D ANNEX II TRAINING METHODOLOGY FOR MACHINE TRANSLATION POST- EDITING

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1 D ANNEX II TRAINING METHODOLOGY FOR MACHINE TRANSLATION POST- EDITING Celia Rico Pérez, Pedro L. Díez Orzas, et al. Distribution: Public MultilingualWeb- LT (LT- Web) Language Technology in the Web FP7- ICT Project no:

2 Document Information Deliverable number: Deliverable title: Dissemination level: Contractual date of delivery: Actual date of delivery: Author(s): Participants: Internal Reviewer: Workpackage: Task Responsible: Workpackage Leader: Annex II EDI- TA: Training Methodology for Machine Translation Post- Editing PU 31 st December th February 2013 Celia Rico Pérez, Pedro L. Díez Orzas, Lidia Cámara, Igone Regidor, Martin Ariano, Felix Fernández, Johanna Blasco LINGUASERVE, Universidad Europea de Madrid LINGUASERVE WP4 Celia Rico Pérez Pedro L. Díez Orzas Revision History Revision Date Author Organization Description 1 18/10/2012 Celia Rico Pérez Universidad Europea de Madrid (Linguaserve) First final draft 2 23/10/2012 Pedro L. Díez Orzas Linguaserve Revision final draft 3 23/11/2012 Lidia Cámara, Igone Regidor, Martin Ariano, Felix Fernández, Johanna Blasco Linguaserve Revision final draft 4 22/12/2012 Pedro L. Díez Orzas Linguaserve Final Version 5 13/02/2013 Pedro L. Díez Orzas Linguaserve Revision Final Version D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 2

3 CONTENTS Document Information... 2 Revision History... 2 Contents Executive Summary Introduction EDI- TA: training methodology The training kit Competences expected in a post- editor Post- editing tasks The role of the post- editor in the translation workflow Post- editing guidelines specification and ITS PE Rules BASIC Language independent rules BASIC Language dependent rules PE Samples Language independent rules a) Language independent rules implemented in the combination EN- ES b) Language independent rules implemented in the combination ES- EN c) Language independent rules implemented in the combination ES- FR d) Language independent rules implemented in the combination ES- EU Language dependent rules a) Language dependent rules into Spanish (from English) b) Language dependent rules into English (from Spanish) c) Language dependent rules into French (from Spanish) d) Language dependent rules into Euskera/Basque (from Spanish) PE exercises D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 3

4 Post- edited sample text in EN- ES Post- edited sample text in ES- EN Post- edited sample text in ES- EU Post- edited sample text in ES- FR References D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 4

5 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EDI- TA s key objectives are as follows: 1. Contribute to defining metadata suitable for post- editing purposes. 2. Test the contribution of metadata in order to improve post- editing processes. 3. Define a practical methodology for post editing between distant languages pairs, namely, Spanish into English, French and Basque, and from English into Spanish. 4. Suggest improvements in the MT system so as to optimize the output for post editing specific purposes 5. Show the feasibility and cost reduction of implementing post editing in a real scenario. 6. Identify functions to improve post- editing tools. 7. Define a methodology for training post editors in the following language pairs: ES, EN, FR and EU. The present document reports work carried out towards the methodology for training translators in post- editing tasks for achieving objectives 1 to 6 and is complementary to a first report defining post- editing methodology. The MT system from Lucy Software has been used, as well as public content from the Spanish Tax Agency or the City Hall of Barcelona web sites. The main elements in the post- editing training kit are the following, and they are described in the most general way possible: A first advance of using ITS2.0 for post- editing is also in this report, organized into two groups: Contextual information can be used from the following ITS 2.0 data categories: Translate, about non translatable text, but necessary for segment comprehension; Language Information, about a shift of language in a specific part of content; Domain, about subject area; and Provenance, about the MT System and who has post- edited. Activation rules can be contained in ITS 2.0 categories, like: Localization Note (from content creator) or Localization Quality Issue (from content creator or post- editor). More practical information about training in post- editing MT or revising translation will be included in Deliverable and Deliverable (in the online MT system, CMS- TMS reports) of MLW- LT project. D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 5

