1 unesco Creative Cities Network in Music executive summary - bogotá 's candidature DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 1 28/12/ :20:29 p.m.
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3 unesco Creative Cities Network in Music executive summary - bogotá's candidature DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 3 28/12/ :20:29 p.m.
4 4Table of contents Table of contents Executive Summary Bogotá s Candidature To The unesco Creative Cities Network in Music Presentation By Catalina Ramirez, Secretary - General of Culture, Recreation and Sports of Bogotá. 1. Vision, Mission, Goals and Objectives 1.a Vision 1.b Mission 1.c Goals 1.d Objectives 2. Management Team 2 a Catalina Ramirez, Secretary - General of Culture, Recreation and Sports of Bogotá 2 b María Claudia Parias Durán, General Director of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Bogotá 2 c Juan Antonio Cuéllar, Executive President, Fundación Nacional Batuta (Batuta National Foundation) 2 d Sandro Romero Rey, Writer, Theater director, Radio, Movie and TV producer. 3. Economy and Culture in Bogotá 3 a Cultural Geography of the City 3 b Bogotá, stage for diversity 3 c Public Policy in Culture 4. Overview of The Music Sector in Bogotá 4 a History of Music 4 b Cultural Industries 4 c Music Education in Bogotá DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 4 28/12/ :20:38 p.m.
5 5. 6. Bogotá s Cultural Offering in Music 5.a. Program of Activities and Main Projects 5.b. Theaters, Auditoriums, Halls 5.c. International Cooperation Prospects for Intercultural Collaboration With Member Citites 7. Table of Contents Dossier: Bogotá s Candidature to the unesco Creative Cities Network in Music 8. References DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 5 28/12/ :20:38 p.m.
6 6Executive Summary DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 6 28/12/ :20:41 p.m.
7 Executive Summary Presentation As Secretary - General of Culture, Recreation and Sports of Bogotá I am proud to reiterate to UNESCO our most sincere interest in actively participate in the Creative Cities Network in music. It is a cultural feature that characterizes the Colombian capital city. From public administrations we have been 3 working for the music in the last 15 years. Bogotá is diverse and multicultural. It is a city with about eight million people that welcomes cultural expressions from all the regions of the country. Thus Bogotá has become territory of everyone and for everyone, thanks mainly to the foment of artistic expressions and practices. From the free symphonic concerts of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Bogotá in parks and churches in the twenty parishes of the city, to the Festivals in the Parks that annually convoke more than 300 thousand music fans of all current music genres, Bogotá stands as the city that has chosen music as its highest identity value in the context of the cultural life of the city. These are only some of the statistics that confi rm our conviction that music in Bogotá allows for embarkment, as well as for the development of the cultural industry in its social perspective. The strength of the music in the city and the continuity of cultural public policies that support it, allow us to commit with the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. We dream of contributing to the joint construction of plans, projects, and actions for the collective and supporting building of a better world from culture. Catalina Ramírez Vallejo SECRETARY - GENERAL OF CULTURE, RECREATION AND SPORTS In Bogotá there are hundreds of informal Hip-Hop schools in marginal neighborhoods. Band rocks daily rehearse at the ensayaderos de garaje (rehearsal rooms in garages) located in many of the old houses of traditional neighborhoods such as Teusaquillo or La Soledad. There is a very signifi cant number of musicians getting trained at the more than 150 schools and conservatories. The city has 79 recording studios, more than 108 musical instrument stores, and 100 sound rental businesses. Bogotá has an orchestral formation system in symphonic music that annually incorporates 4,750 children, and organizes the biggest Latin American Free Rock Festival. Music is considered by the citizens of Bogotá as the most valued and practiced artistic expression. Left Page. Colombia al Parque Festival Previous Page. Up and down right. Colombia al Parque Festival Bottom left. Ópera al Parque Festival DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 7 28/12/ :20:42 p.m.
