue process. This field work focused on reading and school management. The nature of the field work can be described as follows Twenty-two schools from the poorest 40% of the income distribution were chosen from various locations in Peru. For comparison purposes, some specific public and private schools with good performance were included. 2. In each school, five children from each of grades 1 and 2 were chosen at random to take a reading speed test (total 245 children). 5 Rendición de Cuentas para la Reforma Social. 6 Taken from Helen Abadzi et al., Monitoring Basic Skills Acquisition Through Rapid Learning Assessments: A Case Study from Peru, Prospects 35 (June 2005): The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 5

11 3. A passage from the official grade 1 text was chosen. Children were asked to read it aloud, and were given three simple comprehension questions. The passage was chosen from near the back of the grade 1 reading text, as the field work was done during the last few weeks of the school year. The same passage was used for grades 1 and 2 so that progress between the two grades could be assessed. Similar texts were selected in local languages like Quechua in bilingual communities. The text was modified somewhat for simplicity and cultural appropriateness to poor schools. The text length was kept at 60 words, so that for a rather good reader the test would take about one minute. TEXT BOX 1. Reading text in Spanish: Dogo (The story of a little puppy) Había un perrito gordo y peludo llamado Dogo. La familia con quien vivía lo quería mucho. Dogo era un perro obediente, cuidaba la casa, pero no comía toda su comida. Un día salió de paseo con su amo Lucas y se perdió. Lucas se puso triste, pero felizmente Dogo apareció al rato. Lucas lo cargó y lo llevó a su casa. Reading comprehension questions 1. Cómo se llamaba el perro? 2. Con quién vivía el perro? 3. El perro comía toda su comida? 4. Each child s reading was recorded on a portable digital audio recorder. Basic information about the child (age, gender, whether he or she had attended preprimary education), as well as the reading speed, tone, and comprehension questions was recorded very quickly and accurately. The procedure made it possible to test each child in approximately two minutes, making the evaluation process easy and non-expensive. Furthermore, the recorded reading could then be downloaded later to a personal computer, for analysis. The idea for carrying out this sort of rapid test grew out of work previously carried out by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank, on a smaller scale. 5. The experiment took place two weeks before the end of the school year. 6. In addition, quite a few questions were asked of teachers (two), the principal, and parents (two, if possible). In addition, four classroom observations were taken per school. The idea was to assess what correlates of quality could be ascertained from these other actors, given that the team was already visiting a given school, and that the time of travel was the biggest cost. 6 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

12 Dani, a seven-year-old in a well-functioning public school, was able to read the passage in much less than 60 seconds, and answered all the questions. He understood the challenge and was proud of himself. Well-functioning schools from urban and rural settings were used in the video to provide dramatic contrast with the majority of schools, which are not functioning well. Results The analysis captured information on reading speed, comprehension, the correlation between them, and the variability among types of schools and locations. Also, the task made it possible to construct a possible benchmark of good reading performance in the early grades in Peru using the data from the relative best schools in the sample. Only 25% of the first graders and 41% of the second graders were able to read one or more words in the text. On average, the reading speed was only 9 words per minute in grade 1, far below the most modest Latin American standards of 30 words per minute. The rate was 29 words per minute in second grade, where a modest standard would be some 60 words per minute. The level of comprehension, measured as the number of correct answers to the three comprehension questions, correlated 82% with reading speed. Children who could answer all three questions correctly read at 77 words per minute on average, whereas children who could answer only one or two questions read at an average of 15 and 41 words per minute respectively. The resulting scores were low and showed great variation among schools of similar socioeconomic type, especially in the rural areas. Private and urban schools were more likely to have higher scores. Importantly, the research itself can contribute to the establishment of benchmarks or standards. While using international research and existing benchmarks from other countries, the simple study of the in-country variability shows that even schools in rather poor rural areas can achieve good results if they apply themselves. For example, 35 words per minute might be proposed as a benchmark for urban schools in grade 1 (the speeds in the best three schools in the sample were 54, 39, and 26, in different types of schools). For grade 2, a standard The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 7

13 of words per minute could be proposed (speeds in the best three schools were 96, 77, and 67, in different type of schools). The interesting fact was that these benchmarks, based simply on observation of Peru s own internal variation, closely fit those used in Chile, or those used in the United States for identifying at-risk Hispanic children in bilingual transition programs. Of the 54 teachers surveyed in the sampled schools, 94% said they set specific goals, and many gave reasonable answers (i.e., specific, consistent with professional recommendations) on how they set goals and what they were. However, only 41% of teachers claimed to set their goals based on guidance from the ministry or other education authorities. The research showed that clear performance standards on reading do not exist or are not used in Peru. A full 80% of teachers, and 95% of the principals, considered that the curricular structure is too hard to apply or is inappropriate. Only 13% of teachers claimed that they had received support at their request, while 72% of teachers responded that there is no specified mechanism for reporting on problems and requesting support. Transmitting Results: From Research Paper to Screen The results listed above and other conclusions were made available through technical reports. These reports were comprehensive studies robust enough to initiate the policy dialogue. However, the audience for such reports, or even for summary versions, which were also produced, is generally limited to think tanks and technical-level policy makers (or advisers). The general public, policy makers in other sectors (such as economics), and high-level policy makers even within the education sector, typically will not read a technical report. Furthermore, tools are needed to stimulate reading. Using catchy dissemination tools can generate a buzz that will motivate the reading of more technical reports. Thus, three elements were made available initially: (1) statistics on child performance and school management variables affecting on performance, based on the survey of reading speed and comprehension; (2) conclusions and recommendations of the main report, packaged as three pillars : standards, accountability, and support to teachers to accomplish the standards; and (3) identified groups of stakeholders to continue the policy dialogue. While the point of the analysis was to feed into a policy dialogue process, the main dissemination tools planned up until that point included the usual printed materials and PowerPoint presentations in seminars. During the process, audio recordings of the children reading, and the dramatic contrast between proper reading by some poor children, and the more usual labored reading by others, were used in policy dialogue sessions. These audio recordings had been made during the research, and thus were available digitally and could be incorporated into PowerPoint presentations. The team members noticed that dramatizing the contrast 8 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

