Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Bilingual Terminology File

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1 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Bilingual Terminology File Submitted for the Degree of Master of Arts in Translation by Carolina Herrera Supervisors: Ingrid Meyer, Ph.D. Clara Foz, Ph.D. University of Ottawa School of Translation and Interpretation 2001 Carolina Herrera, Ottawa, Canada, 2001

2 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere thanks to my thesis supervisor, Dr. Ingrid Meyer, for her prompt and insightful feedback, as well as for her support and patience. I would also like to thank my co-director, Dr. Clara Foz, for her detailed and valuable comments, and her encouragement and trust. I am grateful to the University of Ottawa for providing me with a scholarship that made it possible for me to undertake this challenge. Many thanks to Dr. Lynne Bowker and Dr. Stan Matwin who listened to my ideas and provided helpful comments that served as starting points for this project. I am fortunate in having had the enthusiastic support of friends and colleagues at the School of Translation and Interpretation. In particular, I would like to thank Elizabeth Marshman for her constructive comments and suggestions. My family is a constant and endless source of strength and moral support. Without their love and encouragement, this project could not have been completed. Thanks.

3 Carolina Herrera AGRADECIMIENTOS Quiero expresar mi más sincera gratitud a mi supervisora de tesis, Dra. Ingrid Meyer, por sus valiosas y acertadas enseñanzas, así como por su apoyo y paciencia. Asímismo, quiero agradecer a mi co-directora, Dra. Clara Foz, por sus preciados y detallados comentarios, y por darme en todo momento aliento y confianza. Estoy muy agradecida con la Universidad de Ottawa por la beca que me otorgó, gracias a ella pude emprender este desafío. Gracias a la Dra. Lynne Bowker y al Dr. Stan Matwin por escuchar mis ideas y brindarme sus valiosos comentarios, los cuales sirvieron de punto de partida para este proyecto. Gracias a mis amigas y colegas de la Escuela de Traducción e Interpretación por su entusiasta apoyo. En especial, quisiera agradecer a Elizabeth Marshman por sus interesantes comentarios y sugerencias. Mi familia es una fuente constante e infinita de fuerza y apoyo moral. Sin su amor y aliento, yo no hubiera podido culminar este trabajo. Gracias.

4 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 4

5 Carolina Herrera ABSTRACT The objectives of this terminological file are to 1) produce records for the fundamental English and Spanish terminology in the subject field of public key cryptography; 2) guide the user in choosing terms and avoiding the use of pseudo-synonyms, and indicate spelling or syntactic variants that could create confusion, and 3) discuss a number of terminological difficulties in the field. This work provides theoretical and practical insight on terminological research. The theoretical aspects include the criteria for evaluation of documentation, the process of identification and selection of concepts and terms, the representation of the conceptual system in English and Spanish, and the discussion of the main terminological challenges encountered during the elaboration of this project. The practical aspects consist of the production of the English-Spanish term records, which provide not only descriptive information but also suggestions on the use of variants. The conclusion drawn from this research is that the field of public key cryptography poses considerable challenges for English/Spanish terminologists and translators. Among these challenges are the constant evolution of the terms and concepts and the different communicative situations in which they are used. Moreover, the arbitrary creation of variants is a serious obstacle to communication as it opens the doors to several alternative terms used simultaneously.

6 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File RÉSUMÉ Les objectifs de ce fichier terminologique sont 1) fournir une série de fiches bilingues dans le domaine de la cryptographie à clé publique; 2) guider les usagers dans le choix des termes, en évitant l usage de pseudo-synonymes, et en indiquant les variantes orthographiques et syntaxiques sources de confusion, et 3) analyser les principales difficultés terminologiques de ce champ. Ce travail présente des aspects théoriques et pratiques. La partie théorique comprend les critères d évaluation de la documentation, les procédés d identification et de sélection des concepts et des termes, la création d un arbre conceptuel en anglais et espagnol et la discussion des plus importants problèmes terminologiques rencontrés pendant l élaboration de ce travail. La partie pratique traite de la préparation des fiches terminologiques anglais-espagnol qui fournissent des renseignements descriptifs et offrent des suggestions sur l usage des variantes. Mes recherches me permettent de conclure que le champ de la cryptographie à clé publique pose des défis considérables pour les terminologues et traducteurs anglais ou espagnols. Parmi ces défis, on trouve l évolution constante des notions et des termes et les différentes situations de communication dans lesquelles ces termes sont utilisés. Par ailleurs, la création arbitraire de variantes constitue également un obstacle pour la communication, étant donné qu elle peut mener à plusieurs termes alternatifs utilisés simultanément.

