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1 UNIVERSIDAD VERACRUZANA SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM RESEARCH REPORT B.A IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE PRESENTS DARIA GÉNESIS LUNA RAMIREZ JOSÉ IGNACIO DÁVILA ZAVALETA DIRECTOR MTRO. JORGE MARTÍNEZ CORTÉS CO-DIRECTOR MTRA. GABRIELA GUADALUPE ESTRADA SÁNCHEZ LECTOR MTRA. PATRICIA NUÑEZ MERCADO

2 Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... III ABSTRACT... V INTRODUCTION... 1 Chapter One Literature Review Definition of Technology Technology for Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language (ESL) Common problems in ESL teaching and learning Employing Technology inside the Classroom Types of technology applied in the classroom Technology as Part and Supplement of the Class: Radio Broadcast, Podcasts, Games and Web Pages Digital natives and immigrants Definition of Digital Natives and Immigrants Contrast between Experienced Teachers and Young Teachers New ways of teaching through new technologies New Roles for Technology How Technologies Foster Learning and Thinking E-learning Blended learning Mobile Learning Chapter Two Methodology Methodological Approach The Institutional Context I

3 2.3 Participants Data Collection Instrument: Questionnaires and Interviews Procedure Chapter Three: Findings and Analysis Use of TICs Pros and Cons about the Use of Technological Tools Teachers using technological devices inside the classroom Integration of Technology into the Classroom CONCLUSION References Appendixes Appendix 1 Text PDF to Voice Appendix 2 Questionnaire Appendix 3 Interview Appendix 4 Participant s Transcriptions II

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First, I want to be grateful with God for giving me the opportunity of life. Also, for giving me all the wisdom, as little as it might be, that I have acquired with the years, which has taught me that there is always hope with mankind. Mom and Dad, thanks for having given me the opportunity to study and supporting me all the way through my studies. I could have accomplished none of this had it not been for your help and love. I love you, Mom. I love you, Dad. Sister, thanks for being there when I needed you; you helped me a lot when I was scared about life. You were my inspiration to keep going in my undergraduate studies. Love you. Special thanks to all my teachers that made me the person who am I right now. Thanks to the professor Jorge (director of our research), professor Paty Nuñez (reader of this research, for caring about our work) and professor Gaby Estrada (co- director of our research). Thanks to my friends, Jose Javier and David who always make me feel better no matter how difficult a situation might be. I know that they will always be for me whenever I need them. To my love, my girlfriend Karime Muñoz Navarro, who has never let me down, and whose ideas have been a model to follow. I will never forget the things you have made for me. Thanks for showing me that good things happen in the end. Also, thank you for not giving up in me no matter the situation. Thanks to my family, who, even though they are very busy in their jobs, I know have always cared for me. Finally, I want to thank my research partner, Genesis. She was with me almost from the beginning of the BA. We had bad times, but we could make it until the end. Thanks for making this experience something that I will never forget. Nacho III

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Along our lives we have to face a lot of challenges in order to be better individuals. Fortunately, in every single step, there are people always supporting and giving us their friendship and love. After 4 years, I have finally reached one of the most important goals in life for me: I concluded my undergraduate studies, and l would not have been able to do it without these important people who I really want to thank with all my heart. God, who gave me the opportunity to live and is always taking care of my family and me since l was a child, standing up for me when l think l cannot continue. My family, they have made me the person who l am, giving me their love and care, cheering me up every time l feel down. Special thanks to my mom; she is my inspiration and all the things l have done are dedicated to her. Thanks granny; even if you are not here, you know l always be grateful for all the things you have done for me. I love you so much. My professors, who have dedicated part of their time to help us with this research, and shared their experience with us, making this experience very valuable as well as enjoyable. Professor Jorge, thanks for trusting in us from the very beginning and for your friendship. Professor Gaby, thanks for helping us when we felt lost; and professor Paty, thanks for reading our research paper, we learnt a lot from you. My friends, who were always supporting and taking care of me. Especially my partner, and best friend, Nacho: without your friendship and help l would not have been able to do this. We shared a lot of moments since we met for first time; you made this experience something unforgettable. Thank you so much. Génesis IV