14 between proper reading and bad reading, using audio, was extremely effective in reaching and touching the audience s emotions. It is one thing to note in a technical report that one child can read 75 words per minute, and another only 20, but it is another thing to hear it. In this context, team members proposed the idea of a video. The objective was to present the information of the report through a clear message that was instrumental enough to convince and probably change the social behavior of the spectator as in social marketing. The rest of this section describes the resulting video and its production process in detail. An important challenge was to maintain the academic results and at the same time be attractive enough to capture and keep the attention of the observers. Specifically, the terms of reference for the video set the parameters of the scope of work: 1. Show some children (girls and boys) who can read fluently and others who can read much less fluently, in urban and rural areas. Document the performance visually and audibly. 2. Present the conclusions and recommendations under the three pillars: standards, accountability, and support for teachers. To lend credibility to the project, the video producer/director had to show a clear and unbiased methodology during the video production. The procurement process to select the video producer/director looked for companies and individuals with previous experience in the social sectors, but also with top-notch private or commercial video production qualifications. Needless to say, the quality of the sound and filmed scenes and the general assembly are crucial to obtain a fine product. It was also realized that the message could not be presented under the same wrapping for all the stakeholders. Instead of a one size fits all video, two videos were designed: one for parents, strengthening the message of rights and accountability, and a second one for policy makers, stressing the message that they have to meet the demand for accountability from parents, by establishing standards, being accountable for meeting standards, and providing support to meet those standards. To keep coherence between the main report and the video, it was decided to hire the consultants who had contributed to field work that was used for the technical report. They not only would advise on the content of the scripts, but also would supervise the video production team for accuracy and appropriateness of the methodology and information shown in the video. Moreover, the selected consultants had themselves been involved in the past in the development of pedagogical support to improve reading performance. Their support was then actually twofold: supervise the scripts (see Annex 1 for Spanish text of final scripts), and identify relatively good schools to complement the initial survey and to provide auditory contrast. The video director proposed the content and worked mainly on the filming and the technological assembly of the videos. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 9

15 The whole team from the project task manager to the video director was aware that the work with children in these issues was extremely delicate. No child s feelings should be hurt in any way during the production and presentation of the video. It was also noted that even though the performance results were disappointing, there were successful cases that showed there was hope for improvement. To simplify the concept, it was decided to present in the video mainly the results and the recommended standard for second graders, instead of showing both first and second graders. The key phrase used as the main message was: A child at the end of second grade should read at least 60 words per minute. To expedite production and to avoid an uncomfortable situation for children and teachers in the less fluent classrooms, the team decided to use the previous voice recordings collected during the research survey. The sounds were used as input and complemented with new recorded images. The video combined the sound of low-speed readers with visuals of little nervous hands or feet, extreme close-ups of eyes, empty classrooms, and other context images known as B rolls. This also ensured that no child who was an actual or implied slow reader could be visually identified, but the viewers would not realize that no slow-reading child could be identified. The comparison group of good readers was constructed with students from selected public schools with approximately the same socioeconomic characteristics as those where the low performers were found, in both urban and rural areas. The scenes showed children reading happily, loudly, confidently, and fluently. Some symbolic tricks and instruments, such as a visual of a chronometer in the foreground, and audio of a ticking clock in the background, were introduced to reinforce the concept of time within the idea of 60 words per minute. The videos referenced in this section can be found at the World Bank/Perú s Web site. 7 The Videos in Action Elements and characteristics of the videos. Two slogans were constructed. One was set at the introduction, indicating the importance of reading at the very beginning of the education years: Para mejorar la educación hay que comenzar por la lectura. (To improve education, one has to start with reading). This slogan set the scope and prepared the spectators. The second slogan was used as a closing remark, underlining the fact that children s reading is the best indicator of a sector s capacity to properly educate: Niños que leen bien, país que educa bien! (Children reading well means a country educating well). Both slogans appear on the DVD s cover case, as shown below. 7 The World Bank, Un nuevo contrato social para El Perú videos [Spanish-language videos], UINSPANISHEXT/0,,contentMDK: ~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:501764,00.html (accessed on May 22, 2006). 10 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

16 Video for parents. The parent video reinforced the idea of the parents rights to know and to monitor their children s learning performance. The video was structured in four parts. Part one introduces parents to the idea of fluency and comprehension and the need to use standards to monitor reading and general learning performance. The example of the standard for second graders, namely 60 words per minute, is presented. Part two presents the diagnosis and tells the story of the survey in urban areas. Scenes of children reading rather poorly are compared with successful cases of students who read fluently. A first sense of disappointment is compensated with a feeling of hope that the job can be done. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 11

17 Part three introduces a complexity not expected by the parent. Results are generally bad in rural areas, particularly in bilingual rural areas, but not uniformly so. Children are tested in two languages, and it is shown that there are schools with accountable and dedicated teachers who focus on reading, and whose students read reasonably well in both Quechua and Spanish. And finally, part four reinforces the message of the parents rights and invites them to repeat the experiment at home. It suggests using an appropriate reading fragment for their children and observing the speed or fluency. If the results are below the suggested standard, they should go to school and ask the teacher about the possible problems, implying (but not stating overly strongly) that they have a right to complain. Video for policy makers. The video notes that parents have a right to expect their children to read well, and tells policy makers that in order to guarantee this, they have to (1) create reading standards, (2) hold actors accountable for getting to these standards, and (3) provide support to teachers so they can meet the standard. The video was constructed in four parts, much as the parents video, but with different emphases and detailed content. The first part reminds the audience about the education sector s performance in terms of coverage and quality. It recognizes that great advances have been made in coverage, but that quality is low. It refers to Peru s own testing results, which similarly find that quality is very poor. But it states that these results require expertise in interpretation. It then notes that a simpler reading test can be done that more dramatically illustrates the problem, and shows the results of these tests. The opening of the video creates a sense of anxiety or desperation. The audience is expected to be shocked by a message that poor children could only read 10 to 15 words per minute, or that 35% of children could not read at all. (This is later compensated by a message of hope, as in the parents video, by contrasting the schools where children read poorly to one where children can read quite well.) The relation between fluency and comprehension is explained. At the end of this introductory part, the Ministry of Education is challenged to begin establishing simple reading standards for monitoring performance. 12 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