7 Carolina Herrera SÍNTESIS Los objetivos de este fichero terminológico son 1) elaborar una serie de fichas bilingües en el campo de la criptografía de clave pública; 2) guiar a los usuarios en la elección de términos, evitando el uso de pseudo-sinónimos, e indicar las variantes ortográficas y sintácticas que pueden causar confusión, y 3) analizar las principales dificultades terminológicas de este campo. Este trabajo presenta aspectos teóricos y prácticos de la investigación terminológica. La parte teórica comprende los criterios de evaluación de la documentación, los procesos de identificación y selección de conceptos y términos, la creación de un árbol conceptual en inglés y español y la discusión de los más importantes problemas terminológicos que se presentaron durante la elaboración de este trabajo. La parte práctica trata de la preparación de las fichas terminológicas inglés-español, las cuales proporcionan información descriptiva y ofrecen sugerencias sobre el uso de las variantes. Mi investigación me permite concluir que el campo de la criptografía de clave pública presenta desafíos considerables. Entre estos desafíos se encuentran la constante evolución de conceptos y términos y las diferentes situaciones de comunicación en que se utilizan los términos. Además, la existencia de términos concurrentes utilizados simultáneamente, constituye igualmente un problema para terminólogos y traductores en inglés o español.

8 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... i Objectives... ii Fundamental Concepts... ii Content... iii PART I...4 CHAPTER ONE UNDERSTANDING PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY...5 CHAPTER TWO DOCUMENTATION Hard Copy Documentation On-line Documentation Specialists...10 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Understanding and Delimiting the Field of Public Key Cryptography Term Identification and Selection Concept Diagram Record Preparation Presentation of the Term Records...16 PART II...19 CHAPTER FOUR PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED Multidimensionality Definition Construction Proliferation of New Lexical Entities Use of Variants Use of True Synonyms Use of Pseudo-Synonyms Use of Syntactic Variants Use of Spelling Variants Proposal of the Term aceptación obligatoria as the Equivalent of nonrepudiation...32 PART III...35 CHAPTER FIVE ORGANIZATION OF THE TERM FILE Term Records Organization...36 TERMINOLOGY FILE...37

9 Carolina Herrera 9 CONCLUSION...64 BIBLIOGRAPHY Terminology Works Cited Reference Works Terminological Files Public Key Cryptography English Sources Spanish Sources...69 APPENDIX I INDEX OF ENGLISH TERMS...72 APPENDIX II INDEX OF SPANISH TERMS...73 APPENDIX III INDEX OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH TERMS...74

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11 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File INTRODUCTION The world is increasingly turning to the digital medium, and in particular to the Internet, as a tool for carrying data. However, for sensitive information to be transmitted over the Internet, a secure environment is essential. As more and more organizations, including private companies and government, attempt to use electronic media whenever possible, the importance of cryptography and other information security tools has increased. Cryptography was initially developed as a means of disguising written messages. Today, however, its principles are applied to the encryption of facsimile and television signals. More importantly, cryptography is pivotal for securing data communications between computers and for authenticating such transmissions, i.e. providing assurance to the authorized receiver that the message is not a forgery. Different approaches to and applications of systems in this field have created inconsistency in the use of concepts and terms. Moreover, as a result of new communication technologies such as the Internet, concepts are constantly being introduced into Spanish-speaking communities, often more quickly than equivalents can be developed. This terminological file will address the problems encountered while producing records for the fundamental English and Spanish terminology in the field of public key cryptography.

12 Carolina Herrera ii Objectives The objectives of this terminology file are as follows: 1- To produce records for the fundamental English and Spanish terminology in the subject field of public key cryptography. 2- To guide the user in choosing terms and avoiding the use of pseudo-synonyms, and to indicate spelling or syntactic variants that could create confusion. 3- To discuss a number of terminological difficulties in the field of public key cryptography. Fundamental Concepts 1 The following concepts will occur frequently in this work: True synonym: A term designating the same concept as another in the same language and which can be used interchangeably with the other term in all contexts. Example: encryption, encipherment. Quasi-synonym: A term that designates the same concept as another, but which is not interchangeable with the other term in all contexts as its use is limited to certain communication situations. Also called partial synonym. Example: decryption and code-breaking. Pseudo-synonym: A designation incorrectly used for a given concept as a result of misunderstanding correct usage, confusion between a generic and a specific, etc. Example: encryption instead of cryptography. Spelling variant: A term whose spelling differs only slightly from that of another term designating the same concept. Example: nonrepudiation and non repudiation. 1 H. Picht, Terminology: an Introduction, pp

13 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File iii Syntactic variant: A term whose syntactic form differs only slightly from that of another term designating the same concept. Example: authentication of origin, origin authentication. Content The terminological file will be divided into three main parts. Part I consists of three chapters. Chapter 1 is intended to provide the background information necessary for understanding the field of public key cryptography, chapter 2 describes and comments on the documentation used, and chapter 3 explains the terminological method followed. Part II examines the main terminological challenges encountered in the terminological research and presents the solutions adopted (chapter 4). Finally, Part III consists of the organization of the term records and the terminological file itself (chapter 5).

