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3 SER2011 BOOK OF ABSTRACTS TABLE OF CONTENTS SER2011 Conference Theme and Plenary Program 2 SER2011 Organizing and Scientific Program Committees 4 Society for Ecological Restoration Board of Directors and Staff 5 Oral Abstracts 7 Poster Abstracts 219 Author Index 311 Addendum 319

4 SER2011 CONFERENCE THEME The Mayans, renowned for their architectural, artistic, mathematical, and scientific achievements, left us a series of gigantic stone monuments and pyramids with precise astrological computations that reflect their understanding of the symbiotic relationship between the earth and the cosmos, and which many have interpreted as prophecies. The Mayans believed that these celestial cycles coincided with the development of our collective consciousness, and that the movements of the heavenly bodies exert influences upon the earth s biosphere. As we approach the last year of the present great cycle (3113 BC 2012 AD) and enter the Age of the Fifth Sun, the planetary alignment on December 21, 2012 forecasts major shifts in our evolution that afford us tremendous opportunities for the renewal and restoration of balance and harmony between nature and culture. Logos command our attention; they are symbols or icons that encapsulate a myriad of realities. In Greek, logos is the animating spirit the reasoning principle throughout time. The SER2011 conference logo of the macaw and agave plant depicts the intimate and mutually-supportive relationship of fauna and flora in nature. The scarlet macaw, which was revered by the ancient Mayans as a representative of the divine, is now on the brink of extinction due to habitat loss and the pet trade. The agave plant was domesticated by the Mayans as a source of fiber (sisal or henequén) and medicine. Its economic and cultural significance continued after colonization with the growth of the sisal industry until its collapse in the 1930s. The terms extinction and collapse are now commonly used by scientists and practitioners in the field when speaking of populations, species and ecosystems. The SER2011 conference logo represents the interconnectedness of nature and culture the need and desire for beauty and utility. As environmental degradation encroaches upon our lives, we are now forced to address the current trajectory of nature s feedback mechanisms. Restoring balance, integrity, and resilience; re-establishing ecosystem structure and function; and reinstating ecosystem services is the monumental task before us. Ecological restoration is perhaps one of our most important tools for dealing with the adverse impacts of climate change, habitat loss, and species extinctions while at the same time providing for sustainable livelihoods. The SER2011 conference will be an important forum for addressing the global challenges of biodiversity and habitat loss, climate change, and sustainable development. It will provide a global venue for professionals, researchers, students and the public to come together, learn and share their knowledge and experiences, and identify practical solutions for restoring nature and its critical ecosystem goods and services. SER2011 will bring together restoration professionals, researchers, and students from diverse backgrounds including the earth sciences, landscape architecture, ecological engineering, natural resource and land management, public policy and economics, and indigenous peoples and community organizers. It will provide a critical platform to assist us in defining the principles of restoration, understanding its methods and goals, and closing the gap between the science of restoration ecology and the practice of ecological restoration The SER2011 conference will include presentations and discussions on cutting-edge research and new developments in the science and practice of ecological restoration as well as numerous exciting networking opportunities. The SER2011 Conference Organizing Committees and Scientific Program Committee are proud to announce an innovative thematic program for the 4th World Conference on Ecological Restoration. Each of the three days of the scientific program will feature a morning plenary that will address in turn the economic, social, and biodiversity aspects of ecological restoration. Each plenary will consist of a keynote address and panel discussion followed by a press conference. The late morning and afternoon of each day will feature concurrent sessions including regular and special sessions, symposia, and workshops

5 SER2011 PLENARY PROGRAM MONDAY, AUGUST 22, THE ECONOMIC ASPECT Ecological restoration as a tool for employment creation and sustainable development KEYNOTE: Pavan Sukhdev Special Advisor and Head of UNEP s Green Economy Initiative & Study Leader for The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) PANELISTS: Sven Wunder (Center for International Forestry Research), Ani Adiwinata Nawir (Center for International Forestry Research), Keith Bowers (Biohabitats, Inc.), TUESDAY, AUGUST 23, THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECT Integrating ecological restoration with social and cultural values KEYNOTE: Eric Higgs Professor and past-director, School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria PANELISTS: Leanne Liddle (Department for Premier and Cabinet, Aboriginal Affairs and Reconciliation, South Australia), Theresia Nkafu Atenkeng (Pan African Institute for Development, Cameroon), Victor M. Toledo (Autonomous University of Mexico - UNAM) WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 24, THE BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM ASPECT Using ecological restoration for enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem functioning KEYNOTE: Shahid Naeem Professor, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, Columbia University PANELISTS: Elise Buisson (University of Avignon, France), Peggy Fiedler (Natural Reserve System, University of California), Gabriela Chavarria (US Fish and Wildlife Service) - 3 -

6 SER 2011 CONFERENCE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Francisco A. Comín (Chair)* Profesor de Investigación Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología Sasha Alexander (Vice-Chair)* Program Director Society for Ecological Restoration Amanda Jorgenson (Treasurer)* Executive Director Society for Ecological Restoration Levi Wickwire (Secretary)* Project Coordinator Society for Ecological Restoration Kingsley Dixon Science Director Kings Park and Botanic Garden Carolina Murcia Science Director Organization for Tropical Studies Bill Halvorson* Research Ecologist US Geological Survey Al Unwin Professor Niagara College Mauricio Balensiefer Presidente Sociedade Brasileira de Recuperação de Áreas Degradadas Steve Whisenant Professor Texas A&M University James Aronson Research Ecologist CEFE/CNRS, France *Executive Committee SER2011 SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM COMMITTEE Francisco A. Comín (Chair) Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología Bill Halvorson (Vice-Chair) US Geological Survey Steve Whisenant Texas A&M University Kingsley Dixon Kings Park and Botanic Garden James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, France Sasha Alexander Society for Ecological Restoration João Ferraz Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Brasil Alejandro Castellanos University of Sonora, Mexico Richard Hobbs University of Western Australia Katalin Török Hungary Academia of Sciences Keith Bowers Biohabitats Inc. James Griffith Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brasil John Tobe Ecological Resource Consultants, Inc., USA Karen Keenleyside Parcs Canada/Parks Canada José Ignacio Barrera Cataño Universidad Javierana, Colombia Fernando Bustos Veliz Universidad Austral de Chile Andy Clewell Clewell Consultants, Inc. Jordi Cortina University of Alicante, Spain Elise Buisson University of Avignon, France Rudy Van Diggelen University of Antwerp, Belgiume - 4 -

7 SER 2011 LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Jorge Herrera (Chair) Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Arturo Zaldívar Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Javier Ramírez Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Claudia Teutli Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional José Luis Andrade Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C Issac Castillo Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C David Alonzo Ducks Unlimited Mexico, A.C. David Canul Ducks Unlimited Mexico, A.C. Fabiola López Instituto de Ecologia, A.C. Sergio Guevara Instituto de Ecologia, A.C. SOCIETY FOR ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION BOARD OF DIRECTORS Jim Harris (Chair) Cranfield University Department of Natural Resources Cranfield, Bedfordshire, UK Mary Travaglini (Treasurer) The Nature Conservancy of MD/DC Bethesda, Maryland, USA Steve Whisenant (Vice-Chair) Texas A&M University Department of Ecosystem Science and Management College Station, Texas, USA Don Eastman (Secretary) University of Victoria School of Environmental Studies Victoria, British Columbia, Canada - 5 -

