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1 Country: Spain Date Table Completed: March 2009 Person(s) completing Table: Short introduction on transposition context Spain was late in the transposition of the Directive. The deadline laid down in the Directive was 30 June The Spanish transposing act, L 11/1997, was enacted on 24 April 1997, published in the Official Journal on 25 April and entered into force on 26 April In addition, the secondary transposing act, RD 782/1998 was enacted on 30 April 1998, published in the Official Journal on and entered into force on Therefore, L 11/1997 entered into force 9 months after the required deadline and RD 782/ months after that deadline. According to First Final Provision of L 11/1997 and to the Third Additional Provision of RD 782/1998, their provisions were approved according to competences of the Spanish Central State provided in Article and 23 of the Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española-CE). As a result, this Law and this RD establish the basis and the coordination for economic planning according to article CE and the basis for environmental protection on regards to packaging and packaging waste according to article Article attributes to the State the competence to develop basic legislation on environmental protection, without prejudice to the powers of the Autonomous Communities (CC.AA) to take additional protection measures. AC can also assume competence on the management (Article CE). CC.AA are allowed to develop the provisions of basic legislation as well as to pass additional protection legislation in addition to their powers on environmental management. These powers basically relate to implementation which covers aspects such as enforcement (i.e.: inspections). Thus, the provisions in this Law are of a basic character. The CC.AA have not adopted packaging and packaging waste legislation. The Quality and Environmental Assessment General Directorate from the Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs holds the responsibility for the competences attributed to the State on packaging and packaging waste. The competent authorities at the Autonomous Community level for the powers on packaging and packaging waste attributed to them are the Consejerías (Ministries) responsible for environmental protection. Most articles of the Directive have been effectively transposed. Nevertheless, we found some provisions which were incorrectly or incompletely transposed. List of transposing national legislation (including legal reference and abbreviations used in TOC) Main transposing acts: - Law 11/1997, of 24 April, on packaging and packaging waste (Ley 11/1997, de 24 de abril, de Envases y Residuos de Envases- BOE núm. 99, )- L 11/1997. Entry into force : This Law has been amended several times, the last amendment was introduced by L 9/2006 of 28 April. - Royal Decree 782/1998, of 30 April, approving the Regulation to develop and implement Law 11/1997 (Real Decreto 782/1998, de 30 de abril, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento para el desarrollo y ejecución de la Ley 11/1997, de 24 de abril de Envases y Residuos de Envases- BOE núm. 104, )- RD 782/1998. Entry into force : This RD has been amended by RD 252/2006 of 3 March which also amended L 11/1997. Supplementary transposing acts : - Law 10/1998, of 21 April, on Waste (Ley 10/1998, de 21 abril, de Residuos- BOE núm. 96, )-L 10/1998. Entry into force: Order 27 April 1998 establishing the individualized amounts to be charge as a deposit and the symbol to identify packaging put on the market through the deposit, refund and return system regulated by L 11/1997 (Orden de 27 de abril de 1998 por la que se establecen las cantidades individualizadas a cobrar en concepto de depósito y el símbolo identificativo de los envases que se pongan en el mercado a través del sistema de depósito, devolución y retorno regulado en la Ley 11/1997, de 24 de abril, de Envases y Residuos de Envases -BOE núm. 104 de 1/5/1998) Entry into force: Orden MAM/304/2002, of 8 February, publishing the waste recovery and waste disposal operations and the European Waste Catalogue ( Orden MAM/304/2002, de 8 de febrero, por la que se publican las operaciones de valorización y eliminación de residuos y la lista europea de residuos- BOE núm. 43, ). Entry into force : Milieu Ltd 1/80

2 Other abbreviations Directive 94/62/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste (as amended by Directive 2004/12/EC) BOE : Spanish Official Journal CA: competent authorities CC.AA. Autonomous Communities Analysed legislation in conformity? (shade in black as appropriate) YES NO or/and Stricter Incomplete (G) or/and Incorrect (I) G I Milieu Ltd 2/80

3 Article 1 Objectives Art. 1.1 This Directive aims to harmonize national measures concerning the management of packaging and packaging waste in order, on the one hand, to prevent any impact thereof on the environment of all Member States as well as of third countries or to reduce such impact, thus providing a high level of environmental protection, and, on the other hand, to ensure the functioning of the internal market and to avoid obstacles to trade and distortion and restriction of competition within the Community. Art. 1.2 To this end this Directive lays down measures aimed, as a first priority, at preventing the production of packaging waste and, as additional fundamental principles, at reusing packaging, at recycling and other forms of recovering packaging waste and, hence, at reducing the final disposal of such waste. Article 2 Scope Art. 2.1 This Directive covers all packaging placed on the market in the Community and all packaging waste, whether it is used or released at industrial, commercial, office, shop, service, household or any other level, regardless of the material used first indent 1.1. second indent 1.2. Objeto y ámbito de aplicación. 1. Esta Ley tiene por objeto prevenir y reducir el impacto sobre el medio ambiente de los envases y la gestión de los residuos de envases a lo largo de todo su ciclo de vida. Para alcanzar los anteriores objetivos se establecen medidas destinadas, como primera prioridad, a la prevención de la producción de residuos de envases, y en segundo lugar, a la reutilización de los envases, al reciclado y demás formas de valorización de residuos de envases, con la finalidad de evitar o reducir su eliminación. 2. Quedan dentro del ámbito de aplicación de esta Ley todos los envases y residuos de envases puestos en el mercado y generados, respectivamente, en el territorio del Estado. Aim and Scope 1. The purpose of this Law is to prevent and reduce any impact on the environment from packaging and the management of packaging waste through their entire life cycle. To achieved the previous objectives measures are established aimed, as a first priority, at preventing the production of packaging waste, and secondly, at reusing packaging, at recycling and other forms of recovering packaging waste with the end of avoiding or reducing the final disposal of such waste. 2. It is under the scope of this Law all packaging and packaging waste placed on the market and generated, respectively, in the Spanish State territory. Partially reflected Most of the objectives of this paragraph of the Directive refer to objectives to be attained within the whole territory of the EU. The Spanish legislation does not reflect those wide objectives but it includes the objective that can be attained by a single MS: the prevention and reduction of environmental impacts. Fully reflected The last priority in Spain refers also to avoiding the final disposal of such waste. Effective transposition Although the transposition does not list all kinds of packaging waste listed in this article of the Directive, it applies to those kinds of packaging and packaging waste listed. The expression regardless of the material used it is not included in the transposition of this article but it is found in other provisions of this Milieu Ltd 3/80

