Social Work Around the World V: Building the Global Agenda for Social Work and Social Development. Nigel Hall (ed.)

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1 Social Work Around the World V: Building the Global Agenda for Social Work and Social Development Nigel Hall (ed.) 1

2 2

3 INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS International Federation of Social Workers, 2012 Published by IFSW All rights reserved. Except for the quotation of short passages for the purpose of criticism or review, or use of individual chapters for academic purposes, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publishers. ISBN Designed and produced by: Nexus Total Print Solutions Limited 3

4 Acknowledgements Foreword Editorial Chapters Chapter 1...Page 15 Ebony and Ivory - Sharing Colour and Cultures... as Trusted Friends and as National Assessors for the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers Emma Webber-Dreadon and Merrill Simmons Hansen Chapter 2...Page 27 Global Agenda on Social Work and Social Development: Voices from South Asian Social Work Bala Raju Nikku Chapter 3...Page 41 Workplace Stress in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster (New Zealand) Kate van Heugten Chapter 4...Page 53 Crossing Borders: Migrant Social Workers as Global Professionals (New Zealand) Christa Fouché & Liz Beddoe Chapter 5...Page 65 The illusion of Universalism: Persistent Inequality in Uganda s Education Sector Amidst a Universal Primary Education Policy Janestic M. Twikirize Chapter 6...Page 75 The Impact of Community Soccer on Community Development in Nigeria Sunday Ofili Ibobor Chapter 7...Page 89 Reading the Past, Understanding the Present and Predicting the Future: the Cypriot Social Work Case Stefanos Spaneas Chapter 8...Page 103 Developing Child Protection Groups in Remote Island Communities of the Maldives Ahmed Hussain, Mohamed Agleem, Mariya Ali and Michael O Dempsey 4

5 Chapter 9...Page 115 Human Rights and Social Work in Post-Communist Lithuania Dalija Snieškienė Chapter 10...Page 125 Violence Against the Elderly. Challenges for Social Workers (Portugal) Maria Irene Lopes Bogalho de Carvalho Chapter 11...Page 135 Participatory Research with the Women of Thabong, Mazenod, Lesotho Karen Dullea Chapter 12...Page 153 An Overview of the Public Policy to Combat Violence Against Children and Adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil Josiane Moraes Chapter 13...Page 165 Immigration and Labor: An Expression of the Social Question in Flexible Capitalism (Brazil/Portugal) (in Portuguese) Maria Augusta Tavares Chapter 14...Page 175 Alliance for the Defence of the Social Services: Spanish Network in Defence of Social Rights and a Public System of Social Services (in Spanish) Ana Isabel Lima Fernández Chapter 15...Page 187 Building Social Equity (in Spanish) (Argentina) Laura Acotto & Viviana Guardia Chapter 16...Page 203 Democracy and Social Inequality in Latin America (in Spanish) (Argentina) Silvana Martínez & Juan Agüero Chapter 17...Page 213 Sustainable Geographical Development in Uruquay (in Spanish) Claudia Kuzma Author Profiles...Page 225 5

6 Acknowledgements The Editor wishes to thank the contributors to this book for their insights, research and experiences which will contribute to our understanding of the Global Agenda. We also wish to thank the following social work practitioners and academics for having agreed to review chapters submitted for this book: Geeta Balakrishnan, Principal, College of Social Work, Nirmala Niketan, Mumbai, India Shahana Rasool Bassadien, Lecturer, Department of Social Work University of Johannesburg, South Africa Jean Burke, Lecturer & Assistant Head of School, School of Social Work, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Australian Catholic University Maria de Carvalho, University teacher and researcher, Portugal Dr. Lambert Engelbrecht, Department of Social Work, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa Dr. Johnnie Hamilton-Mason, Professor, Simmons College School of Social Work, Boston, USA Dr. Kate van Heugten, Associate Professor, Department of Human Services and Social Work, University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Dr. Saraswati Raju Iyer, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Sociology & Social Work, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. India Janine Joyce, ANZASW Governance Board member, New Zealand Makalo Marite, Lesotho Social Workers Association, Lesotho Zohreen Murad, Psychotherapist, Hypnotherapist, Certified Hypnobirthing Educator, Pakistan Nikku Bala Raju, Head, Department of Social Work, Kadambari Memorial College, Purbanchal University, Kathmandu, Nepal Sâmya Rodrigues Ramos, President of CFESS, Brazil Dr. Tien Ung, Assistant Professor, Simmons College School of Social Work, Boston, USA Acknowledgement and thanks also to Dr. Rory Truell, IFSW Secretary- General and René Schegg, IFSW Communications and Policy Officer, for their assistance in bringing this book to publication. 6