8 There are sounds That settle in the night There are nights that enter through the days There are surprises that I win without desiring them, such as the joy of Inventing Bogotá Sandro Romero Rey Colombian Writer and Theater Director 8First Part Vision, mission, goals and objetives 1. Vision, Mission, Goals and Objectives Vision In 2016, in the context of UNESCO s Creative Cities Network, Bogotá will be an outstanding Member because of its work on the strengthening of the music sector and for its committed participation with the goals of the Creative Cities Network In Music. Mission Bogotá, as a Member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network potentiates the music sector and strengthens the Network through strategies and actions that impact positively the music practices and the industry in the economic, creative and social aspects. Thus, it will impact the quality of life of its inhabitants. Goals 1. Develop a joint plan of cooperation among the Members of the Network to promote reciprocal exchange of models, signifi cant experiences and expertise that can be replicable among the Cities. 2. Build a communication platform that facilitates the sharing of the management processes of the Member Cities in the fi eld of music. 3. Achieve the appropriation of Bogotá as a creative city of music both locally and internationally. 4. Establish circuits of circulation for agents of the sector, as a strategy for the development of the industry and the promotion of cultural tourism among Member Cities. 5. Promote joint research for understanding and promoting of the music sector in the cities of the Network. Objectives 1. In 2010, Bogotá will sponsor a series of meetings in which the Members will discuss and promote the cooperation strategies of the Cities of the Network. 2. In 2013, Bogotá will begin operating the music platform of the city for the virtual exchange and systematization of information among the Member Cities. 3. In 2011 a marketing and distribution strategy will be established to make Bogotá as a City of Music part of the strategy of the city brand. 4. As soon as Bogotá receives the appointment, it will make available for the Members the entrepreneurship and circulation projects and will show its interest in participating in at least three of the circuits of the Member Cities 5. From 2013, at least one alliance for joint research will be established; it will develop the topics relevant for the Network that are discussed at the meetings and other joints of the Members. Next Page Upper left. Turntables, mixing, scrash and rhythms workshop in the framework of Hip Hop al Parque Festival Top right. Forum Hip Hop s influence in the political construction undertaken in the framework of Hip Hop al Parque Festival Bottom right. 15 years of the Rock al Parque Festival DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 8 28/12/ :20:46 p.m.
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10 second Part Management team 2. Management Team In order to achieve the Appointment as City of Music, Bogotá has carefully selected four members to form the Candidacy Committee. They represent the public and private sectors, and the civil society. The appointee person is Dr. María Claudia Parias, General Director of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Bogotá. Catalina Ramírez Vallejo, Secretary General of the Secretariat of Culture, Recreation and Sports in Bogotá Psychologist of Universidad Javeriana, MBA of Universidad de los Andes. She worked on different institutions of the Colombian Financial sector where she hold directive positions. Since 1999, she used her management experience and academic background to work on public projects with social impact. She was the Manager of BIBLORED, the Network of Public Libraries of Bogotá. Afterwards, she worked at the Ministry of Culture as Manager of the National Plan for Libraries and Reading Plan that acted on more than 660 municipalities of Colombia. Since October 2006 to June 2007, she was the Director of Infancy and Youth Section of the Ministry of Culture. One of her goals was to lead the process for the building of a public policy about the Artistic Education in Colombia and the National Plan of Culture and Coexistence. In June 2007, she was appointed Director of the National Library of Colombia. Since January 2008 she has been working as the Secretary - General of Culture of the Major s Offi ce of Bogotá. María Claudia Parias Durán * General Director of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Bogotá B.A. on Mass Media Studies at the Universidad de La Sabana, with an specialization on Management and Cultural Management (Universidad del Rosario) and an M.A. in Cultural Management of the Universidad de Barcelona. She has worked as Director of Cultural Affaires of the Ministry of Relaciones Exteriores of Colombia, as Executive Secretary of the Colombian Cooperation Commission with UNESCO, and as Technical Assistant of the Cultural Area of the Convenio Andrés Bello. As cultural manager, she was consultant in communications and project for institutions and events such as the Festival de Arte de Cali, the Festival de Teatro de Manizales, the Corporación Escuela Galán, the Teatro Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, and the cultural service of the French Embassy in Colombia, among others. She has worked in the journalism area with different journals and magazines. As a professor, she directed the emphasis on cultural journalism of the Universidad Externado de Colombia and a course on creative writings and art critique at Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano. * Focal point person 10 DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 10 28/12/ :21:07 p.m.