14 Carolina Herrera PART I

15 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File CHAPTER ONE UNDERSTANDING PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY Cryptology is the science concerned with communications in a secure and usually secret form. The term cryptology is derived from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and logos, word. In order to transmit information, the sender transforms the information into a cipher by using a key, i.e. a piece of information known only to him. The cipher is inscrutable and often unforgeable to anyone without this secret key, the authorized receiver can then either decrypt the cipher to recover the hidden information or verify that it was sent by someone possessing the key. Cryptology encompasses the study of cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography (from the Greek kryptós and gráphen, to write ) is the study of the principles and techniques by which information can be concealed in ciphers and later revealed by legitimate users employing the secret key. Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós and analýein, to loosen or to untie ) is the science of recovering information from ciphers without knowledge of the key. In the practical use of cryptography, a problem that has been addressed in the last decades is the communication of the key between the sender A and the receiver B. Using cryptography has been compared with using a strongbox with a double-acting dead bolt on it 2. Since A and B are physically apart, in order to securely transmit sensitive information they must enclose the data in the strongbox, which is locked and unlocked using the key. Encryption would be analogous to locking the box and decryption to unlocking the box. Cryptography makes it possible to electronically exchange documents securely between parties who do not even know each other. It provides assurance that: 2 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Cryptography. [www.britannica.com]

16 Carolina Herrera 6 1) the parties are who they say they are, known also as authentication; 2) the messages exchanged between them have not been altered, known as data integrity; 3) the parties cannot deny having sent them, known also as nonrepudiation; and, 4) no persons other than the parties could read them, known as confidentiality. In a symmetric cryptosystem, encryption and decryption keys are either the same, or one can be easily computed with information of the other. In an asymmetric cryptosystem, also called a public key cryptosystem, there is also a pair of keys. The difference is that one of them the public key is known to everyone taking part in the communications network, and the other the private key is known only to the receiver of the message. It is virtually impossible to recover the private key even if one knows the corresponding public key. Moreover, only the public key can be used to encrypt messages on the communications network, and only the private key can be used to decrypt them. Another important element to understand in the field of public key cryptography is the concept of a digital signature. This is analogous to a hand-written signature because a sender can sign data, but any number of receivers can read the signature and verify its accuracy. Any digital signature operation involves the use of a private key and a public key, therefore a public key cryptosystem is required. The comprehensive system that provides public key encryption and digital signature services is known as public key infrastructure, also called PKI. After having understood the main concepts of public key cryptography, in the following chapter I will explain the process of selection of documentation followed in this project.

17 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File CHAPTER TWO DOCUMENTATION As stated by Wayne D. Cole 3, the first step in any terminological research project is to become familiar with the subject field. In order to do this, I consulted official documents (standards and recommendations), as well as terminological works. Encyclopaedias, technical manuals, proceedings of conferences and specialized periodicals were also consulted. At this stage I was able to select the documents, classify them and prepare an inventory of sources. The criteria followed for this classification were the following 4 : language of origin of the documents and reputation of the author; nature of the text (specialized or educational, official or informal, encyclopaedia, promotional material, etc.); organization of the information (presence of glossaries and indexes to concepts appearing in the document); and, linguistic quality of the text. 2.1 Hard Copy Documentation Documents containing information about cryptography range from technical and highly specialized books and textbooks to brochures and promotional material. Since this work is targeted to a generally educated public, I decided to avoid definitions and textual supports 3 W.D. Cole, Terminology: Principles and Methods, p S. Pavel, Handbook of Terminology, p. 35.

18 Carolina Herrera 8 extracted from highly specialized journals and books. Encyclopaedias, specialized dictionaries and introductory books were available at the Morisset Library (University of Ottawa). The main sources of information were recommendations and standards on information security. Although no standards exist for public key cryptography terminology specifically, valuable information was found in technical specification standards for cryptographic systems 5. The Library of the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) provided valuable support. Spanish material in printed form was hard to find locally. In Spanish speaking countries, it is not easy to find books on public key cryptography originally written in this language. Through the websites of two Spanish specialized magazines, namely Kriptópolis and Criptonomicón, I obtained access to books and specialized magazines in PDF format. I also consulted technical manuals published by the CERES project (Certificación Española - Spanish Certification) led by the Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre (National Mint) 6. I found no books, bilingual glossaries or termbanks solely devoted to cryptography terminology. This might be due, among other factors, to the ever-evolving technology on information security. This situation becomes more marked in Spanish terminology, where the lack of harmonization represented one of the main problems encountered while working on this terminological collection. This point will be discussed further in chapter On-line Documentation Undoubtedly, the WWW is a rich source of reliable documents written in both English and Spanish. With the growth of e-commerce, public key cryptography and digital signatures are 5 Recommendations issued by ITU (International Telecommunications Union) and ISO Standards. 6 The CERES project is concerned with establishing a Public Certification Authority that will ensure and authenticate the confidentiality of communications through open communication networks between citizens, companies or other institutions and public administrations. [www.cert.fnmt.es]