6 2. INTRODUCTION This report is based on work carried out in the framework of EDI- TA, an R&D project conducted by Linguaserve and Universidad Europea de Madrid, as part of the tasks that Linguaserve is developing within The MultilingualWeb- LT (Language Technologies) Working Group, which belongs to the W3C Internationalization Activity and the MultilingualWeb community. The MultilingualWeb- LT Working Group receives funding by the European Commission (project name LT- Web) through the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) Grant Agreement No EDI- TA had a duration of 6 months, from March 2012 to October 2012, and work was organized into three phases: 1. Phase 1. Post editing pilot project start- up. First stage of the pilot test: test design, implementation, data collection and partial evaluation of results. 2. Phase 2. MT post editing experimentation. Implementation, in two subsequent stages, of a test bed that serves as a showcase. 3. Phase 3. Training and methodology Figure 1 summarizes work on the basis of each of the objectives: Figure 1: EDI- TA s workplan Although EDI- TA was finished in September 2012, when ITS 2.0 data categories were at definition stage, we included some general post- editing guidelines specification of ITS 2.0 usage. More practical information about training in post- editing MT or revising translation will be included in Deliverable and Deliverable (in the online MT system, CMS- TMS reports) of MLW- LT project. D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 6

7 3. EDI-TA: TRAINING METHODOLOGY Training post- editors is key to the successful completion of any PE project. In this respect, the following aspects should be considered: Competences development. Skills needed for Post- editing purposes are best found in experienced translators. There seems to be a general agreement on this as «only a translator can judge the accuracy of a translation, [as] the one best able to pick up errors in the machine translation, he has a fund of knowledge about the cross- language transfer of concepts, and he has technical resources at his disposal which he knows how to use in the event of doubts» (Krings and Koby, 2001: 12). This view is shared by relevant studies such as Allen (2003), O Brien (2002), Torrejón and Rico (2002), and Vasconcellos (1987). Understanding what IS PE and what IS NOT. One of the pitfalls usually encountered by novel post- editors is that of engaging in full editing of the MT output, to the point that sometimes they end up by re- translating the whole text instead. This is why, training post- editors in understanding what it is and what it is not needed when PE is key to the successful accomplishment of the PE project, in terms of quality, time, productivity and cost. Sticking stoically to PE guidelines, as defined by the PE team coordinator, is then a necessary condition in any PE project. Gaining familiarity with PE guidelines. PE specifications, as defined in the previous sections, might at first rise some uncertainty in novel post- editors, as those give explicit directions on what to do when confronted with specific errors in the MT output. Subjectivity in applying rules hinders task efficiency and might even compromise productivity and project costs. This is why gaining familiarity with PE guidelines is seen as a key aspect in training. Extensive PE hands- on practice on PE MT output. Once post- editors- in- training are familiar with PE guidelines and understand the expected outcome of their work, they should be exposed to extensive practice with actual MT output, ideally including texts of increasing PE difficulty in the project s language pairs. This practice should make explicit reference to expected productivity at the end of the training period which, in turn, is directly related to cost reduction and quality as demanded by the client. D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 7