4 Art. 2.2 This Directive shall apply without prejudice to existing quality requirements for packaging such as those regarding safety, the protection of health and the hygiene of the packed products or to existing transport requirements or to the provisions of Council Directive 91/689/EEC of 12 December 1991 on hazardous waste. Article 3 Definitions Art. 3.1 For the purposes of this Directive: packaging shall mean all products made of any materials of any nature to be used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods, from raw materials to processed goods, from the producer to the user or the consumer. Art. 3.1 (a) Non-returnable items used for the same purposes shall also be considered to constitute packaging. Packaging consists only of: (a) sales packaging or primary packaging, i. e. packaging conceived so as to constitute a Lo establecido en esta Ley lo será sin perjuicio de las disposiciones de carácter especial referentes a seguridad, protección de la salud e higiene de los productos envasados, medicamentos, transportes y residuos peligrosos. Definiciones. A efectos de lo dispuesto en esta Ley se entenderá por: Envase: todo producto fabricado con materiales de cualquier naturaleza y que se utilice para contener, proteger, manipular, distribuir y presentar mercancías, desde materias primas hasta artículos acabados, en cualquier fase de la cadena de fabricación, distribución y consumo. Se consideran también envases todos los artículos desechables utilizados con este mismo fin. Dentro de este concepto se incluyen únicamente los envases de venta o primarios, los envases colectivos o secundarios y los envases de transporte o terciarios. 3. The provisions of this Law are without prejudice to provisions of a special character regarding safety, protection of health and the hygiene of the packed products, medicines, transport or hazardous waste. Definitions For the purpose of this Law it shall be understood by: Packaging: all products made with materials of any nature and which are used to contain, protect, handling, deliver and present goods, from raw materials to processed goods, in any stage of the production, distribution and consumption chain. Non-returnable items used for the same purposes shall also be considered to constitute packaging. Within this concept sales packaging or primary packaging, grouped packaging or secondary packaging and Law. Effective transposition While the Directive provides that it shall apply without prejudice to existing quality requirements for packaging and then lists some examples of quality requirements, the Spanish transposition does not refer to quality requirements but to provisions of special character and gives the list of examples provided by the Directive. The transposition does not make a cross reference to the transposition of D 91/689/EEC but refers to hazardous waste. This is not a conformity problem. Effective transposition The definition of packaging contained in L 11/1997 as it stands today and is reflected in this ToC was given by Law 9/2006 of 28 April on Strategic Environmental Assessment. The last part of this provision from the producer to the user or the consumer has been transposed as in any stage of the production, distribution and consumption chain. The Directive provision involves the stages provided in the Spanish transposition. Literal transposition Effective transposition The explanation given by the Spanish transposition to what is Milieu Ltd 4/80

5 sales unit to the final user or consumer at the point of purchase; Art. 3.1 (b) Art. 3.1 (c) (b) grouped packaging or secondary packaging, i. e. packaging conceived so as to constitute at the point of purchase a grouping of a certain number of sales units whether the latter is sold as such to the final user or consumer or whether it serves only as a means to replenish the shelves at the point of sale; it can be removed from the product without affecting its characteristics; (c) transport packaging or tertiary packaging, i. e. packaging conceived so as to facilitate handling and transport of a number of sales units or grouped packagings in order to prevent physical handling and transport damage. Transport packaging does not include road, rail, ship and air containers. RD 782/1998, Art RD 782/1998, Art RD 782/1998, Art Envase de venta o envase primario: Todo envase diseñado para constituir en el punto de venta una unidad de venta destinada al consumidor o usuario final, ya recubra al producto por entero o solo parcialmente, pero de tal forma que no pueda modificarse el contenido sin abrir o modificar dicho envase. Envase colectivo o envase secundario: Todo envase diseñado para constituir en el punto de venta una agrupación de un número determinado de unidades de venta, tanto si va a ser vendido como tal al usuario o consumidor final, como si se utiliza únicamente como medio de reaprovisionar los anaqueles en el citado punto, pudiendo ser separado del producto sin afectar a las características del mismo. Envase de transporte o envase terciario: Todo envase diseñado para facilitar la manipulación y el transporte de varias unidades de venta o de varios envases colectivos, con objeto de evitar su manipulación física y los daños inherentes en el transporte. Están excluidos de este concepto los contenedores intermodales o multimodales para transporte terrestre, naval, ferroviario y aéreo, de acuerdo con las definiciones establecidas en laconvención Internacional de transport packaging or tertiary packing only are included. Sales packaging or primary packaging: packaging conceived so as to constitute a sales unit to the final user or consumer at the point of purchase, covering the entire product or covering it partially but doing it in such a way that the content cannot be modified without opening or modifying such package. Grouped packaging or secondary packaging: packaging conceived so as to constitute at the point of purchase a grouping of a certain number of sales units whether the latter is sold as such to the final user or consumer or whether it serves only as a means to replenish the shelves at the point of sale; it can be removed from the product without affecting its characteristics; Transport packaging or tertiary packaging: packaging conceived so as to facilitate handling and transport of a number of sales units or grouped packagings in order to prevent physical handling and transport damage. Intermodal or multimodal containers for road, ship, rail and air transport in accordance to definitions established by the International Convention understood as sales packaging or primary packaging is more detailed but we do not consider this as more stringent transposition since it is a mere explanation. Literal transposition Effective transposition Milieu Ltd 5/80