19 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 9 being used in more and more countries. International organizations are also concerned about information security, as a result, the production of legal documentation in this field has increased noticeably and such texts could not be excluded from the corpora. Web pages and search engines of international organizations such as the European Union (EU), the International Organization for Standardization 7 (ISO), and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) were helpful links to the main institutions working on these issues around the world. Since the most representative documents in the field of cryptography in Spanish come from Spain, the inventoried documentation is mainly from this country. Spain is the Spanish speaking country that has been most active in information security research and standardization of terminology use. However, it is worth mentioning that the geographical variation in the use of Spanish terms was not considered to be relevant and thus was not a factor in selecting the documentation. This problem will be addressed later in chapter 4. (See 4.3 Proliferation of New Lexical Entities). The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector develops Recommendations (standards) for the various fields of international telecommunications. TERMITE 8 is the terminology database of the ITU consisting of approximately 59,000 entries. It is maintained by the Terminology, References and Computer Aids to Translation Section (Conference Department, General Secretariat). TERMITE contains all the terms which appeared in ITU printed glossaries since 1980, as well as more recent entries relating to the different activities of the Union. TERMITE was the main English-Spanish database consulted for this work. 7 There is a seeming lack of correspondence between the official title in full, International Organization for Standardization, and the short form, ISO. The word "ISO" was derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. The link between "equal" and "standard" inspired the adoption of "ISO" as the official abbreviation for the organization s name. 8 [www.itu.in/search/wais/termite] Accessed: July 31, 2001.

20 Carolina Herrera Specialists At the School of Information Technology and Engineering of the University of Ottawa, I consulted Dr. Stan Matwin, Director of the Graduate Certificate in Electronic Commerce. His valuable help has been an important element from the first stages of this project. He helped to clarify how different viewpoints affect the conceptual system, a problem that will be addressed later in section 4.1 Multidimensionality.

21 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY The stages involved in this terminological collection were the following: determining the objectives and scope of the research; accumulating and evaluating documentation; understanding and delimiting the subject field; identifying and selecting the concepts; elaborating a conceptual system, and entering the terms and the related textual supports on records Understanding and Delimiting the Field of Public Key Cryptography My first contact with the field of cryptography was in the context of a practicum carried out in Peru, in the translation department of a company devoted to the development and distribution of information security tools and solutions. During this practicum, I received training from specialists on the concepts of this field. Delimiting the domain required a great deal of research. One of the main obstacles encountered at this stage was the multidimensionality of the domain. As defined by Lynne Bowker in her M.A. thesis, multidimensionality is a phenomenon that occurs when an object can be classified according to more than one characteristic at the same level of a classification 10. Multidimensionality complicates the delimitation of a domain, since the various subfields of the domain will vary depending on what characteristics are used. Only after a closer study of the compiled documentation, and with the assistance of specialists, was a specific sub-field for research delimited. 9 H. Picht, Terminology: an Introduction, p L. Bowker, Guidelines for Handling Multidimensionality, p. xvi.

22 Carolina Herrera 12 Within the field of cryptography, there are several sub-fields that may pose difficulties to terminologists and translators. For instance, the different types of attacks that can be made on a cryptographic system can be classified into several aspects: the technique applied, the attacked party, the results obtained by the attacker, etc. Due to time constraints, this sub-field will not be covered in this project; however, it may be considered for further research. The main factor that made us decide to focus on the sub-field of public key cryptography was its challenging content of terminological synonymy, together with the relevance that public key cryptography is acquiring in the international context. Unlike symmetric cryptography, which has been employed for hundreds of years, public key cryptography is a relatively recent development, having received serious consideration since about the mid-1970s. Due to the ongoing development of new applications that make public key cryptography possible, there is a continuous need for new terms to designate new concepts. 3.2 Term Identification and Selection Terms were first identified using the term-extraction tool TermBase 11, which produces a base list of terms with high frequency of use and relatively fixed contextual surroundings. These base lists were compared to some specialized glossaries in both languages in order to: 1) eliminate the noise (pseudo-terminological units, or terms belonging to other fields); and 2) insert missing concepts 12. The criteria for the selection of terms for the present collection were as follows: the relevance of terms to the domain being covered by this research, the terminological difficulty 11 Developed by MultiCorpora Translation Tools. 12 S. Pavel, Handbook of Terminology, p. 45.