8 3.1. The training kit The main elements in the post- editing training kit are the following: Figure 2: The post- editor s kit 3.2. Competences expected in a post-editor Competences are grouped into three main categories: core competences, linguistic skills and instrumental competences. Core competences. These are in line with the attitudinal or psycho- physiological competence that allows the post- editor to cope with subjectivity issues involved in defining and applying PE specifications, adequately handling client s expectations in terms of text quality acceptance, and overcoming uncertainty. To these, we add the strategic competence that helps post- editors reach informed decisions when choosing between different PE alternatives, following the directions as mechanically as possible and showing no stylistic concerns, if required, even when faced with low quality output. As Guzmán (Guzmán, 2007) puts it, this means «specifying the scope of manual MT post- editing and sticking to it stoically». Linguistic skills. These can be seen as related to skills usually demanded of a translator, and refer to excellent knowledge of source and target language, familiarity with post- editing directions/guidelines, communicative and textual competence in at least two languages and cultures, cultural and intercultural competence and subject area competence. Instrumental competences. These are related to technical skills that help the post- editor understand what is behind the MT output and develop a positive attitude/tolerance towards the machine. Instrumental D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 8

9 competences refer, then, to knowledge of MT systems and their capabilities (either rule- based, example- based, statistical engines and hybrid systems), term management skills, MT dictionary maintenance (for rule- based systems), corpus quality assessment skills (for example- based or statistical engines), and, finally some programming skills (for creating macros for automated correction). Figure 3: PE skills and competences (Source: Rico and Torrejón, forthcoming) 3.3. Post-editing tasks The following tasks are identified in the PE process 1 : Source text related processes. These refer essentially to reading the source text, either entirely or in segments, looking forward to recognize some pattern for reformulation in the target text (morphological, syntactic or semantic) or to decide on textual coherence. In the translation industry, the question of whether the post- editor should get access to the source text is still under consideration as in some contexts it is deemed as a barrier to reaching optimal productivity. In our experience, using the source text as a reference is key when dealing with low quality MT output for there are no other means of understanding (and thus correcting) the target text. 1 This sections follows the work of Krings and Koby, 2001 D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 9

10 Machine translation- related processes. This is one of the most important process categories, together with those related to the target text (either in production or in evaluation). The category refers to reading the MT output either entirely or in segments, directing attention to elements which need further confirmation in the source text and evaluating whether a reformulation is necessary. Target text production. By far the largest proportion of the process falls into this category and it is concerned with producing a new text either from old elements already present in the text or adding new ones. Tasks involved in this process are, then, related to language correction according to PE guidelines (spelling, morphology, agreement, syntax order, lexical choice), dealing with terminology issues, guaranteeing style/terminology consistency/coherence. In this respect, we should remember that defining PE guidelines is a complex task since it involves considering quality acceptance from the client s point of view, turn- around time and final use of the text, among others. Target text evaluation. Tasks involved in this process are related to making positive or negative evaluations of the MT output and comparing it with the source text, which, in turn, is related to defining quality in terms of client expectations. Reference work- related processes. This category is concerned with choosing dictionaries to be used (if any), collocations to be found, parallel texts to be consulted and/or informants to be asked for. Similarly, this involves tasks related to dictionary/terminology maintenance in MT and TM systems in order to improve lexical accuracy. Physical writing processes. These refer to the action of writing linearly, deleting or inserting elements, leaving a gap, marking specific elements, overwriting and rewriting. Global task- related processes. These are processes that serve to control the procedure of dealing with the PE task, i.e. are related to task management: the post- editor «must not only determine how the task should be best divided, but also in what order the subtasks should then be processed» (Krings and Koby, 2001: 510) The role of the post-editor in the translation workflow The role of the post- editor in the translation workflow is graphically described in the figure below. Once the PE coordinator has specified PE guidelines 2, these are handed out to the PE team, who should stick to them objectively while reviewing MT output. Additionally, the PE team collects MT error samples, gathers lists of terms for updating glossaries and registers any comments and observations regarding PE guidelines implementation. All these materials are then handed out as feedback to the PE coordinator. 2 Instructions on how to proceed for PE guidelines specification are contained in the document EDI- TA: Post- editing Methodology for Machine Translation, which is complementary to the present report. D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 10