6 ABSTRACT During our career, along with our research, we could notice that teachers and students are trying to be more competent in technological terms. That was the reason why our research was focused on how we can use technology for teaching and learning during classes at the Languages School in the Universidad Veracruzana. We used two research methods to find the information that we needed: a questionnaire and an interview. Once we had the results about our research, the findings were interesting: not all the teachers and students use technological tools properly. This means that students get distracted during a class with their mobiles, or teachers get lost during their classes in an attempt to use these technologies to apply or to improve the learning among students. After we analyzed all the data from this research, we could say that technology can bring lots of benefits to learning and teaching process, but it also has disadvantages that make learning with technology more difficult. Also, we need to mention that most teachers do not seem to want to adapt to these new ways of teaching and learning, probably due to the fact that they are afraid of making mistakes with these new technologies or get students distracted, and they are used to teaching the way they were taught. V

7 INTRODUCTION From the very beginning of technology, we have known that it has been used for many purposes such as science or business. It also has a great impact on education. This means: if we can combine the classroom environment along with technology, we can create the perfect class. This research paper focuses on how teachers and students apply technology in classrooms to create, for instance, didactic materials from our computers, or develop games through internet during classes. It has been said that the integration of technologies in the classroom can help students to learn in a dynamic and entertaining way so that they can analyze, compare, and apply the knowledge both inside and outside the classroom (Stone, Rennenbohm & Breit, 2005). That was the reason why we thought this could be an interesting topic for our research: to see if technologies can actually be use for academic purposes in the School of Languages and not only because it is a trend among schools. We piloted a questionnaire at the School of Languages to students in order to see if they have been in contact with technology in the classroom, and if their teachers use technology during classes to bring a new experience to the class. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate how technology has advanced through years and the perceptions of the students in respect to technological tools, such as: mobile learning, E- learning, blended learning and so forth. In addition, we intended to explore how these technologies can help to develop the capacity of learning a new language through skills, like listening, speaking, writing and reading. This paper is divided in three chapters. The first one, Literature Review, which mentions what technology means, its branches, what Digital Natives and Immigrants are, and some of different types of technology we can apply in class. 1

8 The second one explains the Methodology we carried out along the research, and finally, the Findings and Conclusions. It is therefore hoped that this research will be a tool and resource for people who are interested in the use of technological tools in order to teach in a new and efficient, developing strategies so that students can apply them in the acquisition of a foreign language. 2

9 Chapter One Literature Review In this chapter some definitions of technology are pointed out in order to give a general idea of what this term refers to. The roles of technology in the classroom are mentioned to highlight the benefits of using technological tools in both ways, as a part of the class and as a supplement to reinforce and engage students as well. Some common types of technological items are also described, and finally, the advantages and disadvantages which have to be taken into consideration. 1.1 Definition of Technology This term involves a lot o fields, from scientific to business themes. Most of the authors agreed that technology is the act to manipulate tools in order to improve human s lives. According to the Webster s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language (1994), Technology means: The sum of ways in which a social group provide themselves with the material objects of their civilization. (p. 1458). Moreover, technology can also be defined as The total knowledge and skills available to any human society for industry, art, science, among others (Collins Dictionary Online). Both definitions refer to technology as a tool that is used to provide benefits and make human being s activities easier. In general terms, this is the main idea of technology, but there are other three concepts focused on the educational field. These are the definitions according to Roblyer and Doering (2010): Educational Technology is a combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and other electronic technologies. 3

10 Integrating Educational Technology refers to the process of determining with electronic tools methods for implementing the most appropriate responses to given classroom situations and problems. Instructional Technology is the subset of educational technology that deals directly with teaching and learning applications (as opposed to educational administrative applications). Focusing on the educational area, the term New Technologies has to be taken into account. It involves all the tools for communication and information beyond the ones which are used in a traditional way to teach and learn in order to enhance and motivate students to learn (Stone, Rennenbohm & Breit, 2005) Technology for Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language (ESL) English as a Second Language (ESL) implies a lot of challenges for teachers and students, because learning a second language requires exposure to language: reading real texts in the target language, listening to everyday s conversations and talking, as much as possible, the language both inside and outside the classroom. In other words, students must have opportunities for using the language in meaningful situations (Roblyder & Doering, 2010). In that way, the integration of technologies in the classroom is very important in order to give students real chances to taste the language and practice it with real tools such as web pages, listening exercises, texts taken from foreign newspapers, talking to native speakers through diverse software and programs, and so forth. We as students realized that technology is a very useful tool to learn a foreign language, and through our career we practiced with listening exercises which helped us to have a brief contact with the language. Sometimes teachers included movies or videos in order to have more dynamic and enjoyable classes. On the 4