8 GLOBAL RESTORATION AMBASSADOR Keith Bowers Biohabitats, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland, USA LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN REPRESENTATIVE Mauricio Balensiefer Universidade Federal do Paraná Curitiba, Brasil AFRICA REPRESENTATIVE Oliver Enuoh African Ecological Restoration Foundation Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria PACIFIC REPRESENTATIVE Malcolm Wealleans Newcrest Mining Ltd. East Perth, WA, Australia EUROPE REPRESENTATIVE Katalin Török Institute of Ecology and Botany of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Vacratot, Hungary SER Board Representatives ROCKY MOUNTAIN/GREAT PLAINS REPRESENTATIVE Vivienne Wilson Shell Canada Limited Calgary, Alberta, Canada SOUTHEAST U.S. REPRESENTATIVE John Tobe Ecological Resource Consultants, Inc Tallahassee, Florida, USA NORTHWEST U.S./SOUTHWEST CANADA REPRESENTATIVE Cara R. Nelson University of Montana College of Forestry and Conservation Missoula, Montana, USA WESTERN U.S. REPRESENTATIVE John T. Stanley WWW RESTORATION Boulder Creek, California, USA MIDWEST U.S./CANADA REPRESENTATIVE Stuart Allison Knox College Galesburg, Illinois USA REPRESENTATIVE-AT-LARGE Kingsley Dixon Kings Park and Botanic Garden West Perth, Western Australia REPRESENTATIVE AT LARGE Francisco A. Comín Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia-CSIC Zaragoza, Spain REPRESENTATIVE AT LARGE Carolina Murcia Fundacion Ecoandina Cali, Colombia REPRESENTATIVE AT LARGE Karen Keenleyside Parcs Canada/Parks Canada Gatineau, Québec, Canada SOCIETY FOR ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION STAFF Amanda Jorgenson Executive Director Sasha Alexander Program Director Caroline Bronaugh Membership Coordinator Levi Wickwire Special Projects Coordinator Christine Chau Outreach Coordinator Leah Bregman Administrative Assistant SER Headquarters 1017 O Street, NW Washington, DC United States of America (202)

9 ORAL ABSTRACTS (The affiliations listed are those of the presenter only) Restoring habitat complexity in the San Francisco Estuary: Artificial reef utilization by native oysters (Ostrea lurida) and salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Abbott, Robert; Rena Obernolte ENVIRON International Corporation, USA Habitat complexity in North American estuaries has been reduced by filling the peripheral wetlands to create surface areas for urbanization, and dredging to remove hazards to navigation resulting in vast sub-tidal mud flats with no vertical hard surfaces for attachment by sessile organisms or interstices and rugosity affording microhabitats for a community of organisms and a robust food chain. Limited foraging opportunities in the Bay are considered a risk factor for salmon smolts. Artificial reefs composed of mounds of bagged Pacific oyster shell have been successfully used to create habitat for the settlement of native Olympia oyster spat (Ostrea lurida) and spawning habitat for the Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii). Reef balls constructed of material dredged from San Francisco Bay installed near the mounds of bagged oyster shell provided additional habitat for fish and shellfish. Two 1/10 ha. reefs were constructed in the Bay using hundreds of volunteers and large private sector donations of services and materials. Based on the success of these two reefs, larger reefs are being planned for construction in the Bay to address the need for additional habitat complexity and to test living shorelines as a response to sea level raise. The reefs provided a robust halo of organisms around the mounds that served as forage for Chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The utilization of the artificial reef habitat by sharks, sturgeon, salmon and striped bass was confirmed by the detection of acoustically tagged fish using Vemco 69 KHz receivers. Validating the utilization of levee mitigation features by acoustic tracking Abbott, Robert; David Smith, Rena Obernolte, Phil Sandstrom ENVIRON International Corporation, USA Mandated modifications to Sacramento River levees to benefit migratory salmon smolts are expensive and controversial. Two dimensional tracks of the migration path of Chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) past four types of levee repair features was tested in the season using arrays of Vemco 69KHZ receivers. The levee repair features included slope, bench, Dietl Ditch, and the installation of large woody material in the levee banks, compared to natural sections of levees with old growth trees and dense vegetation on the banks. A single reach over one kilometer long was studied in using 69 Khz and 180 Khz Vemco receivers. Tags as small as 0.6 gm were inserted into the abdomen of salmon smolts ranging in size from 80-mm 180-mm long. The acoustic detections were used to triangulated on the position of the fish, rendered to latitude and longitude positions and used in a hydrologic based model, Eularian-Lagrangian-Agent Method (ELAM) to link fish behavior with hydrologic sheer. Differences in migration rate, utilization of installed woody materials and survival rates are discussed. Electrical currents stimulate coral branching and maintaining growth forms Abdallah, Khalid; Neviaty P. Zamani, Karen V. Juterzenka Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia Field transplantation experiments using the Biorock technique under low voltage (3 V, and 6 A) direct current were carried out on two hermatypic reef-building corals, Acropora tenuis, and Acropora cytherea from April to November 2009 in Pramuka Island, Java, Indonesia. The first species has open three-dimensional branching, the second is a flat table coral. Growth and survival rates of corals transplanted on the Biorock artificial reef were compared with those of corals transplanted on uncharged control structures. After 7-months the electrically charged growth rates were 1.5 times higher than controls for A. tenuis and 2 times higher for A. cytherea. The number of branches of A. tenuis, were about 2 times higher on Biorock than on Control, A. cytherea showed little difference, perhaps due to its flat morphology. Higher survival rates on Biorock (100%) than on Control (73.3%, and 83.3%) were found for both species. The data presented refer to survival rate as a number of corals found in original position and alive on the respective structures, but some of them disappeared due to the wave action or biogenic disturbances such as fish grazing. The greater increase in branching than in linear growth for A. tenuis suggests that cellular growth and division may be stimulated more than calcification