11 Figure 4: Role of the post- editor D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 11

12 4. POST-EDITING GUIDELINES SPECIFICATION AND ITS 2.0 The specification of PE guidelines involves gathering in a single source all the aspects that influence the post- editor s decision so that PE guidelines can be easily drawn, adequately supported with real examples and, what is more important, shared and replicated along different PE projects. ITS 2.0 data categories can be used in two different ways in post- editing tasks: Providing contextual information Containing activation rules ITS 2.0 PE contextual information can be used for example with the following ITS 2.0 data categories: Translate: In many cases the post- editor might need to have non- translatable text available in order to correctly understand and post- edit other translatable texts (see its /#trans- datacat). Language Information It may happen that the content has some parts in other languages. If the content is translatable, the system uses the language information of the different nodes to automatically detect the source language and update the lang attribute of the output. In this case, the post- editor of the main language of the content should skip these parts, since they have to be post- edited by the adequate language skilled post- editor. In both cases, translatable or not, it might be interesting to contextualize the rest of the content (see its /#language- information). Domain The different domain values are mapped depending on the MT System used, and only one per document will be permitted when it comes to MT Systems. This information can also be used during the post- editing in order to check whether the lexicon generated by the MT is adequate and adapted to the domain, or whether some post- editing needs to be done (see its /#domain). Provenance When the information is provided by the MT Systems, it can give context since the type of errors are also MT System dependent, so a post- editor familiar with a certain MT System can identify usual errors that the system produces in the output (see its /#provenance). ITS 2.0 PE activation rules contains instructions about what is needed to be taken into account by the post- editor or what is being generated by him/her. The activation rules aim at offering clear indications to post- editors on how to carry on so that they can stick to them with no hesitation, and they are divided into a) text related rules, and b) language specific rules, but also can be generated by post- editors and be used by the MT developers to improve the MT System core, for instance. D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 12

13 Text related rules Fix wrong terminology. Spend time in terminology research. Fix syntactic errors (wrong part of speech, incorrect phrase structure, wrong linear order). Fix morphological errors (number, gender, case, tense, voice). Fix misspelling errors. Fix punctuation errors. Fix any omissions as long as they interfere with the message transferred. Edit any offensive, inappropriate or culturally unacceptable information. Fix any problem related to textual standards (cohesion, coherence). Language specific rules Together with the general PE guidelines activated in the data set, there might be some language specific guidelines that need to be taken into consideration, when they are not covered in text related guidelines. Language specific rules are, for example, the use of a particular language locale, lexical collocations or specific sentence structures, how product names should be dealt with (whether there is an equivalent available or the source language name should be used). In the language combination ES- EN, rules would typically include instructions on how to deal with the translation of sentences using the infinitive tense, how to PE third person singular, or an indication of when to delete unnecessary uses of the, among others. Localization Note The system captures the text and type of the note that is conveyed to the Content Editor so as to help the editor in the localization process (see its /#locnote- datacat). Localization Quality Issue The information regarding the quality of the localization can be added to the original content by the user or be provided by the reviser via the Content Editor (see its /#lqissue). The way to proceed is to review each of the rules and decide whether to activate them or not, depending on the information previously gathered in the two data sets (see Annex I EDI- TA: Post- Editing Methodology for Machine Translation). Finally, Provenance also contains the editor s identification and provides the user information on who supplied a certain localization quality issue. D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 13