18 Part two is very similar to the second part of the video prepared for parents. The film first shows children in urban areas reading less fluently. These children are then compared to a group of children, also in urban areas, reading with the standard fluency of 60 words per minute or even better. Part three asks why some schools are more successful than others. New actors appear on scene to explain that success is due to the school principals and teachers use of standards and goals. This information leads into a discussion of the three main recommendations for the policy makers: standards, accountability, and teacher support. This mantra is repeated several times during the video. To close the film, the same oral reading exercise is repeated with children in the rural areas in two languages, in a successful bilingual school. This reinforces the idea that in poor, rural, bilingual areas it is also possible to succeed, as long as the teachers are clear about goals and focus on results. The message is that rurality and social origin are no excuse for failure. The final message invites the policy-maker audience to work on standards, to support the teachers in reaching the standards, and to create systems whereby schools and teachers can be held accountable by parents. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 13

19 Policy Dialogue and Dissemination To understand the role of the video it is important to note the overall context of policy dialogue. The RECURSO project had an original plan for policy dialogue and dissemination, but this was designed, updated and adjusted according to the demands of the political environment at any given moment. The whole process, graphed in figure 1, included intermediate consultations carried out while the research process and writing continued prior to the final products. The final products used to back up the dialogue were a comprehensive report on the education sector (forthcoming), two published books on the RECURSO project s analyses and recommendations (in both Spanish and English; see Spanish cover below), 8 many PowerPoint presentations, and of course, the two videos under discussion. The scheme of the policy dialogue process is shown in figure 1. This figure summarizes, chronologically, from left to right, how the whole process evolved, beginning with the design of the project and continuing through stakeholder identification, field work, first round of dissemination, adjustments and productions of reports and videos, and finally two intensive weeks of meetings, conferences, and media interviews. 8 Daniel Cotlear, ed., Un nuevo contrato social para El Perú: Cómo lograr un país más educado, saludable, y solidario? and English edition, A New Social Contract for Peru: An Agenda for Improving Education, Health Care, and the Social Safety Net (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006). 14 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

20 Figure 1. The Plan and Process of Dissemination FRAMEWORK AND INPUTS PRODUCTS AND ACTIVITIES IMMEDIATE EFFECTS National political and economic environment: 2006 presidential and congressional elections Point of departure: The need and opportunity for policy dialogue on social policy in time for election debate Framework: World Bank s World Development Report 2004 accountability triangle Partnership: The United Kingdom s Department for International Development (DFID) Applied research designed and developed (field work) Stakeholder and audience identification, national and international Main stakeholders: Human Rights Ombudswoman, ministers, think tanks, civil society (forums, parents associations, political parties planning groups, National Education Council, independent intellectuals, etc.) Final results presented as different products (research papers, book, videos, TV appearances, etc.) Primary consultations with ministers, think tanks, sectoral forums First approach to political parties Policy paper: Education: Standards, Accountability and Support. (Long version of technical report.) Forthcoming publication. Book: A New Social Contract for Peru, distributed free during the dialogue. Published in two languages. Two videos: For parents and authorities. Main message: standards, accountability and support. One video was shown at each meeting and was distributed free during the dialogue. Article in UNESCO s scholarly journal Prospects, summarizing the nature of the research and the rapid appraisal. Dissemination plan based on ad hoc designed meetings tailored to stakeholders. Implemented with local partners. Main conference (Lima) implemented with academic think tank partner. 800 participants (policy makers, civil society, NGOs, think tanks, etc.) Two decentralized meetings in outskirts of Metropolitan Lima with civil society leaders, local authorities, parents associations, food support programs (Glass of Milk, soup kitchen representatives etc.) 300 and 400 participants at each. In collaboration with development project of European Union and Ministry of Women and Human Development. One regional meeting in Lambayeque with regional authorities and staff from regional government and education sector. Other public agencies, civil society. 400 participants. Organized with the regional government. Lunch meeting with private sector Meetings with four political parties. Top contenders according to polls (Lima; additional meetings were arranged in Washington, DC). Meetings arranged as per demand with strategic stakeholders: Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Education Support came from media leaders, think tanks, academia and politicians. Intercampus conference (organized by a well-known university, one partner) requested to show the video for the Presidential debate on proposals to improve education. Estimated audience of 1,000 at conference. One of the top political parties, U.N., included a standard of performance in education in proposed governance plan. The dialogue created an environment of awareness of the problem and the proposal, even with those who opposed it. Media instruments TV and radio interviews, magazine articles, written briefs distributed to the media, taped conference on cable TV, video on the Internet The work described in this document and the process indicated in this diagram were funded by the World Bank and the British Department for International Development (DFID) unde r the RECURSO Project. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 15