11 Juan Antonio Cuéllar Executive President, Fundación Nacional Batuta (Batuta National Foundation) Juan Antonio Cuéllar has a Ph.D. in Music from Indiana University. He is a well known composer. His work includes several works for orchestra, symphonic band, and diverse instrument and vocal media. These works have been interpreted and recorded by prestigious groups in Colombia and abroad, including the Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional de Colombia, the Orquesta Filarmónica de Bogotá, the American Composers Orchestra, the Cuarteto Manolov, the Indiana University New Music Ensemble, and the Ensamble de Música Contemporánea Decibelio, among others. He has received national and international prizes, including the National Award of Composition IDCT (1999), the Indiana University Dean s Prize in Composition (2000), and the award Musical Artist (1993). In addition to his work as composer, Juan Antonio Cuéllar is Associated Professor of the Universidad Javeriana and he was the Dean of Arts between 2002 and He was the President of the Colombian Association of Art Faculties ACOFARTES from 2007 to He is currently President of the National Foundation of Children s and Youth Symphonic Orchestras Batuta. Sandro Romero Rey Writer, Theater director, Radio, Movie and TV producer. Theatrical studies in Cali, with an specialization of Université de Paris VIII. Winner of different national awards for his literary and theatrical works. His most important published works include: El Teatro Municipal de Cali: escenario de acontecimientos (Essay. Major s Offi ce of Cali, 1987), Oraciones a una película virgen (Novel. Planeta, 1993), Andrés Caicedo o la muerte sin sosiego (Essay. Norma, 2007), Clock Around The Rock (Chronicles of a fatal fan) (Chronicles, Aguilar, 2008), El miedo a la oscuridad (Novel. Alfaguara, 2009) His most recent awards include: Premio Iberescena for its dramaturgical work, Artistic Residences Colombia-México, the National Award of Short Stories 2004, two Theater Creation Scholarships of IDCT, Post -Production Award for the Documentary Bestial Sound. He was producer of the Cultural TV Channel Señal Colombia. Cultural Journalist of the National Broadcasting Company. 11 DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 11 28/12/ :21:08 p.m.
12 3. Economy and Culture in Bogotá third Part Economy and Culture in Bogotá 3.a Cultural Geography of the City When arriving at the 2600 meters above the sea level in which Bogotá is located, one can appreciate the multiplicity of intertwined atmospheres that contain diverse living styles. Located on the Colombian East Range, a branch of the Andean Mountains, Bogotá is the most important city in the country because of it privileged geographical location and its function as capital city within the political structure of Colombia. It is considered the political, administrative, cultural and economical epicenter of the country. Colombia is composed of heavily differentiated regions, which fi nd in the city a focus point to converse with each other. The city is also in permanent contact with the cultural metropolis of Latin America and the world. Bogotá`s population of (DANE, 2007) represent the 15,2% of the total population of the country. It includes immigrants of all the regions of the country and thousands of peopled from different countries of the world. Regional cultures that settle in Bogotá bring with them their own traditions, dances, music, social forms, and thus create a melting pot to renew local identities. The ethos of the contemporary inhabitant of Bogotá nurtures from such cultural variety. The city is open and contemporary, as well as friendly and welcoming. It offers the visitor a wide range of cultural activities that has considerably grown in the last decades. Based on the steady rhythm of growth of the cultural offering, Bogotá will become one of the richest cities in Latin America. Exhibits, plays, international festivals, concerts, international fairs, academic conferences, festivals of music in the parks, among many others, have contributed to the importance of the cultural offering of Bogotá and to the increase of The improvement of living and welfare of the citizens has been possible because of different actions. First, sustained investment in education, health, culture, art and sports. Second, expansion of coverage of domiciliary services and increase of its quality. Third, increase and improvement of the quality of public spaces and the urban furniture, among many other actions (SCRD, 2009). The Festival Iberoamericano de Teatro (IberoAmerican Theatre Festival of Bogotá ), the Feria del Libro (Book Fair), Expoartesaníass (Craftwork Fair), ArtBo (Art Fair), the Festivales de música al Parque (Music Festivals in Parks), and the Festival de Cine International (International Films Festival) match the best festivals in the world for their intrinsic quality, the number of participants, and for the warmth with which the citizens welcome visitors to the festivals. According to offi cial data, Bogotá has 62 art galleries, 58 museums, 45 theaters, 4 metropolitan libraries, and parks. In recent years (approximately since 1995) the city has made an outstanding effort to improve the cultural infrastructure and to generate more possibilities to access culture. This is possible through continuous maintenance of a cultural policy that reads the territory and the use that the citizens do in order to consolidate strategic actions to the foment of the cultural fi eld. One of the most interesting tools the city has to achieve this goal is the Observatorio de Culturas, an entity that do studies, perception polls and surveys in order to provide qualitative and quantitate information useful for the design and updating of the cultural policy of the city. It is important to highlight that according to the most recent Bi-Annual Culture Poll (2009) points out that music is the citizens favorite artistic expression (75.47%), followed by movies (45.68%). 12 DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 12 28/12/ :21:13 p.m.