10 Using multiple sources for the reintroduction of a locally extinct plant species: A genetic survey Abdelkrim, Jawad; Monika Zavodna, Nathalie Machon Natural History Museum of Paris, France The choice of the founding individuals can have a major effect on the viability and long-term chances of success of a reintroduction attempt. From a genetic perspective, two main aspects, sometimes conflicting, come into consideration. Increasing genetic diversity can improve the viability of the new population through a reduction of inbreeding depression. At the same time, using distant individuals can increase the risk of hybrid depression through the breakage of co-adapted genes, and lead to a reduction of fitness of maladapted individuals. In our study, we focus on the reintroduction of the large flowered sandwort (Arenaria grandiflora, Caryophyllaceae) in the Fontainebleau forest, 50 Km south of Paris. While common in calcareous rocks in southern and central European mountains, this locality represented one of the two only lowland populations. In order to restore this population, which disappeared after two decades of rapid decline, a reintroduction experiment using individuals from two different origins was conducted in Nine individuals from Fontainebleau, before the population completely collapsed, as well as 11 individuals from the other lowland population (Loire Valley) were used after in vitro multiplication. Using neutral genetic markers (13 microsatellites), we study the resulting population ten years after the reintroduction in order to understand what is the impact of the genetic composition of the founding individuals on its viability. More particularly, we investigate the link between the level of hybridization of individuals and their fitness. Ultimately, such works participate to the elaboration of genetic guidelines for restoration programs. La rehabilitación del Jardín Quinta de los Molinos: epopeya de la restauración ecológica Acosta Llanes, Ulice; Ana Lourdes Soto, Sandra Delgado, Alberto Álvarez, Dely Albert Sociedad Patrimonio, Comunidad y Medio Ambiente, Cuba Se presenta la experiencia de restauración integral que tiene lugar en el Jardín Quinta de los Molinos (JQM), área de 2,4 hectáreas de la capital cubana ubicado entre las avenidas Salvador Allende, Jesús Peregrino, Infanta y De los Presidentes, colindante con los municipios Centro Habana, Cerro y Plaza. El JQM sufrió una fuerte reducción y deterioro de sus espacios verdes durante los siglos XIX y XX, razones determinantes para que, desde finales del 2006, la Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de La Habana, apoyada por la Sociedad PATRIMONIO, COMUNIDAD Y MEDIO AMBIENTE, encauzaran, promovieran y realizaran numerosas labores de rehabilitación integral en el JQM, en aras de devolverle a este espacio una funcionalidad social que estuviera acorde con las necesidades de la sociedad civil habanera. Objetivos: 1. Destacar el liderazgo de instituciones y comunidades locales en los procesos de restauración ecológica dentro de espacios urbanizados. 2. Resaltar la importancia de la refuncionalización y adaptación de las áreas naturales urbanas en concordancia con las necesidades de la población. 3. Propiciar la combinación de bienes histórico-patrimoniales, naturales y estéticos, para fomentar actitudes, valores y conductas responsables ante el cuidado y conservación del medio ambiente. Se resaltará la importancia de la restauración ecológica como medio para rescatar y realzar la memoria histórica, así como los valores estéticos y patrimoniales de espacios naturales dentro de la trama urbana. Education in ecological restoration: New international training programme in Iceland Aegisdóttir, Hafdís Hanna; Berglind Orradottir United Nations University, Land Restoration Training Programme Land degradation is a major challenge worldwide expected to accelerate in the coming decades, leading to soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and disruption and dysfunction of ecosystem processes. Its effect threatens human welfare and survival, particularly in poorer countries of the world where peoples livelihood is directly dependent on the productivity of the land. A critical part of the solution to this challenge is through education and training in ecological restoration and sustainable management of ecosystems. The UNU Land Restoration Training programme (UNU-LRT) is an international programme established to provide education in ecological restoration and sustainable land management. The programme is built to meet the growing demands of expertise knowledge in this field in the poorer countries of the world. The programme started as a pilot project in 2007 and became recognized as a UNU training programme in early The programme is rooted in the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and also strongly relates to the UN Convention on Biodiversity (UNCBD) and UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The experience gained since the programme started shows that it is an excellent channel of communication and fulfils a much needed venue for exchange of ideas between individuals in different countries, continents and climatic belts that all are working towards the common goal of halting land degradation with sustainable and ecologically sound solutions

11 Retos y desafíos de la restauración ambiental de ecosistemas socioculturales Aguilar Garavito, Mauricio; José Ignacio Barrera-Cataño, Luis Fernando Prado-Castillo Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia La Escuela de Restauración Ecológica-ERE de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana es un espacio creado para personas que quieran recomponer el rumbo de degradación que llevan los ecosistemas, en especial los de Colombia. Desde su creación, en 2002, se trabaja en la formación, capacitación y desarrollo teórico-práctico de la ecología de la restauración y la restauración ecológica. Para ello, se identifican dinámicas que posibiliten un cambio progresivo de la relación sociedad naturaleza. De igual manera, a través de procesos individuales y colectivos se facilita la apropiación del territorio a intervenir, contribuyendo al fortalecimiento de una cultura de la conservación. Los participantes de estos procesos confluyen en una línea de pensamiento y actuación, buscando una visión plural y unificadora de la naturaleza y de la restauración como forma concreta de posibilitar su restablecimiento en todas dimensiones. La ERE ha permitido a sus integrantes el reencuentro personal, la reinterpretación del ser, el estar y el sentir. Su filosofía involucra representaciones simbólicas, valores, actitudes y opiniones de sus integrantes, así como una interpretación de la realidad social individual y colectiva con relación al espacio a restaurar. Estos principios han generado procesos para devolverle la estructura y función a los socio-ecosistemas del país en el marco del proceso de cambio global: En la ERE la restauración ecológica es una oportunidad de vida. Simposio de restauración ecológica de ecosistemas afectados por la invasión de especies exóticas Aguilar Garavito, Mauricio; Adrián Escudero, José Ignacio Barrera, Sandra Patricia Montoya Villarreal, Aida Ortega Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia Las invasiones biológicas causan pérdida de biodiversidad y generan pérdidas económicas por daños ambientales y por gasto en su control. Ulex europaeus L. es considerado mundialmente como una especie invasora agresiva y de gran impacto. En Bogotá-Colombia, U.europaeus ha invadido más de hectáreas, ocupando áreas periurbanas y rurales. La Serranía del Zuque, es un área protegida de Bogotá, pero durante medio siglo se extrajeron materiales de construcción. El daño ecológico facilitó la invasión de U. europaeus y posteriormente incendios forestales promovidos por esta especie. Como respuesta a esta situación la Secretaría Distrital de Ambiente (autoridad ambiental), promovió la restauración ecológica de 10,5 hectáreas afectadas en el Zuque. Para esta esta experiencia se tuvieron en cuenta los trabajos de Barrera-Cataño (2010) y Vargas-Ríos et. al (2009) y se emplearon a jóvenes del programa de resocialización de Bogotá. El proyecto se desarrolló en cuatro fases: 1).Caracterización diagnóstica; 2).Priorización de zonas invadidas; 3).Implementación de actuaciones: a).eliminación de U.europaeus, b).establecimiento de trampas de semillas; c).control trimestral de reclutas; d).incineración de la biomasa; y e).plantación de nativas; y 4).Evaluación y seguimiento. Seis meses después de la intervención se redujo la cobertura de U.europaeus en un 95% y sobrevivió el 100% de la vegetación plantada. Neotropical rainforest soil and cover uses, degradation and restoration needs Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio Instituto de Investigación de Zonas Desérticas, Mexico The use of rainforest main resources (soil and vegetation) presents an intensity gradient from the sudden clearing for establishing crop or forage plants, to the maintenance of mature vegetation tract with only conservative extractions. According to the human disturbance pattern (intensity, duration, frequency, fires, and plant cover type established or induced), there will be the risk of degradation and its deepness, and in turn the type of restoration possibly required. Monoculture of annual crops, may cause fast laterization, severe weed invasion and field abandonment. An overgrazed pasture becomes invaded by non forage pyrophyte grasses, nutrients exhausted and compacted by trampling, and finally is also abandoned. Certain tree crops and tree wood plantations, as well as slash and burn milpa (SB) without land availability imbalance, may maintain soil fertility, but well managed pastures and plantations always destroyed vegetation, and the non dislocated SB causes a lower impact. Partial or null mature vegetation elimination has lesser risk of degradation. Rainforest under selective extraction of wood species needs only protection from other perturbations to get corresponding natural repopulation. Partial clearing to establish pastures with a tree stand of certain composition and density may cover diverse needs others tan forage and maintain soil fertility. Techniques and impacts of traditional plantations into the rainforest, like coffee and cacao rustic ones, shady orchards and diverse multipurpose species enrichments have to be known and evaluated. Finally, the least risky cases of degradation and less restoration needs are those of mature vegetation tracts with very low intensity of extractions because owners conscience to protect them