6 Art. 3.1 (i) Art. 3.1 (ii) Art. 3.1 (iii) The definition of packaging shall be further based on the criteria set out below. The items listed in Annex I are illustrative examples of the application of these criteria. (i) Items shall be considered to be packaging if they fulfil the above mentioned definition without prejudice to other functions which the packaging might also perform, unless the item is an integral part of a product and it is necessary to contain, support or preserve that product throughout its lifetime and all elements are intended to be used, consumed or disposed of together. (ii) Items designed and intended to be filled at the point of sale and disposable items sold, filled or designed and intended to be filled at the point of sale shall be considered to be packaging provided they fulfil a packaging function. (iii) Packaging components and ancillary elements integrated into packaging shall be considered to be part of the packaging into which they are RD 782/1998, Art second paragraph RD 782/1998, Annex I first sentence 2.1.second paragraph 2.1.third paragraph 2.1.fourth paragraph Seguridad de Contenedores, de 2 de diciembre de No tendrán la consideración de envases los productos señalados en el anejo 1 del presente Reglamento. Ejemplos ilustrativos de la interpretación de la definición de envase. Son ejemplos ilustrativos de la interpretación de la definición de envase contenida en el segundo párrafo del artículo 2.1 de la Ley 11/1997, de 24 de abril, los siguientes: ( ) Se considerarán envases los artículos que se ajusten a la definición mencionada anteriormente sin perjuicio de otras funciones que el envase también pueda desempeñar, salvo que el artículo forme parte integrante de un producto y sea necesario para contener, sustentar o preservar dicho producto durante toda su vida útil, y todos sus elementos estén destinados a ser usados, consumidos o eliminados conjuntamente. Se considerarán envases los artículos diseñados y destinados a ser llenados en el punto de venta y los artículos desechables vendidos llenos o diseñados y destinados al llenado en el punto de venta, a condición de que desempeñen la función de envase. Los elementos del envase y elementos auxiliares integrados en él se considerarán parte del envase al que van unidos; los elementos auxiliares directamente colgados del producto o atados a él y que desempeñen on the Safety of Containers of 2 December 1972, are excluded from this concept. Items listed in Annex I of this Regulation shall not be considered as packaging. Illustrative examples for interpreting the definition of packaging The following are illustrative examples for interpreting the definition of packaging included in article 2.1. of Law 11/1997 o f 24 April: ( ) Items shall be considered to be packaging if they fulfil the above mentioned definition without prejudice to other functions which the packaging might also perform, unless the item is an integral part of a product and it is necessary to contain, support or preserve that product throughout its lifetime and all elements are intended to be used, consumed or disposed of together. Items designed and intended to be filled at the point of sale and disposable items sold, filled or designed and intended to be filled at the point of sale shall be considered to be packaging provided they fulfil a packaging function. Packaging components and ancillary elements integrated into packaging shall be considered to be part of the packaging into which they are Milieu Ltd 6/80 Effective transposition In principle, second paragraph of article 2.1.of RD 782/1998 may appear contrary to what is said in the Directive. It should say: Items listed in Annex I of this Regulation shall be considered as packaging. But, when reading Annex I of that RD it is clear that the transposition is correct. The problem here is that Annex I as it is written today was added by Ministerial Order 3624/2006 of 17 November. The old Annex I of RD 782/1998 contained a list of products not considered as packaging. This last sentence should have been eliminated with the amendment introduce by the Ministerial Order but it seems there was a legal methodology mistake. Literal transposition Literal transposition

7 integrated. Ancillary elements hung directly on, or attached to, a product and which perform a packaging function shall be considered to be packaging unless they are an integral part of this product and all elements are intended to be consumed or disposed of together. Art. 3.2 The Commission shall, as appropriate, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 21, examine and, where necessary, review the illustrative examples for the definition of packaging given in Annex I. As a priority, the following items shall be addressed: CD and video cases, flower pots, tubes and cylinders around which flexible material is wound, release paper of self adhesive labels and wrapping paper; packaging waste shall mean any packaging or packaging material covered by the definition of waste in Directive 75/442/EEC, excluding production residues; Art. 3.3 packaging waste management shall mean the management of waste as defined in Directive 75/442/EEC; la función de envase se considerarán envases, salvo que formen parte integrante del producto y todos sus elementos estén destinados a ser consumidos o eliminados conjuntamente. Residuo de envase: todo envase o material de envase del cual se desprenda su poseedor o tenga la obligación de desprenderse en virtud de las disposiciones en vigor. Gestión de residuos de envases: la recogida la clasificación, el transporte, el almacenamiento, la valorización y la eliminación de los residuos de envases, incluida la vigilancia de estas operaciones y de integrated. Ancillary elements hung directly on, or attached to, a product and which perform a packaging function shall be considered to be packaging unless they are an integral part of this product and all elements are intended to be consumed or disposed of together. Packaging waste: any packaging or packaging material of which the holder discards or is required to discard pursuant to the provisions in force Packaging waste management: the collection, classification, transport, storage, recovery and disposal of packaging waste, including the No Obligations addressed to EU institutions do not need to be transposed. Incorrect transposition The transposition uses part of the definition of waste given by Directive 75/442/EEC, today Directive 2006/12/EC. That Directive was transposed by L 10/1998. The Spanish transposition refers to the provisions in force which includes L 10/1998. The problem in transposition is due to the lack of the exclusion of production residues. Effective transposition The Spanish transposition includes the definition of waste management given by Directive 2006/12/EC. The Milieu Ltd 7/80