21 Dissemination Events RECURSO disseminated its findings to a large and varied audience. The primary identified groups were: Political parties running in the 2006 presidential elections (the top four, according to the polls at the time of dissemination, were chosen for the policy dialogue) Political and Peruvian social leaders Think tanks, academia, and research institutions Public sector heads and specialists (executive, legislative), subnational authorities, and technicians Human Rights Ombudswoman s office Private sector representatives (from large to micro enterprises) Community-based organizations (CBOs), PTAs and other parents associations Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) Civil advocacy groups International community in Peru Media. The project had three rounds of dissemination meetings. The first set was carried out during 2004, aiming to exchange preliminary findings of the diagnosis. These meetings were basically organized as workshops. The second round took place in mid For the case of education, meetings were organized with the Minister of Education and advisors, Foro Educativo (an education policy dialogue NGO), think tanks, and three political parties (similar meetings were organized for the other sectors). The third round of dissemination meetings, identified here as final dissemination events, took place during nearly two weeks of intensive effort at the end of January The events were: 1. One main conference, with an audience of 800 participants and two ministers attending the opening remarks and the education presentation, 9 and the Human Rights Ombudswoman as keynote speaker. 2. Meetings with four political parties, at least two meetings per party, with written informal feedback provided. 3. One conference with the private sector, with 12 top entrepreneurs. A possible agreement to finance outstanding teachers was discussed. 9 According to the attendees database, 20% were from the social sectors, 15% from the executive and legislative branches, 7% from subnational governments, 34% from civil society and NGOs, 17% from think tanks and academia, and 7% from the private sector and independent consulting firms. 16 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

22 4. One meeting in the northern outskirts of Lima (Lima Norte), with an audience of 300 participants. 5. One meeting in southern outskirts of Lima (Lima Sur), with an audience of 400 participants and with the participation of the Human Rights Ombudswoman as keynote speaker. 6. One meeting in Lambayeque Region, with an audience of 400 participants and the Regional President as sponsor and presenter of the opening remarks. 7. Specialized meeting with Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) and Ministry of Education (this meeting was requested by the MEF). At all the above meetings (except with MEF), one of the videos was shown, chosen depending on the audience. The books were distributed to each participant at the main conference, the private meetings with political parties and the private sector, and the Lambayeque Region meeting. The video was distributed to each participant in the outskirts of Lima and in Lambayeque Region. The distributions to individuals and to selected institutions such as universities and libraries nationwide continue upon request. To be able to conduct a series of meetings in a short period of time (1½ weeks), the team sought local partners who had been working with the particular group of beneficiaries for each conference (except meetings with political parties, which were organized directly by the World Bank staff). The good reputation or credibility of the entity or agency to be selected was considered because the success of the process hinged on it. The benefit of working through local partners was to get the right audience and large attendance. The World Bank heavily relied on the partners to identify the attendees and deliver the invitations. However, the study team provided some quality oversight and consultation on the participants. At all the events, the actual audience was larger than expected. Table 1 shows a summary of the events. Complementary Activities Parallel to the dissemination events, some marketing and other dissemination instruments were implemented by the team, such as: Broad and constant information to the media before and after the central week of the event Interviews on radio and cable TV for the project task manager and RTI education specialist Special news article and interview in political magazine (Caretas) Presentation and availability of book, videos, and conference handouts via a Web page under construction. Preparation of a special short film edition of the conference for TV. Films will be placed in the National Library of Peru. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 17

23 Annex 2 shows some press releases. Some of them were informative and others were spontaneous expressions of support to or rejection of (which in any case shows discussion and interest) the ideas under discussion. Part of the pending plan is to prepare short slogans in different languages to present them on radio stations with rural coverage. 18 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

24 Table 1. RECURSO: Implemented Dissemination Plan, January 2006 Meeting Partner Target Population Activities in main event Central Conference One full-day major event in a hotel located downtown. Invitation distributed by s, cards, radio, TV, newspapers. Universidad del Pacífico This institution had experience in well-known seminars and conferences. 300 to 400 participants were expected, but actually 800 persons attended the conference. A room with closed-circuit television was set up to accommodate the overflow. Keynote speaker: Human Rights Ombudswoman. The presentation on education included a showing of the video. The book A New Social Contract was distributed at the end of the conference. Regional meeting Half-day event in Lambayeque Region. Invitations were distributed by the regional government using its database. Regional government of Lambayeque Regional President has a high acceptance ratings among his constituents. Regional and municipal government authorities and staff, community/civil society, political local leaders, think tanks, academia, private sector and NGOs, media. Expected audience: from 200 to 300. Actual participants: 400. Keynote speaker was the Regional President. A DVD and book were distributed to each participant. Meeting with the private sector Small meeting at lunchtime. CONFIEP, the main private sector association. 12 representatives of main companies. A DVD and book were distributed to each participant. Four meetings with the political parties running for next elections. In some cases there were multiple meetings at their request. Implemented directly by the World Bank Resident Mission Office in Peru. Four top contenders according to polls. Each party decided the size of the team attending the meeting. Some parties sent as many as 15 members of their government planning teams. A DVD and book were distributed to each participant. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 19

25 Meeting Partner Target Population Activities in main event Meeting in Metropolitan Lima, South area (Lima Sur). Half a day (late afternoon/evening). The South is home to the poorest area in Lima. PROPOLI. Project to Fight Poverty in Metropolitan Lima. Project financed by European Union and Ministry of Women and Human Development; covers 11 poorest districts. PROPOLI has been in contact with main community-based organization (CBO) local leaders and members. CBOs and local leaders (parents associations, leaders of food assistance programs, mayors, council members, NGOs, other public agencies located in the area). Expected audience: 250 to 300. Actual audience: 400. Organized during one evening to facilitate the attendance of working-class participants. In order to choose an event, organizers first visited places where the community holds meetings, such as participatory budget meetings. The selected venue was the Instituto Nacional de Bienestar Familiar (INABIF) building in Villa Maria del Triunfo. This is an agency that cares for children of working parents during the day. Site located in one of the poorest districts of Lima. Keynote speaker: Human Rights Ombudswoman. A DVD was distributed to participants. Meeting in Metropolitan Lima, North area (Lima Norte). Half a day (afternoon and evening) PROPOLI Project. See above. CBOs and local leaders (parents associations, leaders of food assistance programs, mayors, council members, NGOs, other public agencies located in the area). Expected audience: 250 to 300. Actual attendees: 300. After visiting and exploring various possible venues, the study team decided to organize the event in a well-known venue where the CBOs normally gather to discuss community matters or participatory budgets, the Buen Pastor church. A DVD was distributed to participants. 20 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