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14 third Part Economy and Culture in Bogotá 14 3.b Bogotá, stage for diversity Bogotá is astonishingly diverse. Continuous dynamics of population migration and displacement that are typical of this century, have given to the city a plural and cosmopolitan facet. The city offers conditions for different social groups to exercise their right to live the territory. The practices and memories of these groups - ethnicity, sexually or regionally oriented - have been progressively incorporated into the public policies of local government, in both the policies for the artistic and cultural fi eld, as well as the developmental local plans. Such incorporation has caused a strong appropriation of the city by local communities. Bogotá is a city of opportunities for international businessmen, young professionals, students, professors, entrepreneurs and emergent artists. It is nourished by the constant arrival of foreigners and Colombians who have come back from working, commercial and educational experiences abroad. Bogotá also welcomes internally displaced communities that arrive because of social, political or economic problems. All of them contribute to create a unique city, a universe to be discovered. 3.c Public Policy in Culture The aim of cultural policies of the public administration is to facilitate the necessary conditions so that all the sectors involved in activities (e.g., creation, circulation, research, diffusion, and appropriation activities) with symbolic or material cultural artifacts can exercise their right to express both symbolically and materially (Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, 2005). Bogotá has four main strategies for the concerted management of public policies and budget for cultural foment. Creation and strengthening of the Sistema Distrital de Arte, Cultura y Patrimonio (District System of Art, Culture and Patrimony) Creation and strengthening of the Program of Support Creation and strengthening of special programs such as the Festival al Parque (it is a space to foment music and exercise the social inclusion) or Libro al Viento (reading support in the massive transportation services) only to name a few of the most outstanding programs Consolidation of a Plan of Cultural for the circulation of the arts and cultures typical of the territory in Bogotá. In order to promote, articulate, and regulate this public policy, the Sistema Distrital de Arte, Cultura y Patrimonio (District System of Art, Culture and Patrimony) was created 15 years ago. This political body allows the encounter of social agents, private and public sectors to take joint decisions on art, culture and patrimony in the city. The District System includes Councils on different areas, one of which is the District Council on Music. It is composed of different worktables of articulation and negotiation formed by democraticallyelected representatives of the sectors. They represent the interests of creators, agents, citizens and audiences, who play a over-sighting role on the Action Plans and public programs in each of the arts and patrimony of Bogotá. The Program of Coordination Support and Strategic Alliances, as stated by the Document of District Cultural Policies , looks to establish technical and conceptual procedures so that the budget allocation for cultural projects respects the principles of transparency, democracy ad participation, and the alliances obtain cultural entrepreneurship and social and fi nancial sustainability of the sector. The Festivals on the Parks are a strategy that generates a high-quality music offering in Rock, ip-hop, Salsa, Opera, Regional Music of Colombia, and Jazz. DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 14 28/12/ :21:21 p.m.
15 They form a place of encounter and a way to validated diversity, social inclusion and the support of cultural citizenship when organized in public parks and at no charge for the public. The aim of the Plan of Cultural Equipment is to generate cultural criteria of territorial ordering, develop actions to identify, conserve, maintain and create the features of the urban cultural landscape and search for an equilibrated infrastructure to support cultural supply and demand of the pueblos and sectors for the city and the region. The Document of District Cultural Policies explains what Bogotá is: Regional leader in intercultural, democratic and participative processes, proper of the transformation and value of their cultures, with an intercultural adequate legislation. Strong organizations and cultural processes. Quick and democratic information systems. Varied professional cultural, artistic and patrimonial activity, that is socially recognized. Wide range of publics, critics, and users of the cultural activities and its infrastructures and cultural dynamics, artistic and of patrimony in a dialogue with the region, the nation and the world. Up left and right. Colombia al Parque Festival Bottom left. Rock al Parque Festival DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 15 28/12/ :21:27 p.m.