8 Art. 3.4 Art. 3.5 prevention shall mean the reduction of the quantity and of the harmfulness for the environment of: materials and substances contained in packaging and packaging waste, packaging and packaging waste at production process level and at the marketing, distribution, utilization and elimination stages, in particular by developing clean products and technology; reuse shall mean any operation by which packaging, which has been conceived and designed to accomplish within its life cycle a minimum number of trips or rotations, is refilled or used for the same purpose for which it was conceived, with or without the support of auxiliary products present on the market enabling the packaging to be refilled; such reused packaging will become packaging waste when no longer subject to reuse; los lugares de descarga después de su cierre. Prevención: la reducción, en particular mediante el desarrollo de productos y técnicas no contaminantes, de la cantidad y del impacto para el medio ambiente de: - Los materiales y sustancias utilizadas en los envases y presentes en los residuos de envases. Prevención: la reducción, en particular mediante el desarrollo de productos y técnicas no contaminantes, de la cantidad y del impacto para el medio ambiente de: - Los envases y residuos de envases en el proceso de producción, y en la comercialización, la distribución, la utilización y la eliminación. Reutilización: toda operación en la que el envase concebido y diseñado para realizar un número mínimo de circuitos, rotaciones o usos a lo largo de su ciclo de vida, sea rellenado o reutilizado con el mismo fin para el que fue diseñado, con o sin ayuda de productos auxiliares presentes en el mercado que permitan el rellenado del envase mismo. Estos envases se considerarán residuos cuando ya no se reutilicen. supervision of such operations and after care of disposal sites; Prevention: the reduction, in particular by developing clean products and techniques, of the quantity and of the impact for the environment of: - materials and substances contained in packaging and packaging waste. Prevention: the reduction, in particular by developing clean products and techniques, of the quantity and of the impact for the environment of: - packaging and packaging waste at the production process level and at the marketing, distribution, utilization and elimination stages. Reuse: any operation by which packaging, which has been conceived and designed to accomplish within its life cycle a minimum number of trips or rotations, is refilled or reused for the same purpose for which it was conceived, with or without the support of auxiliary products present on the market enabling the packaging to be refilled. Such reused packaging shall become packaging waste when no longer subject to reuse. transposition also keeps some of the operations considered as waste management listed in the definition given by the derogated Directive 75/442/EEC. These operations are: classification and storage. Effective transposition Milieu Ltd 8/80 The Spanish transposition uses the expression impact instead of harmfulness. The definition of impact under the dictionary of the Spanish Language Academy only includes negative impacts. Thus, we consider both expressions synonyms. Effective transposition The Spanish version of the Directive uses the expression techniques instead of technologies According to the IPPC Directive, techniques is a broader concept than technologies. Literal transposition Art. 3.6 recovery shall mean any of the Valorización: todo procedimiento que permita Recovery: any procedure Effective transposition

9 applicable operations provided for in Annex II.B to Directive 75/442/EEC; Art. 3.7 recycling shall mean the reprocessing in a production process of the waste materials for the original purpose or for other purposes including organic recycling but excluding energy recovery; Art. 3.8 Art. 3.9 energy recovery shall mean the use of combustible packaging waste as a means to generate energy through direct incineration with or without other waste but with recovery of the heat; organic recycling shall mean the aerobic (composting) or anaerobic (biomethanization) treatment, under controlled conditions and using microorganisms, of the biodegradable parts of packaging waste, which produces stabilized organic residues or methane. Landfill shall not be considered a form of 2.7. el aprovechamiento de los recursos contenidos en los residuos de envases, incluida la incineración con recuperación de energía, sin poner en peligro la salud humana y sin utilizar métodos que puedan causar perjuicios al medio ambiente. En todo caso estarán incluidos en este concepto los procedimientos señalados en el anexo II B de la decisión 96/350/CE, de la Comisión, de 24 de mayo, así como los que figuren en una lista que, en su caso, se apruebe por Real Decreto Reciclado: la transformación de los residuos de envases, dentro de un proceso de producción, para su fin inicial o para otros fines, incluido el compostaje y la biometanización, pero no la recuperación de energía. A estos efectos, el enterramiento en vertedero no se considerará compostaje ni biometanización. Recuperación de energía: el uso de residuos de envases combustibles para generar energía mediante incineración directa con o sin otros residuos, pero con recuperación de calor. Reciclado: la transformación de los residuos de envases, dentro de un proceso de producción, para su fin inicial o para otros fines, incluido el compostaje y la biometanización, pero no la recuperación de energía. A estos efectos, el enterramiento en vertedero no se considerará compostaje ni biometanización. allowing the exploitation of resources contained in packaging waste, including incineration with energy recovery, without endangering human health and without using methods endangering the environment. In any case are included in this concept the procedures listed in Annex IIB of Commission Decision (96/350/EC) as well as those included in a list that could be approved by Royal Decree. Recycling: the reprocessing in a production process of the waste materials for the original purpose or for other purposes including composting and biomethanization but excluding energy recovery. To this purpose, landfill shall not be considered composting neither biomethanization. Energy recovery: the use of combustible packaging waste as a means to generate energy through direct incineration with or without other waste but with recovery of the heat. Recycling: the reprocessing in a production process of the waste materials for the original purpose or for other purposes including composting and biomethanization but excluding energy recovery. To this purpose, landfill shall not be considered composting neither biomethanization. No Orden MAM/304/2002, Anejo 1, Parte B transposed literally Annex IIB of Commission Decision (96/350/EC) which has been reflected identically in Annex IIB of Directive 2006/12/EC. Effective transposition The Spanish transposition instead of using the words organic recycling directly provides for the two kinds of treatments considered as organic recycling by its definition given in this Directive. Literal transposition Incomplete transposition The Spanish transposition does not mention that the treatment must be done under controlled conditions and using micro-organisms. The transposing legislation also contains a mistake since it defines composting as an anaerobic Milieu Ltd 9/80