26 Effects and Externalities Numerous press releases reflecting support and rejection of the proposal. Up to the writing of this document (April 2006), two months after the main dissemination events (January/February 2006), the issue of the standards and the benchmark of the 60 words per minute still were appearing in newspapers and on TV. The articles can be organized into two groups: informative ones developed mainly by media analysts based on World Bank reports, and a second group of reports or opinion pieces written by specialists and political individuals supporting or rejecting various components of the ideas. Annex 2 shows some typical examples. Opinion leaders writing in the media have included two former ministers, academicians, liberal and conservative economists, and social marketing specialists. Additional showing of videos and report dissemination. The attractiveness of the video production and the novelty and simplicity of its message have generated a market for it. The Universidad del Pacífico, a well-known private university, has been organizing Presidential debates. As of this writing, it had organized the debate for the agenda in education. The university requested and showed the video to an audience of 1,000 attendees, before the candidates or representatives began their speeches. The scholarly article appearing in the journal Prospects (vol. 35, no. 2, June 2005, pp ) has been translated at local cost by the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. One political TV segment, La Hora N, showed the video (January 25, 2006) and dedicated an extended segment of time to its discussion. The study sponsors (World Bank and DFID) were not required to pay for these broadcasts. The show was repeated the next morning. Another important political TV program, Sin Rodeos, anchored by the wellknown Hans Landlot, showed the complete video for parents on April 16, 2006 (Sunday night), three months after the dissemination meetings and premiere presentations of the video. The video presentation was used as an introductory segment before the debate between two governmental plan coordinators from the APRA (Partido Apristo Peruano) and Unidad Nacional parties. The TV show was broadcast again the next Monday afternoon. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 21

27 Open support from the Human Rights Ombudswoman. The Peruvian Human Rights Ombudswoman has been a key player in the process. Her early support was an element of the success but at the same time her opinion in the matter had an effect in the media. She supported the framework of accountability of the RECURSO project and the three recommended pillars of education (standards, accountability, and support) and has applied the same concepts to health and social protection (in her speech at one of the conferences in Lima Sur, January 27, 2006). The notion of a standard of quality in education as a matter not just of effectiveness but of human rights was an important aspect of the RECURSO concept all along, in particular because of the influence of DFID s rights-based approach to sectoral policy. Appropriation of the message: Incorporating the reading standard into political party platforms. The chapters on education in the governance plan for Unidad Nacional included a proposal to set national reading standards for school performance, specifically 60 words per minute in second grade. This probably is one of the most important accomplishments. Measurement of the final impact, of course, will have to await elections. It is also possible that other parties will be more circumspect in appropriating a message associated with the World Bank during the campaign, but will act on it, or something similar, after coming to power. Factors Behind the Success The main factors behind the success of this effort at using research results to drive policy dialogue appear to have been the following. 1. The policy message delivered was based on applied research, which increased its credibility. References to Latin America and other international benchmarks of performance were decisive and convincing. Doing original research while paying much attention to existing Peruvian research helped. 2. The dissemination process was initiated early, even while the research was being planned. This factor worked especially well for the think tanks that were consulted. Invitations to national expert commentators at the conferences, from multiple institutions including universities, the private sector, and civil society indicated an open and free environment for dialogue. 22 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

28 3. Stakeholders were identified and products were designed based on the clients profiles and interests. Videos were designed according to stakeholders profiles (for parents and for policy makers). The book was translated into Spanish and published in Spanish before it was published in English which might seem common sense but is unusual for the World Bank. 4. Products (book, articles, and video) supported each other. The articles and the video carried the same message; the documents provided the statistical analysis and the video put drama into the analysis and related it to everyday life. The message regarding a reading standard was not only a number in a book how this standard feels was demonstrated with audio and video. The problem and solution had a face that the audience could easily relate to. 5. Partnerships for dissemination events were decisive and facilitated the grouping of the attendees. Likewise, several dissemination events were held to facilitate the attendance of different population groups. Appropriate location, venues, starting time, duration, etc., were all key. 6. The working team was made up of nationals and international specialists. Synergy was created between the international and local specialists in education and the experienced video producer. The inputs into the script were provided by the education specialists and were matched by the producer with appropriate scenes and locations. The researchers and the video director communicated frequently and in great detail. 7. The whole process was centrally orchestrated by team members whose role was to keep the process going; this was not left up to the education specialists and video producers alone. 8. Invitations to the events, issued via radio and TV, generated large audiences. 9. Ready-to-use communication tools (videos) facilitated additional TV broadcasting for political programs whose producers normally order filming to present the case under discussion. This increased the number of beneficiaries exposed to the videos. 10. In advance of any events, the media were contacted and analytical briefs were made available. This was crucial to ensure publication of news articles and interviews even before the same main conference, and to generate interest and audience participation. 11. Timing was critical. The policy dialogue was planned to happen in the three to four months leading up to the 2006 presidential elections of Peru. This helped generate interest and created a ready-made set of counterparts: the government planning teams of all the key parties. They could compare the policy messages to their own policy agendas. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 23

29 12. Current political appointees in the ministries helped the interaction, facilitated data availability, and were open to further discussion. Ministers in Education and Health participated as senior technical officials and did not oppose the Bank presentations, even though they did not necessarily support every aspect of the proposals. 24 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