16 FourtH Part Overview of the Music Sector in Bogotá 4. Overview of the Music Sector in Bogotá 4 a. History of Music The richness and musical diversity that is present in Bogotá today is the result of a particular music history. The city was the epicenter of the colonial domination of the country. Therefore, the core of the confl uence of the sounds of the indigenous communities, Spanish music and the African traditions of the slaves brought to America happened in the capital. The Catholic Church after the Conquest played a central role in the production and consumption of music, at the same time that it monopolized musical education and instruction until the XIX century. Despite the political and cultural hegemony of Church, the city always had diverse music practices associated to different social classes. (Bermúdez, 2000). These practices are so varied and complex that they can hardly be classifi ed under traditional categories such as traditional, popular and academic. Music has always been in the public sphere - in the plazas, at public civilian and military colonial festivities, and in the current Rock al Parque (Rock in the Park). Despite its public presence, music in Bogotá has also been in the private arenathe increase of the public offering in music refl ects the position that Bogotá holds in the international circulation circuits. 4 b. Cultural Industries The creative and entrepreneurial dynamics of the city are refl ected in the outstanding presence of creative industries: 90% of the products and services of these industries in the country is generated in Bogotá. More than 350,000 people work in the formal cultural activity of the city (IDCT, 2004). On the other hand, the close relation between cultural practices and the strengthening of social networks accounts for the more than 180,000 creators, agents, and workers of the cultural sector that belong to some type of artistic or cultural group or association (IDCT, 1999). The interaction of multiple populations and lifestyles explains the increase of the contribution to the Gross Domestic Product of the creative industries in the country, heavily promoted from within the city: 1,55% in 2005, 1,75% in 2006, and 1,78% in The private musical sub-sector of Bogotá includes the broad range of production and creation music activities, intermediation activities, input music industries, as well as multiple agents that participate of the music market. Incorporation of technology, management, and administration, give structure to a number of music creative industries as a cluster that is strengthened on the combination of civil partnership and public local and national institutions. For example, the generalized like for the music practice makes possible that the city has 108 stores of musical instruments, and more than 40 businesses for maintenance and reparation of musical instruments. Also, the constant music activity and the socialization of their products explain the existence of more than 110 businesses dedicated to sound rental. These productive units form the formal dimension of the music sub-sector. Its size structure indicates a strong relation between musical practice on the one hand, and social relations, community relations, and family relations on the other. In fact, 1,49% of the music industries are big businesses, 2,23% are mid-size businesses, and notably, 85,82% are microenterprises. Nonetheless, there is a very important economic dynamic that impacts the informal sub-sector of the music economy. Even thought there is no data about the behaviour of informal economy of the musical sub-sector, there are general studies that estimate that between 30% to 55% of jobs in Colombia are generated through informal economy. (López, en: Camargo, Arango, Misas y López; 2005). The increased music production, together with a long tradition of enjoyment of music in public spaces of the people of Bogotá has importantly stimulated the consumption of live music. The increase of important national and international music concerts from 2005 to 2007 was of 27,5% (Goubert, Zapata, Arenas, Niño; 2010). The increase of the number of live performances has fomented an increase in the diversity and quality of the shows that take place in the city. These transformations have signifi cantly qualifi ed local public and private production. Among the most frequently played music genres is classical (20,67%) and rock (15,81%), followed by salsa, electronic music, and traditional Colombian music (8,67%, 8,51%, and 8,51%). The genre diversity clearly indicates the broad range of music preferences of the citizens (Goubert, Zapata, Arenas, Niño; 2010). 16 DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 16 28/12/ :21:33 p.m.