7 Foreword - Gary Bailey, MSW, ACSW President IFSW The time is always right to do what is right. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The social work profession which has existed for over a century and has enriched many lives requires skills which are broad and applicable in a variety of settings and which make the profession unique and vitally important. Globally social workers training, experience, and professional ethics prepare them to provide a diverse range of services within communities and across the life span. Social Work Around the World V: Building the Global Agenda for Social Work and Social Development coincides with the development of the Global Agenda for Social Work and Social Development (the Global Agenda) and the Stockholm Conference The intent of the Global Agenda is to recognize the shared mission and values of the social work profession and that of social development. These core values, which have been embraced by social workers, social work educators and policy practitioners and those individuals who develop social policy are integral to the foundation of social work s unique purpose and perspective. It is our belief that the development of a Global Agenda will provide us with opportunities to reflect upon our past experiences and successes, and to articulate a new and crucial vision for engagement which we can use to mobilize our members and partners, both now and into the future. 7

8 During the 2010 Hong Kong Global Conference the three global social work organizations (IASSW, ICSW and IFSW) collectively agreed that the fields of social work, social work education and social development, were often marginalized in our own countries and in many relevant international organizations. There also continues to be an incentive for qualified and skilled people to go into and continue in the fields of social work, social work education and social policy development, while at the same time, there are challenges of funding, which are largely due to the current global financial situation and the worldwide response which has endorsed greater austerity on the part of those most vulnerable and little to no responsibility on part of those responsible for this worldwide economic collapse. The decision to organize a common Congress with our sister organizations was a political decision to bring together social work practitioners, social work educators and social development practitioners who wanted to work together to articulate a set of common goals. The challenges which we collectively face are many and call for a united voice and more solidarity. Current global situations are calling for more social work unity and engagement. Beyond the shared understanding of the necessity to be organized and of being relevant in the international arena, we have to develop more clear and effective ways of promoting strategies and actions which will influence the setting of an international agenda. There are five overarching themes I would like to draw our attention to, and they are: 1. The social work profession is necessary for creating healthy families and communities. 2. Globally social workers are trained professionals with unique education and experience. 3. Social workers provide a wide range of services across the human life span and in a wide variety of settings. 4. The profession is facing serious threats, which affect its ability to fulfil its societal purpose. 5. Governments have a responsibility to support the social work profession. The Hong Kong Global Agenda was envisioned as the beginning of a larger movement that we would lead as international organizations. Since the Hong Kong conference in June 2010, numerous initiatives have taken place across the globe. These initiatives are part of the first consultation process following the development of the draft document in Hong Kong. The initiatives encouraged the leadership of the three organizations to reaffirm their commitment to the process by dedicating more resources to the development of the Global Agenda. All over the world, social work practitioners, educators and policy and development workers organized conferences, discussion groups/forums; 8

9 And - The three organizations, worked collaboratively in a process that would enhance the work which began during the Hong Kong Conference, and later corresponding strategies were identified and agreed to by the three partner organizations (IFSW, IASSW and ICSW) in their Global Agenda statement as detailed below. The Global Agenda statement The consultation process identified four main themes which were developed and elaborated upon over the course of the next year culminating in the Global Agenda. It was also intended that the Global Agenda would provide continuity for the program for the Stockholm global conference which again is being hosted by the three organizations in Stockholm in July These themes are: 1. Social and economic inequalities within countries and between regions The recent and continuing economic crises and the modalities chosen by world leaders to deal with them (e.g. using resources to support the financial systems while cutting resources for social support and social development) have led to: Growing inequalities and their implications The worsening marginalization of populations and of the working poor Increased vulnerability of poor people in countries which do not have an adequate social protection floor Community disintegration. 2. Dignity and worth of the person Human rights issues in relation to social, economic, cultural and political situations Respect for diversity and different belief systems, especially indigenous and first people s voices Political instabilities, violence, dominations, and the erosion of peace building processes Terrorism and modes of response by states and the modalities of handling global conflicts Migration, refugees, trafficking, immigrants, immigration and ways of handling these issues The role for social work practice, education and social development. 9