30 Lessons Learned In retrospect, the following lessons learned can be derived from the process. 1. It is not necessary to reinvent the wheel. One can look for international and local allies and partners with the same interests, to make one s voice louder and reach potential beneficiaries. There are experienced agencies in most countries already working with most possible target populations. 2. It is key to begin the dissemination process at an early stage of the research, in order to reinforce the policy dialogue. The research must acknowledge and deeply interact with the national specialists contribution and advances. This will help in the appropriation of the message. 3. It helps to have unbiased or nonpartisan local leaders openly advocate for one s proposals. This creates positive externalities and generates credibility. 4. Openness to criticism and comments is important. Many parties will disagree with just about any message that challenges received wisdom and the status quo. One has to build up dialogue by incorporating positive and negative critiques into the proposals. 5. Creating working teams composed of experienced national consultants and international specialists is useful. Nationals knowledge (of the stakeholders interests and customs, as well as of specific policy nuances) complements the international advisors experience. 6. One has to clearly identify different audiences for the message, and the dissemination products have to appeal to their characteristics. The participation of nationals or local consultants in both the research and dissemination processes can help ensure the appropriateness of the messages. In addition, one needs to tailor the type of meeting, not just the type of message, to the audience. Some groups can be invited to large and open conferences; other groups work better in private workshops. If one is planning to disseminate results to civil society, it helps to be aware that these audiences have long working hours and that attendance at a workshop can carry a cost (paying transportation and/or missing work). Thus, even if these audiences are interested, such costs can be a barrier to them. In the experience documented in this report, the team decided to organize the conference in the same peripheral districts and venues where the communities normally gather and discuss community matters, and during the evenings. As one participant said at the meetings prepared for civil society groups, I always saw you on TV or heard you organize your conferences in expensive hotels. Thank you for coming to talk to us here. 7. It is very helpful to combine research findings with media products such as videos. This helps reach more beneficiaries. The videos, however, should be The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 25

31 backed by solid research evidence, ideally custom-gathered for the exercise, but in line with previous local research. The language used needs to be expressive and understandable. The presenters have to be able to interact with the audience, not simply present, as in a technical or research setting. 8. To produce high-quality video or communication products, the research team and the production teams have to interact constantly and deeply, starting with the design of the script. It helps a lot if the researchers provide the first sequence of ideas or even sentences that should be included in the script. The producer also has to study the research report to appropriate the methodology, results, and proposals. The idea of the video (at least for some audiences) should be to stimulate the viewer to want to read the book, or the technical report. It is fundamental that the video director be an experienced national, especially when in developing the video one has to interact with local beneficiaries and children all over a country. 9. It is a good idea to support products and messages with additional massive disseminations in the media, not just about the message, but about the events where the message will be disseminated. The message has to be transmitted, but the message itself also has to become a celebrity. One should also program follow-up activities after the premiere event presentations, in order to maintain social memory: produce more press releases, create a Web page with the documents, make sure the videos or articles are available, prepare slogans, and use social marketing methodology to enrich the process. In short, one should emphasize place (go where the beneficiaries are), product (book, press, videos), price (reduce the costs of listening by negotiating free materials), and promotion (invitations, information in advance and as follow-up). 10. Timing is key. One should explore the best timing to begin or sustain the presentations, releases to the press, publication of books and brochures, and discussions with specialists. In a macro sense, for example, the lead-up to an election is a good time. But the lead-up to discussion of a key bill in Parliament, for example, might also be important in a micro sense. 26 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

32 References Helen Abadzi, Luis Crouch, Marcela Echegaray, Consuelo Pasco, and Jessyca Sampe. Monitoring Basic Skills Acquisition Through Rapid Learning Assessments: A Case Study from Peru. Prospects 35 (June 2005): Cotlear, Daniel, ed. 2006a. A New Social Contract for Peru: An Agenda for Improving Education, Heath Care, and the Social Safety Net. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Cotlear, Daniel, ed. 2006b. Un nuevo contrato social para El Perú: Cómo lograr un país mas educado, saludable, y solidario? Washington: Banco Internacional de Reconstrucción y Fomento/Banco Mundial. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 27

33 Annex 1: Scripts and Sequence of the Videos Written message on the screen: A. Spanish Script for the Video for Parents PARA MEJORAR LA EDUCACIÓN HAY QUE COMENZAR CON LA LECTURA Narrator (voice) Para aprender a leer, no basta con memorizar el abecedario. Leer con fluidez, comprendiendo lo que se lee, es una de las metas de la alfabetización. Según los expertos, en primer grado los niños deben aprender a leer y entender lo que leen. En segundo grado deben mejorar su fluidez, vocabulario y comprensión. Por eso en los países más adelantados en educación a los niños se les pone metas de aprendizaje de lectura. Por ejemplo, en América Latina, un niño que termina el segundo grado debería leer tranquilamente 60 palabras por minuto. A esto se le llama un estándar, y es la mejor forma de medir cómo progresa una persona. Lamentablemente en el Perú la mayoría de escuelas públicas está por debajo de un nivel aceptable. El Banco Mundial hizo una prueba sencilla de lectura. Elegimos al azar a 136 niños de 2do grado de escuelas públicas de todo el país a quienes se les pidió leer un párrafo de 60 palabras. Este fue el resultado. Written message on the screen: FLUIDEZ PROMEDIO PALABRAS POR MINUTO Y DE LOS 136 NIÑOS 35% NO LOGRO LEER UNA SOLA PALABRA Narrator (voice) Sin embargo, en el Perú, SI existen escuelas públicas que alcanzan el estándar promedio e incluso lo superan. Visitamos algunas de estas y elegimos a niños representativos de segundo grado para realizar la misma prueba de lectura y este fue el resultado. Estos niños de 2do grado de una escuela pública superaron el estándar. Leyeron 60 palabras en menos de un minuto. Con la lectura ocurre algo que puede sonar contradictorio pero es cierto. A mayor fluidez existe mayor posibilidad de comprender lo leído. Y sus hijos, cómo están leyendo? 28 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