11 other hand, not all the students pay the same attention, and sometimes not even the teachers, while the activity is in process; for example, some students or teachers can get distracted with their own mobiles. Bringing technology into the classroom gives students the chance to practice in a real way, as long as teachers applied them in a proper way. 1.3 Common problems in ESL teaching and learning Along teaching and learning process, there are a lot of difficulties we as students or even teachers have to face. For instance, the development of skills with material used not just in class, but in everyday life must be present in the classroom. In most English classrooms, at least, there is a tape recorder, so that teachers can develop listening skills. In other cases, there is a video recorder or a computer, which can be used to see real situations and practice with real exercises of the target language. It is important to take into consideration the fact that technology helps in this process in order to provide teachers with tools to offer students chances to practice the language using authentic materials such as real conversations, videos taken from movies, and lyrics of songs, among others. Technology can solve some problems by providing interactive activities, catching the attention and, most importantly, practicing their skills using programs and materials so that they are in touch with the target language (Roblyder & Doering, 2010). One of the problems is the development of academic language and background language in the sense that some students do not have previous knowledge of some topics and have problems to participate in mainstream classes (Roblyder & Doering, 2010). Technology offers solutions to this problem. Multimedia tools on websites, such as the New York Times (Figure 1.1) or the Washington Post, are sites that offer podcast and short captions which students can read and listen; this 5

12 can help students with low proficiency level to reinforce their skills and practice with authentic information. Figure 1.1 New York Times Homepage As a result of having students from different social and culture backgrounds, teachers have to be prepared for the diverse learning needs for them. Nowadays, classrooms show an example of the country s melting pots (Roblyder & Doering, 2010). This means that professors need to look for tools which help students to feel comfortable and confident in order to learn as much as possible. Differentiating instruction is a common problem that can be solved with the help of technological tools. Today there are many programs designed to develop specific skills such as reading, writing, or listening. Multimedia is also a tool that helps students with their speaking skills, and the grammar check software allows students to correct and practice their writing skill. It is also a challenge to identify the learning styles of pupils and design activities which integrate the whole class and at the same time help students to develop skills taking into account their individual needs (Lewis, 2009). Technology offers a myriad of different online and offline applications which develop different skills according to the student s necessities. For instance, for students who are quick thinkers, surveys online will be appealing. Those who are visual could try with Web 6

13 Pages which offer interactive activities using images and topics of interest for them such as Google Earth (Figure 1.2). Social pupils may be pleased to work with chat, pen pal students, and so on. There are many internet sources we can apply in our classrooms in order to develop students skills in an interactive and dynamic way. Figure 1.2 Google Earth Homepage 1.4 Employing Technology inside the Classroom Integrating technologies into the classroom help students to learn in a dynamic and entertaining way so that they can analyze, compare, and apply the knowledge both inside and outside the classroom (Stone, Rennenbohm & Breit, 2005). The integration of New Technologies would improve the traditional way to teach and learn. It is important to know that the use of technology make students feel interested because it is something new in class and it is very exciting (Gordon, 2009). Some examples of this are video recorders and players, graphing calculators, software, multimedia, the internet, and so on. All the resources that make students wonder, think, analyze and try to explain may be considered. There are so many ways in which technology can be applied in the classroom, for example, the use of projectors and software such as power point that can make a presentation more interactive. Other tools that can be useful during the classes are mobile dictionaries, due to their accessibility and quickness to find a definition, 7

14 instead of looking for it in a printed dictionary. Even though technology is a great complement of the class, it must be admitted that not everyone can afford it and the ones who can afford it do not use it properly. Figure 1.3 Merriam Webster s Dictionary App Types of technology applied in the classroom When we combine the teacher s experience and the student s knowledge with technology, it is sure that the process of learning can be at its full capacity. There are different ways in which technology can help us in our daily life. New technologies can create new advantages for the learner to understand a vivid, memorable and accessible goal (Rennebohm, 2005). There are some technologies in the classroom that can be used in order to promote the understanding during a class. Multimedia technologies are capable of making learners understand through audio, video or images. Lyrics Training is a webpage designed to develop the listening skill through music and filling in the blanks using songs lyrics (Figure 1.4) 8