17 4.c Music Education in Bogotá The growth of the enjoyment of musical experience, along with the tendency to fi nd an economic alternative in this sector, is associated to the impulse of creative industries and cultural policies. Not surprisingly then, the educational sector has grown in coverage and diversity. Bogotá s citizens of all ages search for a close personal contact with musical practice through attendance to different levels of music education the city offers. There are eleven college programs on music with a great variety of pedagogic focuses and goals that allow the student to choose the sort of education desired. He or she can choose among classical, jazz, or Colombian music. The emphasis include interpretation, composition, sound engineering, music pedagogy, choral direction, orchestral direction, among others. Recently, new graduate degrees in music have been created. Before, they should go abroad for graduate studies in music. The Universidad Nacional de Colombia, the most important of the country, offers a Master of Arts in Piano Pedagogy, and a Master of Arts in Music Therapy. Other universities offer a diploma in Music Project Management and a specialization in Children s and Youth Choir Direction. Students from all over the country compete to be admitted to the universities in Bogotá because of their good quality and international recognition. In Bogotá, the like for music gets developed at early ages. Children and youth have several opportunities to learn music professionally or as complementary activity. Through more than 150 schools of music formation students may get training on urban music such as rock and rap, classical music, traditional and popular Latin American music, and Colombian music. These schools provide good quality education for all economic classes because the programs have a differential criteria and take into account the particularities of socio cultural contexts. Some of the most outstanding initiatives include the program Tejedores de Sociedad (Society Knitters), the rock schools or the choirs at the churches of the National Program of Choirs. Even though there is no data about private music lessons, it is a very common practice in the capital city and one of the vectors that dynamize the sector economy the most. (Goubert, Zapata, Arenas, Niño, 2008) Armando Silva Bogotá is recognized for its beautiful tradition of speaking a good spanish, along with the biggest linguistic institute of Iberoamerica for the study of language. The Iberoamerican Theater Festival in the city gathers all citizens in streets and theaters. It is a festival that binds the biggest number of plays of good quality every two years. The citizens participation in culture, art, music, and movies, is one of the most outstanding in Hispanic America. The Music Festivals of rock, opera, or tropical music, became a cultural revelation. The cicle-lanes, on which most citizens go to walk on Sundays and holidays, have switched the cold face of the city, and became Bogotá, culturally, into a Caribbean metropoli that expresses itself publicly every day. Armando Silva. Ph.D. in literature, philosophy and semiotics. Director of the Institute for Studies in Culture and Communication at the National University of Colombia The most outstanding social program for music education for children and youth is offered by the Fundación Nacional Batuta. It aims to contribute to the actions and processes for the musical and social development of the country through the symphonic orchestral practice. Batuta s philosophy is based on the transforming power of music, its formative and socializing value, its contribution to welfare and improvement of life quality. In Bogotá there are 30 Batuta centers in the 15 parishes of Bogotá. 4,750 students who are 19 years old or less participate of the program; 85% of them belong to the most vulnerable social class. In addition, there are 84 students at the Symphonic Youth Orchestra of Batuta Bogotá. Also, the Fundación Batuta has four additional symphonic youth orchestras, seven string orchestras, a wind ensembles, and hundreds of vocal and instrumental groups. Up. Educational Concert, OFB, Percussion Group. León de Greiff Auditorium, National University of Colombia. February 24th DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 17 28/12/ :21:38 p.m.