14 5. PE RULES Complex instructions, classifications and categories often make the experience curve and progress of a novel post- editor more difficult. It is recommended to simplify the way PE guidelines are applied. In this case, less is more. This section contains a series of PE samples in the project s language combinations (EN- ES, ES- EN, ES- FR, and ES- EU). The rules are categorised according to the process they involve, and we propose only four categories of PE rules: Deletion: this involves deleting elements. Replacement: this refers to rules where some elements need to be substituted by others. Movement: these are rules that imply that some element must be moved to some other place in the text. Addition: this involves adding any missing content which is considered essential. They are further divided into two main categories: Language independent and language dependent rules BASIC Language independent rules Category Rule Description Addition Omission Fix any omissions as long as they interfere with the message. Deletion Syntax Delete any element which interferes with the message. Movement Syntax Fix any linear order, only if it interferes with the message. Movement Syntax Fix any incorrect linear order. Replacement Morphology Fix any morphological mistakes. Replacement Syntax Fix any incorrect phrase structure. Replacement Terminology Fix wrong terminology BASIC Language dependent rules Language pair: EN>ES Category Rule Description Deletion Accents Remove accents on anaphoric demonstrative articles. Replacement Capital letters Change upper case letters in the middle of a sentence for lower case. Replacement Time format Time format. Replacement Time format Century format. Replacement Gerunds Correct gerunds used as a subject and translated as adjective relative clauses, and change them in infinitives. Replacement - ing structures Correct adjectives finished in ing and change them for a relative clause or an adjective, depending on the case. Replacement Literal translation Change the literal translation of the structure someone is to do sth for a future tense. D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 14

15 Movement Years Invert the order of numbers (years). Language pair: ES>EN Category Rule Description Deletion Article Unnecessary determine article the. Deletion Pronoun Delete personal pronouns as a subject when there is already a subject (a list of subjects, a relative pronoun or an unknown word). Replacement Prepositions Replace of when it serves as a wildcard translation of Spanish preposition de and its use is incorrect. Replacement Time format Change among for between when its use is incorrect. Replacement Time format Correct time format. Replacement Time format Correct prepositions next to dates. Replacement Time format Convert Roman numbers on centuries, annual events Replacement Numbers Convert the decimal comma into a decimal point; and the separation point (thousands, millions, etc.) into a separation comma. Movement Verbs Relocate verbs moved to the end of the sentence. Movement Verbs Relocate phrasal verbs prepositions moved to the end of the sentence (alter very long sentences). Movement Adjectives Postpone an adjective which should qualify two nouns linked with a conjunction when it only qualifies one of the two. Movement Adjectives Correct reverse syntax, noun+adj for adj+noun. Movement Nouns Correct reverse syntax, noun+ of +noun (and delete of ). Language pair: ES>FR Category Rule Description Replacement Verbs Change verbs in the second person singular for vous. Replacement Time Correct time format. Replacement Time Correct date format. Replacement Impersonal structures Correct impersonal sentences (when necessary). Replacement Concordance Correct concordance between subject, verb and complements. Replacement Articles Correct the wrong use of article que or its contraction for qui when necessary. Movement Order Correct reverse syntax. Language pair: ES>EU Category Rule Description Replacement Verbs Verbs in the third person singular: imperative/indicative. Replacement Infinitives Translation of infinitives: infinitive or infinitive with noun characteristics. Replacement Declension Correct declination of acronyms. Replacement Adverbs Correct adverbial clauses expressing purpose ( para que ). Replacement Use of a relative Correct relative clauses (sometimes impossible clauses in EU). Replacement Time format Correct time and date formats. Replacement Genitive Locative genitive vs. Possessive genitive. Replacement Gender Gender differentiation in Spanish. D4.1.4.Annex II (EDITA) 15