12 Hydrological connectivity as a design element affects ecosystem functions in created wetlands Ahn, Changwoo; Mary A. Voytek, Rita M. Peralta George Mason University, USA Denitrification is one of the key biogeochemical functions of natural wetlands and denitrifying bacteria play a significant role in it due to their ability to convert nitrate to gaseous N 2, but little has been known about the role of bacterial community composition in the process. Moreover, there are currently no specific methods and/or designs that would enhance the development of the biogeochemical function in created wetlands. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of hydro-connectivity (HC) as a design element on the developments of soil and plant communities, denitrification potential (DP), and denitrifying bacterial community structure and diversity in created wetlands. It is hypothesized that wetlands created with greater HC would better support developments in bacterial communities (e.g., denitrifiers) and in biogeochemical functions (e.g., denitrification). We attempt to establish a quantitative relationship and/or association between structural (i.e., denitrifying bacterial community diversity) and functional measures (i.e., DP), which will help us evaluate functional development in wetlands created to mitigate the loss of natural wetlands. The study was conducted in three created and two natural wetlands in the Piedmont region of Virginia. The project is currently on-going, so preliminary data analyzed will be presented. The outcomes of the study will be explained in such ways that we can improve the design of created/restored wetlands to truly restore ecosystem service of wetlands for water quality improvement. Impacts of marsh desiccation on water buffalo Al-Fartosi, Khalid University of Thi-Qar, Iraq Archaeological evidence suggests that people brought water buffalo [domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) into Iraq's Mesopotamian marshes, the low-lying, flat, riverine territory of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers near their confluence in southern Iraq, around 3,500 B.C. For the Marsh Arabs of those early cultures and into the last century, traditional management of the marshes for water buffalo forage provided dairy products and buffalo dung was mixed with reeds to make fuel for cooking and heating fires and to waterproof roofs and poultice wounds. With the post- Saddam return of waters to marshlands and consequent restoration of functional and cultural features of the marshes, the reintroduction of these animals will reestablish important cultural and ecological management traditions of the marshlands. For the marsh dwellers, buffalo are a sign of economic well being and wealth; Iraqi hospitality traditionally included sharing dairy products and meat. Successful reintroduction of buffalo must take into account needs for adequate nutrition and changes in breeding and management approaches in order to promote improvements in buffalo stock. Recognition and management of reported hormonal irregularities and reproductive seasonality as well as during long calving intervals are important factors in stock improvement. Milk production improvements may come with better nutritional status at time of calving, better reproductive hygiene, better milking management, earlier detection of estrus in females, artificial insemination, managed thermal stress, and improved housing. Healthier stock will help return important ecological functions to the restored marshes. Cultural and ecological restoration of the al-ahwar wetlands, Iraq Al-Handal, Adil Yousif Basrah Marine Science Center, Iraq Hawizeh Marsh was designated a Wetland of International Significance, and Iraq s first Ramsar site and considered as a peace park between Iraq and Iran. Simultaneously to the marshes being awarded international conservation status, Iran began diverting water from the Karkheh River. As a result of this action, the Safia Wetland Conservation in Huwaiza marsh is now completely dry. Marsh ecosystem is now in poor condition, and less than 10% of the original marshes in Iraq remained as fully functioning wetlands. Now drought and water withdrawals are desiccating the marshes, and pollution of water, air, and land is extremely severe. With low flows, salinity in the Shat al Arab River has increased. Flows are significantly reduced from 990-1,277 m3/sec in to <100 m3/sec in Sea water has started to reach far to the north of the Shat al Arab, with big changes in the biodiversity. Shad populations have declined 75%. Many other invertebrates are also declining, and the salty turbid water with warmer temperatures is adversely affecting fish production and biodiversity in the Gulf. The marshes are a culturalized landscape, formed over thousands of years by agricultural and traditional management from the time of Sumerian. The whole ecosystem is deteriorating and a conflict might arise with some surrounding countries for cutting water share of Iraq. International support is needed to save this vital and international environment

13 Coastal oil pollution in Kuwait: Twenty years after the 1990/1991 war, Subbiya Oil Trench case study Al-Hasan, Redha Kuwait University The 1990/1991 War resulted in severe environmental damages to marine, coastal and terrestrial ecosystems in Kuwait and affected neighboring countries. An elaborate environmental claim process and follow up program were initiated by the United Nation Compensation Commission. The follow up program funded an initial stage of Monitoring and Assessment (M&A) and provided for a second phase of remediation and restoration. The results of the M&A estimated that more than 500 million gallons of crude oil were deliberately spilled into the coastal and marine environment of the State of Kuwait during the war, taking various forms such as coastal oil deposits, coastal oil trenches, weathered coastal layers and residual contamination. This study focuses on the oil contaminated trenches in Subbiya area north of Kuwait Bay. Over the years the trenches have been filled with deposited sediment, but the hydrocarbon contamination level did not shows comparable levels of total petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. Photographs from the M&A phase documents that the areas surrounding the oil trench was barren of macro fauna and flora, and the flat was only covered by algal mats. Characteristic macro fauna and flora has recolonized the stretches on both side of the trench, however the toxicity of the trench prevents any re-colonization on top of the trench itself. La restauración ambiental para la producción de funciones y servicios ambientales en el Parque Estatal Sierra de Guadalupe, zona metropolitana del Valle de México Alberto Villavicencio, Ángeles Universidad de Granada, México Las áreas protegidas ubicadas en zonas peri-urbanas presentan un doble reto; atender los objetivos de conservación vinculados a las especificidades de los ecosistemas que representan, y enfrentar los procesos de uso de las funciones ambientales por las zonas en expansión urbana, como son; la generación de elevados niveles de contaminación y procesos de ocupación del suelo típicos de la urbanización difusa. El deterioro de los ecosistemas y la saturación de sus funciones ambientales en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México (ZMVM), impulsa su restauración ambiental desde diversos niveles de actuación y tipos de proyectos. En el Parque Estatal Sierra de Guadalupe (5, ha) se han realizado proyectos de restauración ambiental con la iniciativa pública interestatal del Estado de México y el Distrito Federal y financiamiento tripartita entre ambos y el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (Proyecto de Conservación Ecológica de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, entre 1992 y 2004). Se presenta un análisis de la eficiencia de las acciones de restauración por microcuenca y componente (realizadas durante doce años), en cuanto a producción de funciones y servicios ambientales, su contribución a la solución de los problemas más álgidos de este parque, representativo de la ZMVM en su complejidad ambiental, social y territorial. El esquema propuesto evaluó el alcance de las acciones de restauración, utilizando la categoría de funciones y servicios ambientales para subrayar los beneficios obtenidos por los usuarios de los ecosistemas del parque, cuya importancia trasciende a su dimensión ambiental y geográfica actual al proporcionar múltiples servicios. Ethno-environmental study of resilience to climate change, Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan Ali, Zulfiqar; Saima Yaqub, Shelly Ian, Colbeck Zaheer, Ahmad Nasir Syed, Saleem Ahmad University of the Punjab, Pakistan Protected areas around the world are more prone to have negative effects of climatic variations that are disturbing the stabilization of ecosystems. Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary was studied to be the reference site, where climatic change factors were recorded and resilience of rural community to these changes was analyzed. A questionnaire of participatory human resource interaction appraisal was used to assess the socio-economics of rural communities, mega-biodiversity of the area, perception of local communities about climate change and their resilience capacity. Climatic factors like temperature and rainfall were proportionally changed as the data assessed from and rural communities around Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary were also agreed (85% n = 100) to realize the phenomenon of climatic change. These communities have proved to be resilient (94% n = 100) to adapt to it by changing occupations and lifestyles, but at the same time they have increased the pressure on natural resource use and cause a serious problem in the management of the protected area due to low literacy rate, lack of awareness and