10 organic recycling; RD 782/1998, Art. 2.9 Compostaje o formación de abono: El tratamiento anaerobio de las partes biodegradables de los residuos de envases, que produce residuos orgánicos estabilizados. Composting or fertilizer elaboration: the anaerobic treatment of the biodegradable parts of packaging waste which produces stabilized organic residues. treatment when it is an aerobic treatment. This is probably a typo. Art Art disposal shall mean any of the applicable operations provided for in Annex II.A to Directive 75/442/EEC; economic operators in relation to packaging shall mean suppliers of packaging materials, packaging producers and converters, fillers and users, importers, traders and distributors, authorities and statutory organizations; RD 782/1998, Art Biometanización: El tratamiento anaerobio de las partes biodegradables de los residuos de envases, que produce metano y residuos orgánicos estabilizados, sin incluir en este tipo de tratamiento el mero enterramiento de los residuos en vertedero. Eliminación: todo procedimiento dirigido, bien al almacenamiento o vertido controlado de los residuos de envases o bien a su destrucción, total o parcial, por incineración u otros métodos que no impliquen recuperación de energía, sin poner en peligro la salud humana y sin utilizar métodos que puedan causar perjuicios al medio ambiente. En todo caso, estarán incluidos en este concepto los procedimientos señalados en el anexo II A de la decisión 96/350/CE, de la Comisión, de 24 de mayo, así como los que figuren en una lista que, en su caso, se apruebe por Real Decreto. Agentes económicos: - Los fabricantes e importadores, o adquirentes en otros Estados miembros de la Unión Europea, de materias primas para la fabricación de envases, así como los valorizadores y recicladores. - Los fabricantes de envases, los Biomethanization: the anaerobic treatment of the biodegradable parts of packaging waste which produces methane and stabilized organic residues without including in this type of treatment landfill. Disposal: any procedure aimed to the storage or controlled discharge of packaging waste or to its total or partial destruction by incineration or other methods not involving energy recovery without endangering human health and without using methods endangering the environment. In any case are included in this concept the procedures listed in Annex II A of Commission Decision (96/350/EC) as well as those included in a list that could be approved by Royal Decree. Economic operators: - Manufacturers and importers, or buyers in other EU member states, of raw materials to produce packages as well as recoverers and recyclers. - Packaging producers, Effective transposition Orden MAM/304/2002, Anejo 1, Parte A transposed literally Annex IIA of Commission Decision (96/350/EC) which has been reflected identically in Annex IIA of Directive 2006/12/EC. Effective transposition The Spanish transposition reflects all kinds of economic operators contained in the definition given by this Directive. In addition, it provides separate definitions for packaging producers, fillers, traders and distributors, packaging waste Milieu Ltd 10/80

11 envasadores, y los comerciantes o distribuidores. - Los recuperadores de residuos de envases y envases usados. - Los consumidores y usuarios. - Las Administraciones públicas señaladas en el artículo 2 de la Ley 30/1992, de 26 de noviembre, de Régimen Jurídico de las Administraciones Públicas y del Procedimiento Administrativo Común. fillers, traders or distributors - Packaging waste and used packaging transformers. - Consumers and users. - Public Administrations listed in article 2 of Law 30/1992, of 26 november, on the Legal Regime of Public Administrations and on the Common Administrative Procedure. and used packaging transformers (See CS). Article 2 of Law 30/1992 lists as public Administrations: General Administration of the State ( the central) level The CC.AA administrations The Local administrations Public Law Entities (Entidades de Derecho Público) with legal personality and dependant on any administration. Art voluntary agreement shall mean the formal agreement concluded between the competent public authorities of the Member State and the economic sectors concerned, which has to be open to all partners who wish to meet the conditions of the agreement with a view to working towards the objectives of this Directive. Article 4 Prevention No According to Ley 6/1997, de 14 de abril, de Organización y Funcionamiento de la Administración General del Estado, 1 Organismos Públicos are the Public Law Entities developing activities derived from the own State Administration and acting as differentiated instrumental organizations dependent on the State Administration. Gap in transposition (minor) Though there is not a formal definition of voluntary agreement in the Spanish transposition Article 9 bis of RD782/1998 contains a very detailed provision on voluntary agreements and cooperation contracts including their minimum contents and the obligation to publish them in the official journals (see CS for further explanation) 1 BOE núm. 90, de Milieu Ltd 11/80

12 Art. 4.1 Member States shall ensure that, 3 in addition to the measures to prevent the formation of packaging waste taken in accordance with Article 9, other preventive measures are implemented. Such other measures may consist of national programmes, projects to introduce producer responsibility to minimise the environmental impact of packaging or similar actions adopted, if appropriate in consultation with economic operators, and designed to bring together and take advantage of the many initiatives taken within Member States as regards prevention. They shall comply with the objectives of this Directive as defined in Art 1(1). 3 L 11/1997, Art.5,c. Prevención. Dentro de sus respectivos ámbitos de competencias la Administración General del Estado y las Comunidades Autónomas, previa consulta con los agentes económicos, adoptarán las medidas oportunas, especialmente relativas al diseño y proceso de fabricación de los envases, con la finalidad de minimizar y prevenir en origen la producción de residuos de envases. Las medidas a adoptar podrán incluir actuaciones de investigación y desarrollo, tendentes a fomentar la prevención. Prevención. Dentro de sus respectivos ámbitos de competencias la Administración General del Estado y las Comunidades Autónomas, previa consulta con los agentes económicos, adoptarán las medidas oportunas, especialmente relativas al diseño y proceso de fabricación de los envases, con la finalidad de minimizar y prevenir en origen la producción de residuos de envases. Las medidas a adoptar podrán incluir actuaciones de investigación y desarrollo, tendentes a fomentar la prevención. Objetivos de reducción, reciclado y valorización Prevention Within its respective scope of powers the General Administration of the State and the Autonomous Communities, after a consultation to the economic operators, shall adopt appropriate measures, especially on packaging design and packaging production process, to minimize and prevent the formation of packaging waste. The measures to be adopted can include research and development activities to foster prevention. Prevention Within its respective scope of powers the General Administration of the State and the Autonomous Communities, after a consultation to the economic operators, shall adopt appropriate measures, especially on packaging design and packaging production process, to minimize and prevent the formation of packaging waste. The measures to be adopted can include research and development activities to foster prevention. Reduction, recycling and recovery targets Effective transposition Antes del 30 de junio del año 2001 deberán Before 30 June 2001 the cumplirse, en el ámbito de todo el territorio following targets on reduction, del Estado, los siguientes objetivos de recycling and recovery shall be reducción, reciclado y valorización: complied with within all the c. Se reducirá, al menos el 10% en peso de la territory of the Spanish State: Milieu Ltd 12/80 Effective transposition Art. 17 on the National Plan on Packaging Waste and Used Packaging of L11/1997 provides that this programme shall be part of the National Plan on Urban Waste Management. The National Integrated Plan for Waste for the period approved on 20 January 2009 includes packaging waste prevention measures. Article 3 of RD 782/1998 provides for the Business Plans on the Prevention of Packaging Waste reflecting the producer responsibility. This responsibility is also to be included in the National Programmes on Packaging Wastes and Used Packaging according to article of RD 782/1998. The Spanish transposition includes a determined amount of packaging waste to reduce although this target is not included in Directive