23 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 13 posed by the term, the frequency with which the terms appeared, and the existence and quality of definitions and contextual definitions available for the terms. 3.3 Concept Diagram Picht and Draskau 13 highlight the importance of systems of concepts and their representation: the concept may not be viewed as an isolated unit in terminology. In multilingual terminology records, it is important to establish relationships between semantic features of the concepts in each language 14. Hence, the concept system helped to establish the conceptual match when drafting the definitions for the records. At this stage, collaboration with specialists was particularly important in order to achieve a consistent system of concepts. Since the term records are organized by concept to form concept clusters, I decided to include the concept diagrams in English and Spanish in order to facilitate the use of the term records in both languages. The concept diagrams are shown below. 13 H. Picht, Terminology: an Introduction, p S. Pavel. Handbook of Terminology, p. 18.

24 Carolina Herrera 14 TREE DIAGRAM OF CONCEPTS Public Key Cryptography process requirement encryption decryption authentication confidentiality nonrepudiation data integrity public key infrastructure entity authentication data origin authentication digital signature certificate certification authority certificate attribute certificate key generation element message key management plaintext ciphertext key distribution key storage public key algorithm public key cryptosystem key By user private key public key sender By function encryption key decryption key session key receiver participant eavesdropper certification authority trusted third party Legend Solid arrow Italics Subfield Generic-specific relation, arrow points to the generic concept Terms included in the collection

25 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 15 ÁRBOL DE CONCEPTOS Criptografía de Clave Pública proceso requisito cifrado descifrado autenticación confidenciaildad no repudio integridad de datos autenticación de entidad autenticación del origen de los datos firma digital certificado infraestructura de clave pública certificado de autoridad de certificación certificado de atributos generación de claves elemento participante criptosistema de clave pública emisor receptor fisgón tercera parte fiable mensaje algoritmo de clave pública clave autoridad de certificación Leyenda gestión de claves texto en claro texto cifrado Por usuario Por función Flecha sólida Itálicas clave privada clave pública clave de cifrado distribución de claves almacenamiento de claves clave de descifrado clave de sesión Subcampo Relación Genérico-específico, la flecha indica el concepto genérico Términos incluidos en la colección

26 Carolina Herrera 16 Deciding on the classifying criteria governing the ordering of the system was a difficult step. Again, multidimensionality was an obstacle that made it difficult to determine the type of relations between the various concepts. Certain concepts seemed to share the same genus and some characteristics differentiating them were identified. In other cases, some associative relations (action-tool, cause-effect, etc.) were easy to determine. The concept of public key cryptography is explained as a process using certain devices to achieve specific requirements; hence, I classified concepts according to the function they play in this process. (See 4.1 Multidimensionality). 3.4 Record Preparation Presentation of the Term Records When designing the term records, I decided to follow the model used by the Terminology and Standardization Directorate for their terminological data bank TERMIUM. As in TERMIUM, each term record covers only one concept. The description of the elements to be found on most of the term records is as follows: 1. Field: primary subject field 2. Sub-field: field of application 3. Language identifier 4. Main entry, sources and usage parameters (see list below). The main entry is the preferred term, expression or official title, which is entered first among the entries of the language module.

27 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File Abbreviation of the main entry, sources and usage parameters. 6. Secondary entry, sources and usage parameters. Secondary entry terms are terms, expressions or official titles that are different from the main entry but that designate the same concept or entity. When the secondary entries are all equally popular, as may be the case with some spelling and syntactic variants, they are listed in alphabetical order. In those cases where there are differences in usage (frequency, level of language, etc.), these are indicated using the parameters (labels). 7. Abbreviation of secondary entries, sources and usage parameters. 8. Textual support identifier, textual support and sources. The main types of textual support are the definition (identifier DEF), explanatory context (identifier CONT), usage example (identifier EX), supplementary terminological, and administrative or technical information (identifier OBS). 9. Sources: In the case of sources I decided to provide the user with information about the sources directly on each record, instead of in a separate document. For many of the terms, a ready-made definition did not exist. Therefore, the definitions on the records consist mainly of modified contexts, translations or original creations. In these cases the source indicated is the author of this terminological collection ( Carolina Herrera ). For some terms, where one or more sources were used in the definitions, the sources are indicated as *a, b, meaning that the definition comes from two sources represented by those codes. When a definition has been modified from the original source, this is indicated by *a (modified).