34 Al finalizar el segundo grado, están leyendo a un ritmo de 60 palabras por minuto y entienden lo que leen? El Perú es un país de muchas culturas y lenguas. El quechua es una de ellas. Decidimos hacer la misma prueba de lectura que en Lima en una escuela rural bilingüe a niños de segundo grado. Esta vez la lectura se hizo en dos lenguas, primero en quechua. Y luego en castellano, con los mismos niños. Ni la gran distancia que estos pequeños deben recorrer cada día para llegar a su escuela, ni el aislamiento de la capital han sido un impedimento para que estos niños aprendan a leer en dos idiomas con buena fluidez y excelente comprensión, y alcanzando los estándares, como ocurrió en esas otras escuelas que visitamos en Lima. En la ciudad o en el campo los niños tienen derecho a aprender a leer correctamente en sus años iniciales. Haga la prueba en casa. Tome un libro con lecturas apropiadas para el grado de su hijo y haga esta prueba de lectura y comprensión. Son sus hijos capaces de leer 60 palabras por minuto al final de segundo grado o principio de 3ero? Entienden lo que leen? Si sus hijos no están leyendo bien debe preguntarse por qué y hablar con sus maestros. Al finalizar segundo grado deben leer 60 palabras por minuto. En tercero deben leer 90 palabras. En 4to 110 palabras por minuto, y así cada vez mas fluido. Y recuerde que en general la fluidez ayuda a la comprensión. Matricular a sus hijos en el colegio no es suficiente para garantizar su aprendizaje. Si un niño no aprende a leer adecuadamente en sus años iniciales arrastrará este problema a lo largo de su vida educativa atrasando y limitando su aprendizaje. Usted como padre de familia tiene todo el derecho a EXIGIR que su niño pase esta prueba básica y a que lo mantengan informado. Written message on the screen: NIÑOS QUE LEEN BIEN, PAÍS QUE EDUCA BIEN The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 29

35 B. Spanish Script for the Video for Policy Makers Written message on the screen: PARA MEJORAR LA EDUCACIÓN HAY QUE COMENZAR CON LA LECTURA Narrator (voice) Si nuestros niños están entre los últimos de Latinoamérica, qué futuro nos espera? El Perú ha tenido logros impresionantes en cobertura educativa, superiores a otros países de Latino América. No hay territorio poblado donde no haya una escuela cerca. La mala noticia es que hay cantidad de escuelas... pero no hay suficiente calidad de enseñanza. La calidad educativa en el Perú es una de las más bajas de la región. Y las mayores deficiencias se presentan en la educación estatal. Según resultados de la Evaluación Nacional del 2004 tomado a 70 mil estudiantes, en el caso de 2do grado de primaria, sólo el 15% de los estudiantes alcanzó el aprendizaje esperado en comprensión de textos. En cuanto a los de 5to de secundaria, sólo un 9.8% está logrando el aprendizaje esperado en comprensión de textos. Desafortunadamente estas pruebas no están basadas en ninguna meta o estándar establecido y compartido como meta educacional, ya que el Perú no posee metas y estándares específicos para los primeros grados, y mucho menos estándares que los padres entiendan. Estas pruebas tuvieron que establecer niveles para las propias pruebas niveles que todavía no son metas reales y compartidas por la sociedad. Written message on the screen with speaker (voice) : PARA EL MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN ESTABLECER ESTÁNDARES ES PARTE DE LA AGENDA PENDIENTE Narrator (voice) Aprender a leer es uno de los procesos más importantes en la educación de un niño. Una prueba sencilla es simplemente ver si los niños pueden leer 60 palabras por minuto al final de segundo grado. En una prueba reciente hecha por el Banco Mundial a niños de segundo grado de escuelas públicas de diferentes regiones del Perú, solamente un 21% de los niños pudo pasar esta prueba sencilla y fácil de comprender. Escuchen algunos resultados. 30 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

36 Mixture of written message on the screen (in capital letters) and Narrator: META O ESTANDAR: 60 PALABRAS POR MINUTO Estos niños representativos de escuelas públicas PALABRAS POR MINUTO y un 35% NO PUDO LEER UNA SOLA PALABRA Felizmente, en el Perú no toda la población de escasos recursos recibe educación de mala calidad. El Banco Mundial visitó esas escuelas y realizó la misma prueba sencilla de lectura y comprensión a niños de segundo grado y estos fueron los resultados. Está comprobado que las escuelas que logran que el niño lea con fluidez son escuelas que consiguen que el niño comprenda lo que lee. Los resultados de esta prueba fueron excelentes y demuestran que sí es posible elevar el nivel de la educación estatal aún en situaciones de pobreza. Que están haciendo estas escuelas que no hacen las demás? Written message on the screen: TRAZAR METAS CLARAS Y PRECISAS (Interview with school principal Manuel Tasayco) es importante el uso de estándares; no podemos improvisar o a ver como me sale acá no se trabajo al azar sino con metas... Written message on the screen: RENDICIÓN DE CUENTAS Narrator (voice) Y así como el director debe exigir resultados al maestro. Del mismo modo los padres tienen derecho a exigir a las escuelas que sus hijos puedan leer bien, o sea, con fluidez y comprensión, al final del segundo grado en cualquier parte del país. Tradicionalmente se responsabiliza al padre de familia y a la sociedad por la ineficiencia y ausencia de resultados de la escuela. En un futuro el padre debe tener el derecho de exigir logros y rendición de cuentas a la escuela. Written message on the screen: APOYO PEDAGÓGICO A LOS EDUCADORES (Interview with primary schoolteacher Profesora Sicuani) yo busco instituciones que me ayuden oralmente el MINEDU no viene, no se interesa que los docentes tengan formación adecuada en lo que se refiere a pedagogía The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 31