13 RD 782/1998, Art. 5.2 totalidad de los residuos de envases generados 2. En la aplicación del artículo 5.c de la Ley 11/1997, y tomando como referencia los años 1997 y 2001, el objetivo del 10 % de reducción se calculará de acuerdo con el indicador K r /K p, siendo K r la cantidad total, en peso, de los residuos de envase generados en un año y K p la cantidad total, en peso, de productos envasados consumidos en el mismo año. Para cuantificar la variable K p en el caso de los productos concentrados, se tendrán igualmente en consideración las dosis funcionales o cantidades equivalentes empleadas. c. at least 10% by weight of packaging waste generated shall be reduced. 2. When implementing article 5.c. of L 11/1997 and taking as a reference the period between 1997 and 2001, the 10% reduction target shall be calculated in accordance with indicator K r /K p being K r the total amount by weight of the packaging waste generated in a year and K p the total amount by weight of the packaged products consumed within the same year. To quantify K p in case of concentrated products, the functional dose or employed equivalent amount shall be also taken into consideration 94/62/EC. Nevertheless it does not fix these reduction amounts in absolute terms but in relative terms with reference to a year respect to the following. This provision was challenged in a court case. In any case, as it is just a relative reduction amount we do not consider that establishes stricter conditions and then it would be contrary to the harmonization objectives of the Directive, but it just establishes another mechanism to prevent packaging waste generation. (See CS for further explanation) Art. 4.2 The Commission shall help to Obligations addressed to EU promote prevention by institutions do not need to be encouraging the development of transposed. suitable European standards, in accordance with Article 10. The standards shall aim to minimise the environmental impact of packaging in accordance with Articles 9 and 10. Art. 4.3 The Commission shall, as appropriate, present proposals for measures to strengthen and complement the enforcement of the essential requirements and to ensure that new packaging is put on the market only if the producer has taken all necessary measures to minimise its environmental impact without compromising the essential functions of the packaging. Milieu Ltd 13/80

14 Article 5 Art. 5. Member States may encourage reuse systems of packaging, which can be reused in an environmentally sound manner, in conformity with the Treaty. 4 Fomento de la reutilización y del reciclado. Las Administraciones públicas podrán establecer aquellas medidas de carácter económico, financiero o fiscal que sean necesarias, con la finalidad de favorecer la reutilización y el reciclado de los envases, sin perjudicar al medio ambiente. Reuse and recycling promotion Public administrations may establish the necessary measures of an economic, financial or fiscal character aiming to favour reuse and recycling of packaging without damaging the environment. RD 782/1998, Fomento de la reutilización y del reciclado. Reuse and recycling promotion Art Las administraciones públicas, en el ámbito 1. Public Administrations de sus competencias, fomentarán el uso de los within their powers scope shall materiales obtenidos a partir de residuos de foster the use of materials envases reciclados. A tal fin, se obtained from recycled promocionarán las medidas contempladas en packaging. To this end, los planes nacionales de residuos tendentes a measures included in the waste incrementar dicho uso y a crear o mejorar los national plans tending to mercados secundarios de los materiales increase such a use and to reciclados procedentes de residuos de envases. create and improve the Asimismo, dentro de sus disponibilidades secondary markets of recycled presupuestarias, las administraciones públicas materials from packaging podrán establecer subvenciones y ayudas waste shall be promoted. In públicas para fomentar actividades de addition, within their investigación y desarrollo de inversiones budgetary availability, public destinadas a la transformación o mejora de las administrations may establish plantas de envasado que sean necesarias para subsidies and aids to foster la utilización de envases reutilizables, al uso research and development de materias primas secundarias procedentes activities for investments del reciclaje de envases en la fabricación de aimed to the transformation nuevos envases o productos de cualquier tipo, and improvement of the a la fabricación de envases reutilizables o packaging facilities needed to reciclables, o a la puesta en marcha de use reusable packaging, to use actividades que favorezcan la reutilización o secondary raw materials from el reciclado. packaging recycling in the 2. Las actuaciones de fomento señaladas en el production of new packaging apartado anterior podrán aplicarse también a or any other kind of products, las actuaciones llevadas a cabo por las or recycled packaging or to Entidades Locales o por las Comunidades launch activities favouring Autónomas. reuse or recycling. 3. Con independencia de las anteriores 2. The promotion activities medidas, se podrán establecer igualmente mentioned in the previous instrumentos económicos, incluidos en su caso paragraph may also apply to Milieu Ltd 14/80 Effective transposition The Spanish transposition encourages packaging reuse, encouraging public administration to establish economic, financial or fiscal measures. It also encourages them, taking into consideration budgetary availability, to establish subsidies and aids to foster research and development activities for investments aimed to the transformation and improvement of the packaging facilities needed to use reusable packaging, to the production of reusable packaging or to launch activities favouring reuse. Economic instruments and fiscal instruments may be also established to promote those investments.