14 unavailability of alternative income resources. Thus, showing the Taunsa Barrage vulnerability to climate change is in accordance with the Environmental Vulnerability Index of Pakistan. Identifying the science for restoration: A review of the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force Science Group Allee, Rebecca US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration On October 5, 2010, the President of the United States signed an Executive Order establishing the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force. The purpose of the Task Force is for federal agencies, in collaboration with Gulf State representatives, 'to coordinate intergovernmental responsibilities, planning, and exchange of information so as to better implement Gulf Coast ecosystem restoration and to facilitate appropriate accountability and support throughout the restoration process'. The Task Force was charged to present to the President a Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy in the fall of Several work groups were established to provide support for the development of this strategy. One such group was given the responsibility to consider the science needs and put forward recommendations for high level activities which would establish the foundation for ecosystem restoration. The science group was organized into goal teams to address specific issues such as living marine resources, offshore, coastal and inland habitats, barrier islands, water quality, and community resilience. This presentation will define the structure of the Science Group and acquaint the audience with the high level activities that might be expected in the strategy. Back from the brink of extinction: Improving the success of endangered plant translocations in south-western Australia Allen, Christine; Pieter Poot, Michael Moody, Rachel Standish, David Coates University of Western Australia Translocations have become a relatively common technique used around the globe to augment populations of endangered species populations, with variable rates of success. South-western Australia is one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots predominantly due to its highly diverse endemic flora. Many of these endemic species are rare, have narrow distributions, and are consequently vulnerable to human activity. The increasing number of highly threatened species occurring in small fragmented populations has led to the translocation of seedlings as a strategy to conserve species. Past translocation studies in Western Australia have shown high seedling mortality, especially in their first summer. The present research aims to understand environmental factors influencing seedling growth and survival by establishing two experimental translocations. Critically endangered Banksia and Acacia species were exposed to a range of experimental treatments including variations in microhabitat, watering regimes and competition. The effects of these variables were measured using plant mortality and growth coupled with stress tolerance as well as quantifying abiotic (e.g. soil moisture, soil nutrient levels) and biotic variables. Results will be discussed in the context of climate change within south-western Australia. Ultimately, this research will form the basis for a comprehensive understanding of seedling microhabitat requirements, which will be used to inform future management decisions and improve the success of translocations. A comparative study of global attitudes towards ecological restoration: Where have we been and where do we need to go? Allison, Stuart Knox College, USA Do ecological restorationists around the world have similar attitudes towards and goals for restoration? To answer that question I reviewed 677 papers published from 2006 until 2010 in Restoration Ecology, Environmental Management, Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications. I also conducted an on-line survey of restorationists. My goal was to understand the approaches to ecological restoration around the world with the objective of developing a framework from which restorationists can plan and implement restoration work of both ecological and cultural value. I found significant differences between geographic regions in reasons for performing ecological restoration. Restorationists in North America and Australia were more likely to restore ecosystems to return ecosystems to their historic trajectory. European restorationists were more likely to restore ecosystems to preserve and promote biodiversity and ecosystem services. There was less information available about restorations in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania, but there was evidence that restorationists in those areas tended to favor

15 biodiversity and ecosystem services. Europeans were more likely to engage in restoration of culturally important semi-natural agricultural landscapes. There was some evidence of a generational split among restorationists with younger restorationists more likely to restore ecosystems to promote ecosystem services and having a somewhat flexible attitude towards restoration goals. Good ecological restoration must produce restoration projects with both ecological value and human meaning. The more explicitly we address both properties, the more successful we will be as restorationists and the more benefit there will be for the planet as we work together. Effect of site and seasonality in tropical dry forest restoration Álvarez Aquino, Claudia; Guadalupe Williams-Linera, Javier Tolome Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico In central Veracruz, tropical dry forest (TDF) has been reduced to 7% of its original cover. To restore the TDF, basic information on the role of existing vegetation is needed. Our objective was to determine the site condition effect on native tree species performance during dry and rainy seasons. The existing woody vegetation in the experimental sites differed in richness (8-18 species/0.04 ha) and density (36 a 190 ind/0.04 ha) as a consequence of different land use intensity. A total of 960 seedlings (Tabebuia rosea, Cedrela odorata, Guazuma ulmifolia, Ceiba aescutifolia, Luehea candida and Ipomoea wolcottiana) were transplanted in four experimental sites. Survival and growth were monitored every 4 months during 2 years. Seedling survival was higher in sites with denser existing vegetation condition that nurses seedlings, but survival was not consistently lower for all species during the dry seasons. Relative growth rate (RGR) was higher for all species and sites during the rainy season. In the most degraded site, seedling performance was poor and only Guazuma survived the experimental period. Overall, Ceiba showed the highest survival (82-90%) and low RGR; Guazuma has a high survival (20-94%) and the highest RGR; on the contrary Cedrela showed the lowest survival (3-7%) but high RGR. Our results suggest that site condition, seasonality and species drought tolerance act together on seedling performance during the restoration assays. In conclusion, the site condition is as important as tree species selection in a successful restoration of TDF. Agenda 21 Local: formando y accionando con el Grupo Temático, "Endemismo Local Santaclareño", para restaurar ecológicamente un área de endemismo en estado crítico, en la ciudad de Santa Clara, VC, Cuba Álvarez Rodríguez, Julia Esther Instituto Planificación Física, Cuba Agenda 21 Local Santa Clara ha proporcionado instrumentos metodológicos para el desarrollo de acciones que se incorporan y contribuyen hoy al perfeccionamiento de las políticas urbano-ambientales municipales. El GEO Santa Clara, ha determinado dentro de una de las problemáticas en la ciudad, el insuficiente trabajo interdisciplinario de grupos afines a una determinada temática a resolver, por lo que, la formación de Grupos Temáticos ha constituido una herramienta de trabajo no sólo para los tomadores de decisiones, sino también para la ciudadanía en general. El Grupo Temático Endemismo Local Santaclareño, formado por actores implicados y la comunidad, fortalecido con la igualdad de género, el empoderamiento de mujeres, la participación e inclusión de ellas en esferas de decisión, está trabajando para lograr la restauración ecológica de un área en estado crítico, situada al suroeste de la ciudad con extraordinario valor científico. En ella se conservan especies de vegetación original de matorral xeromorfo espinoso sobre serpentinitas con valores únicos e irrepetibles desde el punto de vista florístico. Una especie de las reportadas es exclusiva de esta localidad, o sea, su único hábitat en el planeta. Integrar el área descrita a la vida urbana, mediante acciones de restauración, el uso público y la educación ambiental, como vía de fortalecer las capacidades ciudadanas, es el reto que asumimos para restablecer la unión entre Naturaleza y Cultura. Fauna epigea de un suelo en recuperación por 18 años Alves, Marlene Cristina; Carolina dos Santos Batista Bonini, Ricardo Antonio Ferreira Rodrigues, Débora de Cássia Marchini, Otton Garcia de Arruda Universidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil La fauna del suelo es un importante indicador de su cualidad, pues ejercen función en la reciclaje de nutrientes e en la estructura del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar un Ferralsol degradado que se encuentra bajo las técnicas para su recuperación hace 18 años, en Brasil. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con siete tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron: Solo con labranza (vegetación espontanea); Stizolobium aterrimum (Sa); Cajanus cajan (Cc) hasta 1994, después sustituido por el Canvalia ensiformis (Ce); Sa+caliza; Cc+caliza hasta 1994, después sustituido por Ce; Sa+caliza+yeso; Cc+caliza+yeso hasta 1994, después sustituido por