28 Carolina Herrera 18 Parameters: I will apply TERMIUM s classification of labels. Category English Label Code Spanish Label Code Acceptability Avoid AVOID Evitar EVITAR rating Correct CORRECT Correcto CORRECTO Proposed PROPOSED Propuesto PROPUESTO Reference See record SEE RECORD Ver ficha VER FICHA Gender Femenino Masculino FEM MASC Frequency Less common LESS COMMON Menos frecuente MENOS FRECUENTE Official status 15 Standardized STANDARDIZED Normalizado NORMALIZADO Officially approved OFFICIALLY APPROVED Uniformizado UNIFORMIZADO 15 In the present collection of terms, standardized terms were extracted from ISO standards and ITU Recommendations. The labels of STANDARDIZED and NORMALIZADO were assigned in these cases. When a term was found in documents such as government white papers, I labelled it as OFFICIALLY APPROVED or UNIFORMIZADO, meaning that it is included in terminology works produced by a working group or committee, though not for standardization purposes. In order to be consistent with usage in the terminological data bank TERMIUM, I used the Spanish label UNIFORMIZADO. However, I do not completely agree with it and I consider that the label ADOPTADO would be more appropriate.

29 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 19 PART II

30 Carolina Herrera CHAPTER FOUR PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED As with any work in terminology, problems arose at various stages of the project. The main problems are outlined below in the order in which they were encountered: Multidimensionality Definition Construction Proliferation of New Lexical Entities Use of variants Proposal of the term aceptación obligatoria as the equivalent of nonrepudiation 4.1 Multidimensionality In her M.A. thesis, Lynne Bowker 16 defines multidimensionality as the phenomenon that occurs when an object can be classified according to more than one characteristic at the same level of a classification. She gives the example of a VEHICLE that can be classified into LAND VEHICLE, AIR VEHICLE, and WATER VEHICLE (according to the characteristic place of transportation), or into MOTORIZED VEHICLE and NON-MOTORIZED VEHICLE (according to the characteristic type of propulsion). According to Bowker, there are several causes of multidimensionality: viewpoint, opinion, scientific theory, purpose, changing organization of the reality and of the subject field describing it, and language and culture. The cause of multidimensionality in this study is viewpoint. 16 L. Bowker, Guidelines for Handling Multidimensionality, p. xvi.

31 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 21 As I explained in chapter 3, establishing the concept diagram was a challenge since multidimensionality made it difficult to determine how the domain should be organized. Public key cryptography can be classified according to: 1) hardware and software elements, as well as cryptographic and interface technologies (from a technological viewpoint); 2) entities and institutions whose function is to operate within an infrastructure (from a business viewpoint); 3) requirements that must be fulfilled in order to balance risks and liabilities among entities (from a legal viewpoint) 17. Many viewpoints were considered before deciding on the one underlying the concept diagram presented here. Since this term file is addressed to non-specialist readers, I decided to explain the concept of public key cryptography from a user s viewpoint, as a process with participants (e.g. sender, Certification Authority, etc.) using certain devices (e.g. digital signature, certificate, etc.) to achieve specific requirements. 4.2 Definition Construction Once I had completed the research phase, I evaluated the different types of definitions retrieved. This stage was also not without its problems. One of the main difficulties in selecting the English and Spanish definitions for the records was the question of how to delimit the scope of definitions, i.e. how technical the language used in the definition should be. The documentation contained different types of definitions, as we can see in the following examples: encryption: An encryption scheme consists of the sets of encryption and decryption transformations {E e : e K} and {D d : d K}, respectively. The encryption method is said to be a public-key encryption scheme if for each associated encryption/decryption pair (e,d), one key e (the public key) is made publicly available, while the other d (the private key) is kept secret Usertrust Network, What is PKI. [http://www.usertrust.com/pki/perspective_legal.asp] Accessed: July14, A. Menezes et. al, Handbook of Applied Cryptography, p. 25.

32 Carolina Herrera 22 encryption: Process of transformation of data by a cryptographic algorithm to produce ciphertext, in order to hide the information content of the data 19. The first definition for encryption was difficult to understand since it included formulas and variables, a feature that is characteristic of definitions in this field. The second definition was less technical, and it included information that was more useful from a terminologist s viewpoint. Therefore, the question of how much and what kind of information to include had to be solved. Definitions including formulas and diagrams were not useful since the target readers of this work are non-specialists. The decision-making process was based on the type of definitions found in the English ISO standards and ITU Recommendations consulted. Most of the concepts in these documents are defined in such a way as to provide only the essential characteristics to single out the intension and to delineate the extension by reference to other terms in the field. 4.3 Proliferation of New Lexical Entities When working on the term encryption, I found that many variants of this term and its Spanish equivalent were currently in use. The most commonly found were encipherment, enciphering, ciphering, and data encryption. As for the Spanish equivalents for encryption, the terms being used are cifrado, encriptación, encripción, and criptación. In the term records, I decided to use textual supports observations in order to prevent confusion and to guide the user in the choice of terms. One difficulty I had in doing so was the discussion of whether the Spanish term encriptación was an anglicized word and if it should be labeled as such. 19 ISO :1989.