15 Article 6 Recovery and recycling Art. 6.1 In order to comply with the (a) objectives of this Directive, Member States shall take the necessary measures to attain the following targets covering the whole of their territory: (a) no later than 30 June 2001 between 50 % as a minimum and 65 % as a maximum by weight of packaging waste will be recovered or incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery; Art. 6.1 (b) Art. 6.1 (c) (b) no later than 31 December % as a minimum by weight of packaging waste will be recovered or incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery; (c) no later than 30 June 2001 between 25 % as a minimum and 45 % as a maximum by weight of the totality of packaging materials contained in packaging waste will be recycled with a minimum of 15 5.a. 5.d. 5.b. los fiscales, que incentiven las inversiones que puedan llevarse a cabo con los mismos fines expuestos en el primer apartado del presente artículo. Objetivos de reducción, reciclado y valorización. Antes del 30 de junio del año 2001 deberán cumplirse, en el ámbito de todo el territorio del Estado, los siguientes objetivos de reducción, reciclado y valorización: a. Se valorizará el 50 % como mínimo, y el 65 % como máximo, en peso, de la totalidad de los residuos de envases generados. d. Antes del 31 de diciembre de 2008, y en años sucesivos, se valorizará o incinerará en instalaciones de incineración de residuos con recuperación de energía un mínimo del 60 % en peso de los residuos de envases. Antes del 30 de junio del año 2001 deberán cumplirse, en el ámbito de todo el territorio del Estado, los siguientes objetivos de reducción, reciclado y valorización: b. En el marco del anterior objetivo global, se reciclará el 25 % como mínimo y el 45 % como máximo, en peso, de la totalidad de los activities carried out by local entities or by the Autonomous Communities. 3. Independent from the previous measures, economic instruments may be also established, including fiscal instruments if appropriate, to encourage investments having the same purposes as those provided in the first paragraph of this article. Reduction, recycling and recovering targets Before 30 June 2001 the following targets on reduction, recycling and recovery shall be complied with within all the territory of the Spanish State: a) between 50% as a minimum and 65% as a maximum by weight of packaging waste shall be recovered. Before 31 December 2008 and successive years, 60 % as a minimum by weight of packaging waste will be recovered or incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery Before 30 June 2001 the following targets on reduction, recycling and recovery shall be complied with within all the territory of the Spanish State: b. Within the framework of the previous global target, between Effective transposition Though this target in the Spanish transposition does not specifically mention or incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery we must recall that the definition of recovery provided by this Law analysed before includes such an operation. It is important to note that targets for 2001 have disappeared with the amendment of targets introduced by Royal Decree 252/2006 of 3 of March. Effective transposition The transposition is almost literal. This target was introduced by RD 252/2006. Effective transposition With the amendment introduced by RD 252/2006, the reference to 2001 has disappeared and says since its entry into force ( ) and without prejudice to the objectives Milieu Ltd 15/80

16 % by weight for each packaging material; Art. 6.1 (d) Art. 6.1 (e) i) Art. 6.1 (e) ii) Art. 6.1 (e) iii) Art. 6.1 (e) iv) Art. 6.1 (e) v) Art. 6.2 (d) no later than 31 December 2008 between 55 % as a minimum and 80 % as a maximum by weight of packaging waste will be recycled; (e) no later than 31 December 2008 the following minimum recycling targets for materials contained in packaging waste will be attained: (i) 60 % by weight for glass; (ii) 60 % by weight for paper and board; (iii) 50 % by weight for metals; (iv) 22,5 % by weight for plastics, counting exclusively material that is recycled back into plastics; (v) 15 % by weight for wood. Packaging waste exported out of the Community in accordance with Council Regulations (EEC) No 259/93, (EC) No 1420/1999 and Commission Regulation 5.b. 5.c.1. 5.c.2 5.c.3 5.c.4. 5.c.5. RD , Art materiales de envasado que formen parte de todos los residuos de envases generados, con un mínimo de un 15 % en peso de cada material de envasado. b. Antes del 31 de diciembre de 2008, y en años sucesivos, se reciclará entre un mínimo del 55% y un máximo del 80% en peso de los residuos de envases; c. Antes del 31 de diciembre de 2008, y en años sucesivos, se alcanzarán los siguientes objetivos mínimos de reciclado de los materiales contenidos en los residuos de envases: 1. el 60 % en peso del vidrio, 25 % as a minimum and 45 % as a maximum by weight of the totality of packaging materials contained in packaging waste will be recycled with a minimum of 15 % by weight for each packaging material. Before 31 December 2008 and in successive years, between 55 % as a minimum and 80 % as a maximum by weight of packaging waste will be recycled; c. Before 31 December 2008, and in the successive years, the following minimum recycling targets for materials contained in packaging waste will be attained: % by weight for glass; 2. el 60 % en peso del papel y cartón, % by weight for paper and board; introduced from 31 December With the amendment this paragraph has become paragraph a. of article 5 L 17/1999. Effective transposition The transposition is almost literal. This target was included by RD 252/2006. Effective transposition This target was included by RD 252/2006 Literal transposition This target was included by RD 252/ el 50 % en peso de los metales, % by weight for metals; Literal transposition 4. el 22,5 % en peso de los plásticos, contando exclusivamente el material que se vuelva a transformar en plástico, 4. 22,5 % by weight for plastics, counting exclusively material that is recycled back into plastics This target was included by RD 252/2006 Literal transposition This target was included by RD 252/ el 15 % en peso de la madera; % by weight for wood. Literal transposition 3. A los efectos de la evaluación del cumplimiento de los objetivos de reciclado y valorización citados en el artículo 5 de la Ley 11/1997, de 24 de abril, de Envases y Residuos de Envases, se podrán tener en 3. For the purpose of evaluating the compliance with the recycling and recovery targets cited in article 5 of L 11/1997, packaging waste This target was included by RD 252/2006 Effective transposition Milieu Ltd 16/80