15 Figure 1.4 Lyrics Training Homepage Another example of useful technological tools in the classroom is scientific simulations, which show students an event that is possible, but that has not happened yet. And there are many more tools that would make a difference in the classroom, but not all of them are used. Many teachers question the use of new technologies to support learning in the classroom. Actually, there could even be a debate between experienced teachers and young teachers. The truth is that not all teachers and students can perform very well with technology; in fact, a small percent of people in the classroom does not even know how to use technology in a proper way. Nevertheless, this does not mean that we should put it aside. 9

16 1.4.2 Technology as Part and Supplement of the Class: Radio Broadcast, Podcasts, Games and Web Pages. Introducing technology into the classroom is a process in which both teachers and students have to adapt. Many students find technology very easy to manage, and teachers could take advantage of this and use it to reinforce some topics, or use some tools, for instance, some software, to explain and show students what they can create. In other words, technology can be present in the classroom as part of the class. Since new technologies have been in touch with the entire world, there are certain tools that also evolved into new ways of learning or to enjoy in your free time. For instance, the radio broadcast is a great tool to develop both listening and writing skills, according to Roblyer and Doering (2010), for more advanced students.. As we stated before, learning with technology is a gradual process and we need to be exposed to the language as much as possible. A podcast, on the other hand, is a digital recording delivered in a format that can be played on computer devices such as a desktop computer, a laptop, or a portable media player (Lewis, 2009). It promotes the self-learning process and is used by teachers to provide assessment to students. Roblyer and Doering (2010) assert that using audacity or another free software tool that involves voice systems gives teachers an idea of the progress of their students. Podcasts have the advantage that they can be stored in mobile phones or another audio device and can be found in every area of the World Wide Web (www). For instance, you could walk on the street and listen to a lesson that you did not understand in the classroom. This can make students reflect on their own progress and, maybe, get motivated to use this program more often. 10

17 Figure 1.5 Podcasts and Downloads on BBC website The learning process can be adapted to different audiences. Games, for example, are a more neutral way to learn than traditional classrooms (Aldrich, 2009). This means that we can learn efficiently through games rather than stay sit in the classroom and watch the procedures of an exercise on a board. Nowadays, we have access to these games through the World Wide Web, and they can even be downloaded as an application in our mobiles. Games have been present in our lives since we are children and have taught us different lessons of life. There are many games that can develop all the skills (writing, listening, reading, and speaking). Figure 1.6 Fun and Games at The British Council webpage 11

18 Even though games and technology are forms of blended learning, not all of us use it at their one hundred percent. The question is then, why is this new form of learning not working? The truth is that not everyone wants to join or be involved in games that may imply a meaningful learning, mainly because teachers and students are not fully aware that games are another way of learning. We are all in touch with different pages according to our interests, but very few of these search web pages can be actually of great help to learn. We should all learn to take more advantage of them, since web pages are more than information. These can have online exercises, online books or games that can foster the learning process. 1.5 Digital natives and immigrants As Lewis (2009) stated, as long as there have been teachers, there have been instructional tools to help students learn. We have been in touch with technology through years but we, as human beings, are always trying to look for new tools in order to innovate in the learning process. Digital immigrant teachers know how to plan a class, but they do not know how to work with technologies. On the other hand, digital native teachers have a better chance to teach their students with technology, but they do not have the same experience that the immigrant teacher has. One of the reasons for not using technology in school is the lack of knowledge, from both students and teachers. This is because teachers have been teaching in a traditional way; they are trying to teach as they were taught. Moreover, admittedly, students can get distracted very easily with their mobile phones, and thus many teachers might believe that the use of technology is just a distracter. 12

19 1.5.1 Definition of Digital Natives and Immigrants Social webs, encyclopaedias, dictionaries, videos and so on, are just the most popular uses of this tool called internet. Nowadays, young people are very used to words like those, as well as others such as facebook, youtube, instagram, among others. Adults have an idea of what all those web pages contain and their uses, but they are not very much into these digital terms. This means that in one way or another every person has the general knowledge of what technology has to offer, and according to this knowledge, they can be classified as digital natives or digital immigrants. Digital natives are those people who were born in the internet s age. Most of them are young people who have the capacity and abilities to dominate all the items related to technology. In addition to this, they are people who have grown up with digital technology, such as the computer, the internet, mobile phones, MP3, and so on (Crovi Deretta, 2010; Gordon, 2009). Digital immigrants were born before the internet s expansion, and they have to adapt to these tools (Crovi Deretta, 2010). Many people have adapted these tools in their lives very well, so that, they can, for instance, send s, and use programs such as word and excel, among others. They adapt these tools to their environment. To reinforce this, Prensky (2001) states: Digital Immigrants are those of us who were not born into the digital world, but have at some later point of our lives, become fascinated by and adopted many or most aspects of the new technology Contrast between Experienced Teachers and Young Teachers When we finish our career as teachers, we are always afraid of not doing our work right. But, what happens with a teacher that has already experience with a classroom? Even though not everyone was born with these capacities, some of 13