16 Ce. Los tratamientos se mantuvieron durante siete años, y en 1999 se llevó a cabo en toda la área experimental la Brachiaria decumbens. En 2010 fue evaluado la fauna epigea, la materia orgánica del suelo y la temperatura del suelo en tres capas del suelo. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante la realización de análisis de varianza y prueba de Scott-Knott, el 5% de probabilidad para la comparación de promedio. La fauna epigea del suelo se vio afectada por los tratamientos utilizados para recuperar el suelo y había una mayor diversidad y número de individuos en los tratamientos con abono verde utilizando el Stizolobium aterrimum. The impact of plant biodiversity changes of the marshes of southern Iraq (mesopotamia) on the Shatt al Arab and Northern Gulf Alwan, Abdul-Ridha; Dunya A.Hussain University of Basrah, Iraq Aquatic plant biodiversity (species diversity, richness and evenness) including plant cover and biomass, in addition to water quality and soil chemistry, were studied in the marshes of Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. Samples were collected from six stations (2 stations in Huwaiza, 2 in Chebaish, and 2 in Hammar) in 2007 and A total of 44 plant species were recorded. The highest value of diversity and richness was recorded in the Huwaiza marsh while the evenness was the same in all marshes. The number of plant species collected during the two years of sampling was less than that recorded in the past, approximately one half of previous records. Physical and chemical characteristics of water and soil were determined and their impact on the changes in plant biodiversity will be discussed. Innovative solutions for the environment and people of the Mesopotamian marshes of southern Iraq Alwash, Azzam Nature Iraq/Twin Rivers Institute The Mesopotamian marshes of southern Iraq are not only important from the point of view of biodiversity in an arid region like the Middle East, but also represent a World Heritage site. In an era of increasingly limited water resources and increased demands on the limited water, will the marshes survive? The marshes were dried by the regime of Saddam Hussein to get rid of his opposition. Along with the drying of the marshes, dams were built upstream in Turkey and Iran, restricting river flows which maintain the marshes. The people of the marshes (Ma'adan) returned the water to the marshes, and some 56% of the marshes of 1973 came back to life. However, the biodiversity of the rehydrated marshes is radically different than historic marshes. This is due to the loss of spring flooding that maintained marsh biodiversity. Low flows in the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers result in increased water salinity and pollution. In addition, polluted and saline irrigation return flows containing pesticides and nutrients are released back into the rivers from primitive irrigation methods being practiced in Turkey, Iran, Syria and Iraq. To complicate the picture further, large reservoirs of oil underlay the marshes. This presentation will discuss innovative solutions implemented by Nature Iraq that will assure the survival of the marshes for the sake of the environment itself and the people who live off the marshes, and to preserve this world heritage site the people of which are considered to be the inheritors of the Sumerian culture. Impacts of reduced flows and impaired water quality in the Shat al Arab to fish productivity, biodiversity and socio-economics in the Northern Gulf Al Yamani, Faiza Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research Shatt Al-Arab River, formed by the confluence of the Tigris, Euphrates and Karun Rivers, is a major source of lower water quality into the Arabian Gulf. The productivity of Kuwait waters and its water quality is linked to the discharge of Shatt Al-Arab River into the northern Arabian Gulf. The northern Arabian Gulf of Kuwait s marine environment is regarded as important fish and shrimp nursery habitats. Many of the commercially important species (shrimp Metapenaeus affinis, pomfret/zobaidy Pampus argenteus, shad/suboor Tenualosa ilisha, yellow-fin seabream/sheim Acanthopagrus latus and others) are directly dependent on the Shatt Al-Arab River as well as the marsh and estuarine areas for spawning, feeding and as a nursery habitat. Therefore, any changes in the volume or characteristics of the fresh water regime could have devastating effects on the distribution and abundance of the above species. Once the Southeast Anatolian Project in Turkey (22 dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) is fully implemented, water flows will be reduced and water quality impaired, damaging fishery productivity for Kuwait s