33 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 23 According to Sager 20, neologisms in science and technology result from the need to name new concepts. He makes a distinction between terminology creation which accompanies scientific and technological innovation in any one linguistic community, and that which accompanies the transfer of knowledge from one linguistic community to another. Therefore, based on this explanation of terminology creation, I made the following brief analysis. Encipher vs. Encrypt: The modern English term cryptography can be traced back to the seventeenth century new Latin word cryptographia to designate the study of the principles and techniques by which information can be concealed in ciphers. Since cryptography is the art of concealing data in ciphers, then the action of converting (a message) into cipher was given the name encipher. It was not until after World War II that cryptography literature began to appear in the mainstream as this science started to gain more importance in non-military applications. Electronics made possible the practical realization of far more complex cryptographic functions than had previously been feasible. Hence, as is common in the technical and scientific languages, a series of new concepts and terms became part of the field. Simultaneously, some other concepts changed in both form and meaning because of changes in principles, methods of application, viewpoints, etc. An example is the term encrypt, which is formed by the prefix en-, meaning to put into or onto ; and the root crypt (from the Greek kryptos) meaning hidden. This term started to be increasingly used and it replaced the old term encipher, for no apparent reason other than to keep a closer link to the word cryptography, the science that studies the processes of encryption 20 J. Sager, Terminology Processing, p. 79.

34 Carolina Herrera 24 and decryption of data. 21 The same phenomenon occurred with the term decrypt, which replaced decipher. Cifrar vs. Encriptar: New scientific and technical terms created in one linguistic community spread quickly to the international scientific community by means of conferences, articles in journals, and the WWW. Sager identifies several methods of secondary interlingual term formation e.g. direct borrowing, loan translation, paraphrase, parallel formation, adaptation, and complete new creation which may be used simultaneously or sequentially 22. The main problem encountered in the Spanish terminology was the existence of different forms and degrees of adaptation of Spanish terms. Cryptography is a science that has been developed mainly in English-speaking countries. As it became an important element for international communication, scientists from other linguistic communities were affected by an onslaught of English terms that influenced the creation of Spanish terminology. Cryptography terminology in Spanish has a high number of anglicized terms such as encriptar (to encrypt), desencriptar (to decrypt), no repudio (nonrepudiation), and tercera parte confiable (trusted third party). Nowadays, Spanish-speaking countries are trying to re-perform the term formation process and some actions are being carried out not only by academies of the language but also by scientists and specialists, as we can see in the following quotations: En muchos libros sobre Criptografía aparecen términos como encriptar y desencriptar, adoptados con toda probabilidad del verbo anglosajón encrypt. El lector podrá comprobar que este tipo de expresiones ha sido evitado en el presente texto, debido a la existencia de palabras perfectamente válidas que pertenecen al idioma castellano, como son cifrar y descifrar, y codificar y decodificar (o descodificar). La opinión del autor es que sólo 21 Communications Security Establishment. Government of Canada PKI White Paper. [http://www.csecst.gc.ca/cse/english/gov.html] Accessed: July 14, J. Sager, Terminology Processing, p. 79.

35 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 25 deben emplearse términos foráneos cuando nuestro riquísimo idioma carezca de expresiones adecuadas para expresar las ideas en cuestión 23. Si en el momento en que nace el nuevo concepto o cuando éste se introduce en nuestra comunidad científica acompañado de la denominación original (habitualmente, por qué no decirlo, inglesa) se crea una alternativa autóctona, que se asocie ya desde un principio al concepto, ésta podrá luchar de igual a igual con el préstamo, que quizás ya no llegará a ser tal. De esta manera se hace posible que la fuente del neologismo sea una institución especializada que, como hemos dicho, goza de más confianza entre los técnicos que los organismos lingüísticos de normalización 24. The debate is about the extent to which English should be present in Spanish terminology, and most of the time it provides an opportunity for several alternative and competing terms to be used simultaneously. Take the Spanish synonyms cifrar (to encipher) and encriptar (to encrypt). The argument about these terms in Spanish is that there is no need to use English-based terms such as encriptar (and its antonym desencriptar) when there are two perfectly accepted Spanish terms (cifrar/descifrar) to designate those concepts. This is a phenomenon in which terms developed opposite directions in two languages. In English the term encipher evolved into the term encrypt, a neologism that was accepted possibly because it better reflects the characteristics of the concept it designates. In Spanish, on the other hand, the term developed with the importing of the term encriptar, which is increasingly being replaced by the term cifrar. The arbitrary creation of variants is a serious obstacle to communication as it opens the doors to several alternative or competing terms, and it may be several years before Spanish terminology stabilizes. To judge from an analysis of the frequency of occurrence of the Spanish term encriptar (and its derived terms), we can theorize that in some years it may become obsolete and will consequently disappear. 23 M. Lucena, Criptografía y Seguridad en Computadores, p J. Bover, Proceedings of the Conference on Co-operation in the field of terminology. [http://www.eaft-aet.net] Accessed: August 3, 2001.