37 Narrator (voice) En realidad hay poco apoyo a los profesores en áreas específicas, al apoyo suele ser genérico y masivo. En un estudio del Banco Mundial solo un 12% de los profesores respondió haber recibido ayuda pedagógica en respuesta a un problema que ellos habían reportado. Por otro lado, si no existen metas de aprendizaje para los niños en el sistema educativo peruano el apoyo que puedan recibir los profesores no esta orientado hacia metas concretas. Lo que se necesita es un estilo de apoyo intenso, que responda a las inquietudes individuales de los profesores, y que los ayude a lograr las metas de aprendizaje de los niños, las mismas que deberían establecerse con urgencia. (Change location to rural area, Sicuani) Narrator (voice) No debemos olvidar que el Perú es un país multicultural y plurilingüe, lo que conlleva a múltiples problemas en la educación rural y bilingüe. Sin embargo, esto no debe ser un impedimento para que los niños aprendan a leer bien. (Interview with schoolteacher Profesora Tomasa) en cualquier lugar del Perú depende de nosotros los maestros no podemos menospreciar que porque es rural no va a aprender yo pienso que cualquier tipo de niño si estimulamos siempre aprende El Banco Mundial decidió hacer la misma prueba de lectura en escuelas rurales donde los maestros se han propuesto elevar el nivel de la educación. Esta vez la prueba se hizo en dos lenguas. (Two students read aloud in Quechua and answer all questions correctly) (Interview with school teacher Carmen Carrasco) la lengua materna de ellos es el quechua es importante porque es la cultura de ellos y la cultura de ellos nunca va a desaparecer si es que promovemos que se siga cultivando la lengua materna (Same students who read in Quechua read aloud in Spanish) (Same teacher continues) yo en un inicio me desesperaba, me preguntaba cuando iban a leer en castellano me he dado cuenta que primeramente conozcan su lengua y luego es más fácil transferir al castellano (Students answer questions in Spanish) Narrator (voice) Como ven, aquí también los resultados fueron excelentes. Las fórmulas perfectas e infalibles para sacar a la educación peruana del profundo pozo en el que se encuentra no existen. Sin embargo, hay algunos requisitos básicos que deben seguirse. En este video ustedes han conocido a educadores que decidieron transformar la enseñanza en sus escuelas, aceptando que hay cambios de mentalidad y metodología que son necesarios. Ese es el secreto de su éxito. 32 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

38 (Screen combined with segments by narrator reads underlined passages) Y estos son los tres de los requisitos más importantes: Crear una cultura de rendición de cuentas sobre los logros del aprendizaje Diseñar sistemas de apoyo pedagógico específico Y, lo más urgente, fijar metas claras y precisas como son los estándares de aprendizaje. Narrator (voice) Recuerden que el aprendizaje de la lectura es primordial para el desarrollo educativo de un niño. Estos son algunos estándares de lectura que el Banco aplicó en las pruebas: Al finalizar 2do grado 60 palabras por minuto Al finalizar 3ero 90 por minuto Al finalizar 4to grado 110 palabras por minuto. Si no medimos nuestros resultados, cómo sabremos si estamos mejorando? (tic tac tic tac). Todos los niños, vivan en la ciudad o en el campo, tienen derecho a aprender a leer bien, en sus años iniciales. Si esto se logra se habrá dotado al niño de sólidos cimientos educativos. Los educadores tienen el deber de enseñarles a leer bien. Y ustedes, las autoridades, la obligación de establecer metas y estándares claros, sistemas de rendición de cuentas e información a los padres y la sociedad, así como apoyar a los profesores para que puedan lograr las metas de aprendizaje de los niños. Slogan: NIÑOS QUE LEEN BIEN, PAÍS QUE EDUCA BIEN. The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru 33

39 Annex 2: Some Examples of Press Releases INTERVIEWS AND BRIEFS ON RADIO AND TELEVISION Brief notes on the radio announcing main event El Banco Mundial, la Universidad del Pacífico y el Ministerio Británico para el Desarrollo Internacional convocan para este miércoles 25 de enero a una conferencia denominada Un nuevo contrato social para el Perú: Cómo lograr un país más educado saludable y solidario. Dicha actividad se realizará en el Hotel Sheraton de 08:30 hrs. a 18:00hrs. January, 21, RPP radio, La Rotativa del Aire. 07:28 a.m. 2. TV broadcast of video January, Wednesday 25, 9:00 p.m. Channel N. La Hora N, hosted by Jaime D Althaus. Show was replayed on Monday TV interview With Task Manager Daniel Cotlear. January, Thursday 26, 8: 55 p.m. Channel N. La Hora N, hosted by Jaime D Althaus 4. TV interview With Senior Economist Luis Crouch, World Bank Consultant and Research Vice President at RTI. On the same show appeared the Vice Minister of Education, Idel Vexler. January, Friday 27, 9:00 p.m. Channel N. La Hora N, hosted by Jaime D Althaus 5. TV interview With Human Rights Ombudswoman. January, Friday 27, Channel 4, Prensa Libre, hosted by Rosa María Palacios 6. Brief note mentioned in political broadcasting Daniel Cotlear, funcionario del Banco Mundial, manifestó que lo que se necesita para mejorar la calidad de los programas sociales son estándares y métodos. Señala que el programa social Juntos está avocado a reducir la desnutrición crónica y por tal es necesario ponerse una meta para poder darle seriedad al mismo. February 12, 2006, Channel N, Sin Rodeos, 9:18 p.m., hosted by Hans Lanlodt 7. Programming for TV replays of main conference First broadcast: Sunday, February 5, 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. First rebroadcast: Tuesday, February 7, 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. Second rebroadcast: Thursday, February 16, 9 p.m. and 6 p.m. 8. TV broadcast of video Sunday, April 16, 9:00 p.m. Channel N. Sin Rodeos, hosted by Hans Lanlodt. Show was replayed on Monday, April Source: World Bank Media Monitoring System and national press. 34 The Implementation and Success of a Policy Dialogue in Peru

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