17 shrimp, silver pomfret, and hilsa shad. In general, the present information and sporadic data is insufficient to assess the impact of changes taking place in the estuarine areas of Kuwait s waters. It is recommended to establish a longterm oceanographic sampling program (monthly basis) to sample the riverine, estuarine and northern Gulf areas for a 10- to 20-year period. Potential impacts related to the food chain and fisheries will be addressed in the presentation. El conocimiento local en el uso y manejo del recurso agua: Un caso de estudio del Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca Anastacio Martínez, Nancy Diana; Alicia de Cruz, Sergio Franco Maass, Gabino Nava Bernal, Tizbe Arteaga Reyes Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México Actualmente la crisis ambiental causada por la explotación de los recursos forestales y el cambio en la ocupación de la tierra tiene como consecuencia la crisis mundial del agua y la reificación de los recursos hídricos del planeta, ante dicho panorama se debe involucrar al ser humano en el proceso de conservación del recurso como resultado de la relación hombre-naturaleza. El trabajo de investigación se desarrolla en la comunidad rural de La Peñuela del Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca, dicha comunidad es una de las 23 localidades que se encuentran ubicadas dentro del área natural protegida y se ha caracterizado por el desarrollo de la agricultura de riego. En este tenor se planteó como objetivo principal el determinar el estado actual del recurso hídrico desde la perspectiva del conocimiento local, considerando como elemento importante la percepción de la gente sobre su medio, utilizando métodos cualitativos, donde se manejaron aspectos como la participación directa, la observación participante, las entrevistas semiestructuradas y talleres participativos. El principal aporte está enfocado en concientizar a la gente sobre el estado de sus recursos para que mediante su conocimiento sean capaces de conservar su recurso a nivel local y regional, así mismo en La Peñuela se presenta una fuente demanda del recurso por el desarrollo de la agricultura de riego enfocada al cultivo de papa y otros cultivos básicos, no obstante existe una gran fragmentación dentro de la comunidad por la división de tres sectores originados por la demanda y fuentes de abastecimiento del agua. Participatory ecological restoration in the Río Blanco watershed: Ecosystem-based adaptation actions to address climate change impacts in the Chingaza Massif, high mountain ecosystems of Colombia Andrade, Angela; Angélica Cardona, Klaus Shutze Conservation International, Colombia The most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change in Colombia are High Andean mountain ecosystems, dry zones and marine and coastal areas. High Mountain ecosystems, including paramos are located above 2,740m and represent about 4% of the national territory. In addition to temperature increase, these ecosystems would have significant rainfall changes, affecting the provision of ecosystem services, especially water availability of main cities and settlements and potential hydropower. These climate change disruptions affect the ecological relationships, generating an increase in extreme events, occurrence of pests, extinction of species relevant for ecosystem function and provision of ecosystem services, including water availability, water regulation, and soil protection, among others. Ecosystem based adaptation actions are developed in the Río Blanco watershed, covering an area of 40,446 ha of the Chingaza Massif, which provides water consumed in Bogotá. Participatory ecological restoration in degraded agricultural lands is implemented for the reduction of adverse impacts of water regulation and building resilience to climate change. It includes 200 restoration processes of priority areas for water production, and 25 km of live fences. These processes are strongly linked to integrated risk management, land use and farm planning in 2 municipalities and more than 100 local farms. 7,000 plants of 37 native species have been planted, an experimental center for the propagation and germination of high mountain native species and 10 satellite green houses have been built with the support of local communities. These adaptation actions might be replicated in similar areas. Soil restoration with urban wastes to improve soil environmental services Andrés, Pilar; Oriol Ortiz Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain Among the organic wastes generated by cities, wastewater sludge and the organic fraction of the municipal solid wastes are being increasingly used as organic amendments for soil restoration, based on their high organic matter content. Recycling of properly treated organic wastes through use as amendments not only helps to restore soil fertility but may also contribute to counteract global warming by sequestrating carbon both in soil and in vegetation growing in the restored areas. In 1992, we started a field campaign in a limestone quarry, whose aim was to identify

18 the most appropriate doses of sewage sludge to produce a new fertile Technosol from earthy inert materials. We set up twelve plots and allocated them to two treatments (7.5% and 15% sludge dose, w/w) and a control (no sludge) with four replications each. Spontaneous revegetation was allowed. In 1992 and 2009, we sampled these plots for soil organic matter content, aggregate size distribution, total and recalcitrant carbon and biological activity. Results demonstrate that soil amendment with sewage sludge results in persistent soil organic matter increase and stabilization over time. Seventeen years after soil amendment, the amended soils show higher C content than control and also a greatest proportion of recalcitrant C, mostly located in the biggest aggregates. Microbiological activity and fungal biomass were equal in control and treatments, suggesting no detrimental effects of sludge on soil microbiota. Our research group is now working on the carbon sequestration potential of pyrolyzed organic wastes applied to soil in the form of recalcitrant biochar. Matching rural and scientific perceptions to improve environmental quality in livestock regions: The case of the "Mesas de Moropotente Protected Area (Nicaragua) Andrés, Pilar; David Tarrasón, Federica Ravera Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain In recent years, the term "degradation" has been reviewed for its multiple meanings, particularly when applied to silvipastoral tropical systems, which are themselves dynamic and highly unpredictable. Since these systems are valuable for environmental conservation, and since their productivity sustains local and regional economies, their degradation is perceived in different ways by different actors. Once again, depending on the actor s particular idiosyncrasy, current condition and future expectations, a multiplicity of desirable and often mismatching solutions arise. Choosing the best technical solution to solve these complex problems often leads to theoretically correct but socially non-viable options. Our team led a four-year project intended for proposing viable management of an economically and environmentally degraded silvipastoral landscape in Nicaragua. Historical and institutional analyses allowed the identification of significant actors at different scales, as well as the way they interact with each other. After an agricultural census, and based on in-depth interviews of the land owners, we identified the farm-types of the area. Farms representative of each type were studied to build up resources (material, economic and work force) flux diagrams, and to describe the environmental conservation status. A participatory process was then started to accord global deficiencies, future scenarios and progress indicators. Under an improvement of the traditional management scenario, specific actions were defined at the farm-level, including agro-ecological systems, modifications of livestock management and reforestation of marginal lands. Alternatives were tested for their performance in field experiments and were evaluated based on the chosen indicators. Restauración eco-cultural en la comarca Kuna Yala, importante para una resiliencia ante el cambio climático Andreve Díaz, Jorge Luis; Euselina Morales, Randy Gonzales Fundación para la Promoción del Conocimiento Indígena, Panama En la comarca Kuna Yala dicha relación es palpable, la cultura marca las acciones y actividades que se realizan en el bosque y viceversa, los conocimientos están muy relacionados con el manejo y uso ambiental, tal es el caso de los Nainus (áreas de cultivo), los Neg saret (bosque maduro), los galus (sitios sagrados), entre otros. No obstante, hoy día se están perdiendo, los jóvenes se han separado y le han dado poco importancia a los conocimientos tradicional, las casas del congreso están cada vez mas vacías, sumado a esto, las visiones occidentales de desarrollo estas erosionando los conocimientos y poniendo en peligro en manejo territorial del pueblo Kuna. En ejemplo de ello, son las políticas nacionales de medio ambiente, las cuales desde hace mucho tiempo han socavado los sistemas de manejo y gestión ambiental-cultural de la comarca. En la actualidad las políticas relacionadas a los mecanismos del cambio climático no están tomando en cuenta los conocimientos y acciones que tienen los pueblos indígenas, por ello se ha realizado una evaluación local sobre este tema, sus mecanismos, políticas, sus efectos sobre el medio ambiente y cultura, y las posibles acciones de restauración eco-cultural (salvaguardas, leyes, etc.) de este pueblo indígena milenario