36 Carolina Herrera Use of Variants In their study of terminological variants, Daille et al. 25 state that even though terms are supposed to be labels for precise concepts within a sublanguage, they are prone to variation. They add that the conception of terms as fixed sequences is obviously idealised. As I explained in the introduction, there are different types of variants, e.g. true synonyms, pseudo-synonyms, syntactic variants, etc., since terms are subject to different kinds of changes. After a brief analysis of terms in different text types, I reached the conclusion that the variation of terms is motivated by the text type and communicative situation in which they are used. Sager 26 affirms that at the first stage of terminology creation, the scientific community that deals with the creation of new concepts is relatively small and educationally homogeneous. Problems occur when the scientific community addresses other groups. This communicative situation requires an intermediate language between scientific and general. In Sager s view, relatively little serious research exists into these complex processes. The main reason is that subject specialists who are capable of distinguishing between variants are not usually interested in, or linguistically trained to undertake, this work; linguists, on the other hand, rarely have the detailed subject knowledge to produce reliable evidence for determining the regularities underlying these processes of term variation. The questions surrounding this topic are some of the reasons cryptography terminology is being researched and documented here. Nevertheless, due to time constraints, the present terminology work will not make a deep analysis of the use of variants and other alternative forms in different communicative situations. This subject may be considered for further research. 25 B. Daille, Empirical Observation of Term Variations and Principles for their Description, Terminology Journal 3 (2), p J. Sager, Terminology Processing, p. 81.

37 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 27 Since the initial list of terms revealing the existence and use of variants was too large for the practical constraints of the term file, the most representative examples had to be chosen so as to give an overview of the situation Use of True Synonyms As defined in the Introduction, a true synonym designates the same concept as another term in the same language. Some examples of true synonyms in English are the pairs:! encryption / encipherment! decryption / decipherment! public key cryptography / asymmetric cryptography! key storage / key backup Since all these terms are currently circulating in cryptography documents, I have used labels to justify the preference for a specific term (or terms). These labels were assigned according to the official status of the term, the acceptability rating, and the frequency of occurrence. (See Presentation of the Term Records) Use of Pseudo-Synonyms As we have seen, pseudo-synonymy occurs when a given concept is incorrectly used as a result of confusion between a generic and a specific, the whole and a part, the cause and the effect, etc. (See Introduction, Fundamental Concepts). The following are examples of terms used as contextual variants:

38 Carolina Herrera 28! public key cryptography / public key encryption: The terminological data bank TERMIUM labels these entry terms as CORRECT, which means that they can be used as true synonyms. True synonyms are variants which have the exact same meaning and can be used in exactly the same context. The terms public key cryptography and public key encryption are, however, not absolute synonyms but pseudo-synonyms, as I explain in the term record: OBS The notion of cryptography includes a set of principles, means and methods for the transformation of data. Since encryption is a cryptographic method, the terms public key encryption, asymmetric encryption and their syntactic variants are not true synonyms of public key cryptography 27. Again in these cases the appropriate labels have been used in the term record to guide the user in the choice of the preferred term and the possible variants. 27 ISO standard :1989.

39 Public Key Cryptography: A Commented Terminology File 29! private key / secret key: The same problem arose with these terms as TERMIUM presents them as synonyms: This is another case of pseudo-synonymy and it may be the result of an incorrectly used designation. Again, an observation was included in the term record to clarify the use of these terms: OBS In symmetric algorithms, there is only one key known as the secret key, which is used for encryption and decryption purposes. In public key algorithms there are two keys: the decryption (private) key and the encryption (public) key 28. The key that is not publicly revealed is generally referred to as a private key, rather than a secret key. This avoids confusion with the secret key of a symmetric cryptographic algorithm and derives from the idea that two people may share a secret, but a single person keeps something private Government of Canada: Community Access Program. Community Resources. [http://cap.ic.gc.ca/english/8883.shtml] Accessed: July 30, L. Adams, Understanding Public-Key Infrastructure, p. 56.

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