20 them develop strategies in order to master new technologies or have the control of the students, for example. According to Lewis (2009), most students are digital natives, but many experienced teachers are digital immigrants. That means that there are different kinds of immigrant teachers and we can classified them as: newcomers (someone who never have used a computer in his daily or professional life), casual users (someone who can write a lesson plan or a document through a word processing program, or occasionally send s to colleagues), old schoolers (these new term was given to teachers who can create handouts or worksheets with the help of technological tools, regardless of the age, what counts is how long you spent as a teacher doing materials for your classroom) and finally the innovator (this kind of teacher is the one who can promote the learner autonomy, and support critical and creative thinking trough technologies). Having said that, we as students believe that the age is not a factor that determines if you can learn something new; you can learn anything as long as you have the opportunity to do it. Maybe we could blend new teachers with experienced teachers in order to improve the learning process in some schools without leaving technology behind. To sum up, experienced teachers have the ability to select useful information so that their classes are reliable, and new teachers find it easy and innovative bringing activities related to technology because it is something new for students. If we combine these two abilities, it means, selecting good activities and bringing technology into the classroom we can get a lot of benefit for both teachers and students. 1.6 New ways of teaching through new technologies Nowadays, technology is taking a huge field work with teaching. They complement each other in order to combine a new way of learning. There are different kinds of learning with new technologies, for instance: blended learning, E- learning, mobile 14

21 learning, and so on. All of them have in common one goal: evolve over time through trial and error and success (Stone, 2005). Teaching with these technologies is a gradual process; this means that you have to try them out a lot of times in your classroom. New technologies are usually for seeking help, reflecting on results and finding answers that cannot be found in a book. Although it has a lot of advantages, the truth is that not all the teachers prepare the class with technology and, instead of that, let students use the tools because the teacher lacks the knowledge about that certain technology. We as students realized that new technologies can develop our skills and abilities in the process of learning a new language or a second language. Laptops, CD recorders and projectors are just examples of a large variety of tools of which we can take an advantage to improve our level or efficiency in a new language New Roles for Technology We are always looking for new strategies for teaching or learning, and technology has been present through years as a tool to foster thinking and learning. What do these statements have in common? We as a students or teachers have the capacity to work with someone else or with technological tools in order to understand a topic of high relevance for us. Technology tries to apply the most important part of learning and thinking into our lives, but we may not use it properly. That means that we waste our time in other activities with our technological devices, instead of learning and thinking with them (Jonassen, Howland, Marra & Crismond, 2000). For instance, most of students do not have applications that do not improve their skills and, instead of that, they use other programs like games or surfing the net without thinking in the learning process. Almost every teacher and student has access to a mobile, but not all of them know the full capacity of this device. Instead 15

22 of using them for academic purposes, we use it to download applications that do not improve our skills. We have different skills that can be developed through consistency and dedication. But only a few of them can complement this with technology (Jonassen, 2000). As you could see, technology is not always hardware, but an environment in which you can foster and improve your learning and thinking. 1.7 How Technologies Foster Learning and Thinking When we refer to foster learning with technology, we have to take into account that technology is not a vehicle that can guide us to the place we want to be. Instead of that, we have to see technology as an engager and facilitators of thinking. Also, technology tries to make the learner have a better understanding and personal interpretations from a fact (Jonassen & Jonas, 2007). On the other hand, how technology foster thinking is more difficult that you can expect. It is because this involves a lot of factors that begging with thinking and reasoning. You need to think about what you are doing and what you did. Trying to understand this concept, you may note that you have to meditate a lot. But, how we introduce this skill with technology? Simple, the technology, in this scenario, is our teacher. It could be slower at the start but as time goes by, it could be a powerful tool for thinking (Richard-Amato, 1996). 1.8 E-learning Technology has opened up a world of possibilities in the process of teaching and learning due to its variety of tools online and offline, which students can develop their skills. This term is not new, but nowadays it is not understood at all. We, as students, have not exploited these tools, for instance, there is software that helps 16

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