16 5.3. PE Samples LANGUAGE INDEPENDENT RULES A) LANGUAGE INDEPENDENT RULES IMPLEMENTED IN THE COMBINATION EN- ES CATEGORY RULE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE INPUT EXAMPLE OUTPUT EXAMPLE PE OUTPUT Deletion Syntax Delete any element which interferes with the message. More than 6,000 families will be receiving individual school dinner grants for their children during the school year. Más de familias estarán recibiendo becas de comida de escuela individuales para por sus niños durante el año escolar. Más de familias recibirán becas de comida de escuela individuales para sus niños durante el año escolar Replacement Syntax Fix any incorrect phrase structure. And to enjoy the story from even closer up, you can see it in 3D, a technology that is even included in the film's title. Y disfrutar de la historia de incluso más cercano hacia arriba de, lo puedes ver en 3D, una tecnología que se incluye incluso en el título de la película. Y para disfrutar de la historia incluso desde más cerca, la puedes ver en 3D, una tecnología que se incluye incluso en el título de la película. Terminology Fix wrong terminology. Place the fuel filler cap in the bracket, which is attached to the fuel filler door. Coloque la gorra de relleno de combustible en el soporte atado a la puerta de relleno de combustible. Coloque la tapa del depósito de combustible en el soporte que hay en la puerta del depósito. Morphology Fix any morphological mistakes. You can connect the audio devices to the USB audio interface. Usted puede conectar dispositivos de audio con el interfaz de audio USB. Usted puede conectar dispositivos de audio a la interfaz de audio USB. Movement Syntax Fix any incorrect linear order, only if it interferes At its first meeting this new consultative body established its governing rules and the city's En su primer encontrar este nuevo cuerpo consultivo estableció sus reglas que En su primera sesión, este nuevo cuerpo consultivo estableció las reglas que

17 CATEGORY RULE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE INPUT EXAMPLE OUTPUT EXAMPLE PE OUTPUT with the message. strategic projects were presented. gobiernan y los proyectos estratégicos de la ciudad se presentaron. rigen su funcionamiento y los proyectos estratégicos de la ciudad se presentaron. Addition Omission Fix any omissions as long as they interfere with the message. The containers could become leaky and cause and explosion or a fire Éstos [] podrían hacerse agujereados y causa y explosión. Los contenedores podrían tener filtraciones y causar una explosión. B) LANGUAGE INDEPENDENT RULES IMPLEMENTED IN THE COMBINATION ES- EN CATEGORY RULE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE INPUT EXAMPLE OUTPUT EXAMPLE PE OUTPUT Deletion Syntax Delete any element which interferes with the message. Yo creo que un poco más crudo y más abierto, pero me parece que bastante fiel al espíritu del disco, a los cruces instrumentales y a las atmósferas vocales. I believe that a little more raw and more open, but seems me that quite faithful to the spirit of the <A[disk record]>, to the instrumental <A[crosses crossovers]> and to the vocal atmospheres. I believe that a little rawer and more open, but It seems to me that quite true to the spirit of the record, the instrumental crossings and the vocal atmospheres. Replacement Syntax Fix any incorrect phrase structure. La línea será la misma que la de la programación anual. The type will be it as that of the annual programming. The type will be it as that of the annual programming. Terminology Fix wrong terminology. Sin derecho a deducción. Without law to deduction. Without the right of deduction.

18 CATEGORY RULE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE INPUT EXAMPLE OUTPUT EXAMPLE PE OUTPUT Morphology Fix any morphological mistakes. El espacio más alto será la sala de ensayo de los castellers, que se sitúa en la planta del sótano, The highest space will be the rehearsing room of the castellers, <A[which who]> are situated in the plant of the basement, The highest space will be the rehearsing room of the castellers, which is situated in the basement, Movement Syntax Fix any incorrect linear order. Planes de previsión asegurados. Plans of forecast guaranteed. Plans of guaranteed forecasts. Addition Omission Fix any omissions as long as they interfere with the message. Yo creo que un poco más crudo y más abierto, pero me parece que bastante fiel al espíritu del disco, a los cruces instrumentales y a las atmósferas vocales. I believe that a little more raw and more open, but seems me that quite faithful to the spirit of the <A[disk record]>, to the instrumental <A[crosses crossovers]> and to the vocal atmospheres. I believe that a little rawer and more open, but it seems to me that quite true to the spirit of the record, the instrumental crossings and the vocal atmospheres. C) LANGUAGE INDEPENDENT RULES IMPLEMENTED IN THE COMBINATION ES- FR CATEGORY RULE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE INPUT EXAMPLE OUTPUT EXAMPLE PE OUTPUT Deletion Syntax Delete any element which interferes with the message. Rock y electrónica para soplar quince velas. Rock et électronique pour en souffler quinze voiles. pour souffler [] quinze bougies.