18 FiFtH Part Bogotá s Cultural Offering in Music 5. Bogotá s Cultural Offering in Music 5.a. Program of Activities and Main Projects Bogotá has several musical and cultural resources because of the cultural policy that has jointed urban development with new citizenship notions. Because of diverse and sustained processes of coordination and participation, the city has been able to offer a varied cultural agenda of the top level, according to the plurality of cultures that inhabit the city. Thus, the music offering answers the demands, requests, and cultural expectations of audiences. The public sector fulfi lls the musical needs of the inhabitants throughout three main strategies: 1) portfolio of prizes to the performing arts 2) execution of Festivals in the Parks 3) integrated management of the scenarios for the public events of performing art in the city. The main competitions supported by the public administration include: Composition Competition (four different music genres per year), Interpretation Competition, Competition to participate on Concert Cycles, and Competition to participate on National and International Circuits. All these incentives have helped to strengthen the creation and circulation of musicians in the city. Likewise, they have given citizens the elements to appropriate the musical processes of the city. The Festivals in the Parks have become in the last decade one of the most impacting programs since they reached a high level of citizen appropriation for all of the music genres presented in the festivals. It also impacts the construction of a more inclusive, close, and compromised idea of city. Thanks to these massive concerts, the music genres such as Rock, Opera, Colombian music, Jazz, Salsa, or Hip Hop invite Bogotá s inhabitants to enjoy music and at the same time to strengthen the sense of belonging to the city. The Festivals in the Parks are both crucial stages for the musical careers of the local and international bands, and an effi cient space for the creation of cultural capital for Bogotá. One of the most important resources of Bogotá is the Orquesta Filarmónica de Bogotá - a public orchestra of the city - whose role is to leader the symphonic practices throughout the city. The Philharmonic is the most consolidated symphonic orchestra of the country, with a staff of 97 members of the highest quality. This allows the Orchestra the diffusion of a broad repertoire as well as the offering of a constant season during the year at low costs for inhabitants. This structure contributes to the achievement of the goal of making the audiences in Bogotá to enjoy and appropriate the symphonic music. The Orchestra has fi ve main strategies for its aim: 1)the interpretation, recording and broadcast of Colombian popular music in symphonic format or of Colombian symphonic repertoire 2) didactic concerts 3) concerts in non-traditional scenarios such as parks and churches 4) radio and TV programs 5) defi nition of administration projects to the generation of audiences 18 Right. Salsa al Parque Festival 2010, Plaza de Bolívar. DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 18 28/12/ :21:39 p.m.
19 Ana Marta de Pizarro Bogotá became a must for important artists. Its cultural offering corresponds to the current development of the city and of the country. Bogotá is a city where multiculturalism and new creative projects get respect. Here there are thousands of things to do. A few years ago there was the Theater Festival and the Gold Museum, but today, a foreign visitor will not have enough time to enjoy the spectacles for all ages: youth, adults, alternatives, intellectuals, children... It is a marvelous city. Ana Marta de Pizarro General Director Iberoamerican Theater Festival of Bogotá 19 DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 19 28/12/ :21:41 p.m.
20 FiFtH Part Bogotá s Cultural Offering in Music The Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional de Colombia, besides working to spread world music and the works of Colombian composers, develops different programs such as: dialogues of youth with the Orchestra, Young Colombian Directors and Soloists, Young Interpreters, an internship with the universities in the country, and master classes for musicians of the orchestra and for other musicians. 5.b. Theaters, Auditoriums, Halls Bogotá has fi ve metropolitan libraries. The most traditional one is the Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango, with an annual average of users from all the neighbors of Bogotá. Since 1997, the public administration started to create appropriate and egalitarian spaces for the diffusion of books and reading among all the persons who live in far away areas of the city. Therefore it constructed three metropolitan mega-libraries: Virgilio Barco, El Tintal, and El Tunal. They are located inside important parks and near densely populated neighborhoods. In 2010, another mega-library was inaugurated thanks to an interesting model of publicprivate partnership developed by the Secretariat of Culture, Recreation and Sports, and an outstanding family of donors. The Cultural Center Julio Mario Santo Domingo has a library and two theaters with the most updated standards for creation and circulation of performing arts in Suba. For the diffusion, foment, and circulation of music in all of its forms, Bogotá has auditories and concert halls, as well as theater of diverse features and audiences. Each one of the mega - libraries has small concert halls for small formatos of popular, urban, and academi music. The Luis Angel Arango Library has a prestigious concert hall with 367 charis and is the main stage for chamber music in the country. The hall has two german Steinway pianos, model D, a Clementi fortepiano built in 810 and restored in 1997, a harpsichord (a copy of the J.C. Gouion at the Museum of the Conservatory of Paris) built in A Rutkowsky and Robinnette harpsichord of New York, made in 1967, and a tube organ disegned by Oskar Binder. Annual season of the concert hall of the Luis Angel Arango Library include 100 recitals and concerts with some of the most important soloists and national and international groups. The programming is organized with three main events: Concerts on Wednesdays, Music in Family (Sundays) and Series of Young Interpreters. The latter is devoted to the support of the formation of new Colombian interpreters. Both private and public theaters favour big performances, including the season of the Opera de Colombia and two Zaruzela seasons, as well as the best music performances that connect Bogotá with the world. 20 DOSSIER_BOGOTACIUDADMUSICAL_27DIC.indd 20 28/12/ :21:41 p.m.