19 Experiencias de conservación y restauración de áreas de uso común: El caso de los Proyectos de la Comisión Nacional Forestal Anta Fonseca, Salvador Comisión Nacional Forestal, México Experiencias de conservación y restauración de áreas de uso común: El caso de los Proyectos de la Comisión Nacional Forestal. En México existen experiencias sobre conservación y restauración de áreas de uso común que han partido de iniciativas de comunidades que han tenido el apoyo de organizaciones de la sociedad civil. Sin embargo los impactos y las escalas de incidencia han sido limitados debido al escaso financiamiento. Cuando estas experiencias encuentran el apoyo de los recursos públicos gubernamentales, y los programas respetan los procesos comunitarios y de la sociedad civil, los logros e impactos suelen ser mayores, y los objetivos de la conservación y restauración se pueden lograr más rápido. Los factores que permiten explicar estos avances son: el desarrollo del capital social que tengan las comunidades, el compromiso de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil, y la continuidad multianual el aporte de los recursos públicos gubernamentales. En México el ProÁrbol a sido la principal fuente de financiamiento a estos casos a través de sus componentes: a) conservación de suelos y reforestación; b) silvicultura comunitaria, con acciones que buscan fortalecer el capital social (Ordenamientos Territoriales Comunitarios, Reglamentos Ejidales, etc.), c) Servicios Ambientales Hidrológicos y de Biodiversidad; O proyectos especiales como el COINBIO que apoyan la conservación comunitaria. En esta ponencia se presentan casos de proyectos exitosos de restauración en la Mixteca Oaxaqueña y Chilapa, Guerrero; así como de conservación de áreas forestales comunitarias en la Chinantla, Oax; La Montaña de Guerrero; y la Cuenca del Copalita en Oaxaca. Using design in landscape scale restoration Apostol, Dean MIG Inc/Portland State University, USA Many practitioners and academics agree that ecological restoration is both an art and a science. But most people engaged in restoration focus on the science and less on the art. One aspect of the art of restoration is the process of conscious design, or creating a vision of what the restored landscape will be like at some future date. Ecosystem managers often use the term Desired Future Conditions to explain this vision, but lack good tools for creating it. One challenge is that "design" is a word that raises red flags among scientists because it implies arbitrariness with respect to making choices. They worry that choices about the future will be driven by landscape appearance rather than ecological substance. But the future of ecosystems is rarely deterministic. It is shaped by a multitude of factors, including decisions made by the restorationist, by those who hire her, or those who live on or near the land. This presentation will explore the role of design and design tools in conceptualizing and analyzing alternative choices in restoration. The focus will be on landscape scale, primarily forested ecosystems that have varying degrees of cultural influence. It draws upon over 30 years of experience as a practitioner, researcher, writer, and teacher. Dynamics of understory vegetation during woodland restoration on eroded land Aradottir, Asa; Gudmundur Halldorsson Agricultural University of Iceland When restoring plant communities we often introduce only one or a few important plant species, expecting that in time they will facilitate the colonization and establishment of other species of the community. We studied the understory of birch woodland chronosequences in South Iceland to test the hypothesis that establishment of a birch tree layer will facilitate the development of understory vegetation communities of native birch woodlands. The chronosequences were established by planting or by natural regeneration from old seeded stands. All were on sites that were previously eroded and had been revegetated with seeding of grasses and fertilization. Furthermore, all were isolated from native birch woodlands by at least several kilometers. Old-growth birch woodlands, revegetated land and untreated eroded land were included for comparison. The species composition of vascular plant species and common moss species was analyzed with a DCA ordination, giving eigen values for the first two axes of 0.65 and The understory plant communities changed markedly from young (5-15 years) to older (>50 years) restored birch woodlands and became increasingly more similar to the communities of old-growth woodlands with age. A few important woodland species were, however, not found in the understory of restored woodlands, possibly because of a dispersal barrier. Thus, while the establishment of a tree layer seemed to facilitate the development of important components of the understory vegetation, some species that are restricted to woodland habitats may not be able to spontaneously colonize the restored woodlands

20 Aportes de la ecología humana al desarrollo Aranda Espinoza, María Lidia Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Paraguay La ecología humana se basa en el fomento del desarrollo de las personas considerándolas como sujetos con voluntad propia y poder de decisión, y no como objetos, considerando las necesidades básicas del ser humano: alimentación, vestido, vivienda, salud, educación así como aquellas que potencian la calidad de vida, en función a las necesidades creadas por la cultura. Las necesidades básicas intrínsecas del ser humano se encuentran vinculadas con la calidad del ecosistema que lo rodea pues el mismo interviene en la provisión de los servicios ecosistémicos que redundan en beneficio de la satisfacción de las demás necesidades del ser humano. Es por ello que surge la importancia de vincular la conservación y restauración de los ecosistemas con proyectos de desarrollo y mejora de la calidad de vida de las personas, especialmente en países en vías de desarrollo, quienes poseen abundantes recursos naturales en buen estado (bosques, recursos hídricos, suelo biodiversidad), y desarrollan numerosos proyectos fomentando el desarrollo de comunidades humanas. Y también emerge la importancia de considerar y realizar un análisis crítico, con varias opiniones, sobre el aporte de la teoría de la ecología humana a proyectos de desarrollo en los cuales se puede incluir la estrategia de conservación y restauración de ecosistemas y fomentar la sinergia entre la mejora del ambiente y la mejora de la calidad de vida de las personas. Integración ecosistémica en programas de restauración ecológica Aranda Espinoza, María Lidia Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Paraguay El enfoque ecosistémico propone la integración de los diversos componentes de un ecosistema para el logro de un desarrollo sustentable tanto en manejo como en gestión de recursos naturales. Este mismo enfoque podría contribuir a logros mas amplios en proyectos de restauración ecológica al considerando no solo una especie particular sino toda la estructura y el funcionamiento integral. El presente aporte pretende generar un espacio de discusión de rescate de experiencias de programas de restauración ecológica con enfoque integral realizados en Paraguay como intercambio de ideas y generación de nuevos pensamientos e ideas. Vínculos entre ecología humana y restauración ecológica: aportes de estrategias y metodologías Aranda Espinoza, María Lidia Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Paraguay La ecología humana utiliza para sus estudios estrategias de acción participativas integrando a las comunidades en la toma de decisiones en proyectos de desarrollo, fomentando así la apropiación de los mismos y el empoderamiento de las comunidades mas relegadas como: comunidades indígenas, poblaciones rurales. Sin embargo son estas las comunidades quiénes viven, se desarrollan y manejan numerosos recursos naturales de los ecosistemas con mejor salud ambiental. En ocasiones se da un mal manejo de los ecosistemas, y se dificulta la implementación de proyectos de restauración ecológica, en sitios donde las comunidades humanas desconocen de los servicios que prestan sus ecosistemas o ven las acciones de los proyectos impuestos por un ente superior y poco involucramiento del propio saber local. Esta presentación busca aportar numerosas estrategias y metodologías participativas propias del trabajo de la ecología humana como: diagnósticos participativos, identificación y jerarquización de problemáticas de riesgos desde la población local, mecanismos de rescate del saber cultural, de manera a emplearlos en los proyectos de restauración ecológica y así facilitar el involucramiento y empoderamiento de la población con las acciones y favorecer la sostenibilidad de las acciones, que muchas veces se ven limitadas por falta de gestión social asociada al proyecto. Emerging findings from indigenous biocultural climate change assessments and ecocultural restoration Argumedo, Alejandro Asociación ANDES, Perú This presentation will focus on providing an overview of the work that the Indigenous Peoples Biocultural Climate Change Assessment (IPCCA), a global indigenous initiative on climate change is undertaking, and a synthesis of emerging results. Through local biocultural assessments of the impacts of climate change on communities, ecosystems and well being, the IPCCA is building innovative and alternative responses to the climate crisis and


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