17 (EC) No 1547/1999, shall only count for the achievement of the obligations and targets of paragraph 1 if there is sound evidence that the recovery and/or recycling operation took place under conditions that are broadly equivalent to those prescribed by the Community legislation on the matter. Art. 6.3 Art. 6.4 (a) Art. 6.4 (b) Art. 6.5 Member States shall, where appropriate, encourage energy recovery, where it is preferable to material-recycling for environmental and cost-benefit reasons. This could be done by considering a sufficient margin between national recycling and recovery targets. Member States shall, where appropriate, encourage the use of materials obtained from recycled packaging waste for the manufacturing of packaging and other products by: (a) improving market conditions for such materials; (b) reviewing existing regulations preventing the use of those materials. Not later than 31 December 2007, the European Parliament and the Council shall, acting by qualified majority and on a proposal from the Commission, fix targets for the third five-year RD 782/1998, Art first paragraph cuenta los residuos de envases que hayan sido exportados de conformidad con el Reglamento (CEE) 259/93 del Consejo, de 1 de febrero de 1993, relativo a la vigilancia y al control de los traslados de residuos en el interior, a la entrada y a la salida de la Comunidad Europea y normas que lo desarrollan, siempre que se acredite que la operación de reciclado o valorización se llevó a cabo en condiciones más o menos equivalentes a las prescritas por la legislación comunitaria en la materia. Fomento de la reutilización y del reciclado. 1. Las administraciones públicas, en el ámbito de sus competencias, fomentarán el uso de los materiales obtenidos a partir de residuos de envases reciclados. A tal fin, se promocionarán las medidas contempladas en los planes nacionales de residuos tendentes a incrementar dicho uso y a crear o mejorar los mercados secundarios de los materiales reciclados procedentes de residuos de envases. exported in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) No 259/93 and its development norms shall only count if there it is accredited that the recycling or recovery operation took place under conditions that are broadly equivalent to those prescribed by the Community legislation on the matter. Reuse and recycling promotion 1. Public Administrations within the scope of their powers shall foster the use of materials obtained from recycled packaging. To this end, measures included in the waste national plans tending to increase such a use and to create and improve the secondary markets of recycled materials from packaging waste shall be promoted. Does not need to be transposed Effective transposition This provision is a matter of practical implementation rather than transposition as such. Spain has opted to include a specific provision obliging the public administrations to foster the use of such materials. This is done through the promotion of measures included in the waste national plans tending to increase such use and to create and improve secondary markets of the materials. Obligations addressed to EU institutions do not need to be transposed. Milieu Ltd 17/80

18 phase 2009 until 2014, based on the practical experience gained in the Member States in pursuit of the targets laid down in paragraph 1 and the findings of scientific research and evaluation techniques such as life-cycle assessments and costbenefit analysis. This process shall be repeated every five years. Art. 6.6 The measures and targets referred to in paragraph 1 shall be published by the Member States and shall be the subject of an information campaign for the general public and economic operators. RD 782/1998, Art Información a los agentes económicos, en especial a los consumidores y usuarios, y a las organizaciones ecologistas. A efectos de lo establecido en el artículo 16 de la Ley 11/1997, las Administraciones públicas suministrarán la siguiente información: Information to economic operators, specially to consumers and users and to ecologists groups To the purposes of article 16 of L 11/1997, public Administrations shall provide the following information: Effective transposition The targets have been published by L 11/1997. Art 16 L 11/1997 provides for information measures. Art. 6.7 (a) Greece, Ireland and Portugal may, because of their specific situations, namely respectively the large number of small islands, the presence of rural and mountain areas and the current low level of packaging consumption, decide to: (a) attain, no later than 30 June 2001, lower targets than those fixed in paragraphs 1(a) and (c), but shall at least attain 25 % for recovery or incineration at waste incineration plants with energy 5. Las administraciones públicas promoverán campañas de información y sensibilización de los agentes económicos y de los consumidores y harán públicos las medidas y objetivos contemplados en este Reglamento. 5. Public administrations shall promote information and awareness raising campaigns targeted to economic operators and consumers and shall publish the measures and targets included in this Regulation. N/A This provision is not relevant for Spain Milieu Ltd 18/80

19 Art. 6.7 (b) Art. 6.7 (c) Art. 6.8 (a) Art. 6.8 (b) Art. 6.8 (c) recovery; (b) postpone at the same time the attainment of the targets in paragraphs 1(a) and (c) to a later deadline which shall not, however, be later than 31 December 2005; (c) postpone the attainment of the targets referred to in paragraphs 1(b), (d) and (e) until a date of their own choice which shall not be later than 31 December The Commission shall, as soon as possible and no later than 30 June 2005, present a report to the European Parliament and the Council on the progress of the implementation of this Directive and its impact on the environment, as well as on the functioning of the internal market. The report shall take into account individual circumstances in each Member State. It shall cover the following: (a) an evaluation of the effectiveness, implementation and enforcement of the essential requirements; (b) additional prevention measures to reduce the environmental impact of packaging as far as possible without compromising its essential functions; (c) the possible development of a packaging environment indicator to render packaging waste prevention simpler and more effective; Obligations addressed to EU institutions do not need to be transposed. Milieu Ltd 19/80

20 Art. 6.8 (d) packaging waste prevention (d) Art. 6.8 (e) Art. 6.8 (f) Art. 6.8 (g) Art. 6.9 Art plans; (e) encouragement of reuse and, in particular, comparison of the costs and benefits of reuse and those of recycling; (f) producer responsibility including its financial aspects; (g) efforts to reduce further and, if appropriate, ultimately phase out heavy metals and other hazardous substances in packaging by This report shall, as appropriate, be accompanied by proposals for revision of the related provisions of this Directive, unless such proposals have, by that time, been presented. The report shall address the issues in paragraph 8 as well as other relevant issues in the framework of the different elements of the Sixth Environmental Action Programme, in particular the thematic strategy on recycling and the thematic strategy on the sustainable use of resources. The Commission and the Member States shall, as appropriate, encourage studies and pilot projects concerning points 8(b), (c), (d), (e) and (f) and other prevention instruments. Member States which have, or will, set programmes going beyond the maximum targets of paragraph 1 and which provide to this effect appropriate capacities for recycling and Does not need to be transposed Does not need to be transposed Milieu Ltd 20/80

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