19 CATEGORY RULE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE INPUT EXAMPLE OUTPUT EXAMPLE PE OUTPUT Replacement Syntax Fix any incorrect phrase structure. Barcelona empieza la temporada de verano con 210 nuevos agentes desplegados por las zonas con más afluencia y un modelo coordinado con los Mossos d'esquadra. Barcelone commence la <M[saison d'été]> avec 210 nouveaux agents déployés <A[par pour]> les zones avec plus d'affluence et un modèle coordonné avec les <U[Mossos]> <U[d'Esquadra]>. Barcelone commence la saison d été avec 210 nouveaux agents déployés dans les zones ayant plus d affluence et un modèle coordonné avec les Mossos d Esquadra. Terminology Fix wrong terminology. Novedades para ampliar público. Nouveautés pour agrandir du public. Nouveautés pour élargir le public. Morphology Fix any morphological mistakes. El estado de la arena, del mar, las banderas, las temperaturas y la insolación se pueden consultar en el web de playas. L'état du sable, de la mer, les drapeaux, les températures et l'insolation peuvent être consultés en le web de plages. L état du sable, de la mer, les drapeaux, les températures et l insolation peuvent être consultés sur le site web des plages. Movement Syntax Fix any incorrect linear order. Una vez acabe Mas i Mas, el 11 de setiembre, habrá un concierto en el Palau de la Música que recuperará la pieza de Manén Nova Catalònia, que no se interpretaba desde antes de la Guerra Civil Española. Une fois finisses Mais <U[i]> Mais, le 11 septembre, il y aura un concert dans le <U[Palau de la Música]> qui récupérera la pièce de <U[Manén Nova Catalònia]>, qui <U[Civil]> n'était pas interprété depuis avant la Guerre Espagnole. Une fois le festival Mas i Mas terminé

20 CATEGORY RULE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE INPUT EXAMPLE OUTPUT EXAMPLE PE OUTPUT Addition Omission Fix any omissions as long as they interfere with the message. Los chiringuitos de Ciutat Vella tienen autorización para poner la televisión con el volumen limitado. Les buvettes de <U[Ciutat Vella]> ont autorisation pour mettre la télévision avec le volume limité. Les buvettes de Ciutat Vella ont l autorisation pour mettre la télévision avec le volume limité. D) LANGUAGE INDEPENDENT RULES IMPLEMENTED IN THE COMBINATION ES- EU CATEGORY RULE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE INPUT EXAMPLE OUTPUT EXAMPLE PE OUTPUT Deletion Syntax Delete any element which interferes with the message. En total, más de doscientas actuaciones repartidas por siete espacios de la ciudad, entre los cuales están la Pedrera o el Palau de la Música. Guztira, hiriaren zazpi espaziok, zeinen artean Pedrera edo Palau de la Música daudenek, banatutako berrehun emanaldi baino gehiago. Guztira, berrehun emanaldi baino gehiago, hiriaren zazpi espaziotan banatuta, horien artean Pedrera edo Palau de la Música. Replacement Syntax Fix any incorrect phrase structure. En total, más de doscientas actuaciones repartidas por siete espacios de la ciudad, entre los cuales están la Pedrera o el Palau de la Música. Guztira, hiriaren zazpi espaziok, zeinen artean Pedrera edo Palau de la Música daudenek, banatutako berrehun emanaldi baino gehiago. Guztira, berrehun emanaldi baino gehiago, hiriaren zazpi espaziotan banatuta, horien artean Pedrera edo Palau de la Música. Terminology Fix wrong terminology. tipo fitxategi- mota. Morphology Fix any morphological La muestra, además, se Gainera, laguntzen dio Gainera, erakusketari ikus-

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