10 3. Environmental Sustainability Disasters of natural and human origin, management and prevention Involvement of local communities in developing responses Implications for sustainable social development Protecting the physical environment Proactive engagement with social, human and ecological development. 4. Importance of human relationships Family and relationship issues and challenges across the lifespan emerge as a major concern in relation to the transformation of the world. For example the needs of: Children and families People with disabilities People needing health and mental health services People who are ageing People with drugs and substance abuse problems People suffering from violence within domestic and intimate relationships. This book brings together contributions that I believe will advance our understanding of these themes. Its primary aim is to summarize the current state of knowledge about the different themes and areas addressed by the Agenda and to further examine the myriad of possibilities inherent in these themes. Nobel Peace Prize laureate and human rights activist, the late Dr. Martin Luther King Junior said the time is right to always do what is right ; authors have been invited to contribute articles for this publication, which it is hoped will further energize the work of the international social work community as we continue to develop ways to make the commitments of the Global Agenda a reality. In Solidarity - Gary Bailey 10

11 Editorial Publication of this book - the fifth in the series Social Work Around the World - coincides with an ongoing international strategy to develop a Global Agenda in social work and social development. Like the previous issues of Social Work Around the World, the focus of this book is on social work practice or education in different countries and cultures - and for this publication related specifically to the Global Agenda process. At the Global Conference in Hong Kong in 2010, key themes (and corresponding strategies) were identified and agreed by the three partner organizations - the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and the International Council on Social Welfare (ICSW) - in their Global Agenda statement. These comprised four key themes that broadly focused on: (1) social and economic inequalities within countries and between regions; (2) dignity and worth of the person; (3) environmental sustainability; and (4) the importance of human relationships. This book has as its aim to collate selected scholarly and academic contributions that will advance our understanding of these themes. Contributors were invited to work on articles for this publication, with the hope that it would help the international social work community clarify this strategy and provide stimulus for building the Global Agenda. An international team of reviewers scrutinised this material and offered their considered opinions which led to review and resubmission in the usual academic way. This Agenda - and the chapters representing this in this book - recognise that the mission of the social work profession and social development are rooted in a set of core values. These core values, embraced by social workers, social work educators and policy practitioners and developers, are the foundation of social work s unique purpose and perspective. The development of a Global Agenda gives us the opportunity to take stock of our past experiences and to articulate a new and crucial vision for engagement that can mobilize our members and partners - and beyond. This collection of chapters features a surprising variety of viewpoints and perspectives on the Global Agenda. While the majority are published in English, some chapters are in Spanish and Portuguese, reflecting both the variety of member associations of IFSW and their particular language and cultural nuances. In Chapter 1 Simmons-Hansen and Webber-Dreadon consider the importance of human relationships and how their own differing ethnic and cultural backgrounds have shaped their perceptions. Working as national competency assessors for the New Zealand/Aoteoroa practice standards they consider the relevance of values, culture, ethnicity and use of self in social work identity. In Chapter 2 Bala Raju Nikku considers the development of professional social work and social development in South 11

12 Asia and how the voices of the South can be meaningfully included in the Global Agenda discussion. He concludes that social work and development professionals do have potential to assume leadership roles and responsibilities in social development and should be able to contribute positively to the task of tackling poverty, injustices and inequities in their respective countries. In Chapter 3 Kate van Heugten considers the workplace stressors that occurred in the city of Christchurch following the two major earthquakes that occurred there recently. Social workers are well placed and have the right holistic perspective needed to engage in post-trauma work following a natural disaster even of this magnitude, but this piece of research demonstrates areas for improvement, further up-skilling and better understanding of the demanding nature of this kind of work on the helping professionals. Also writing from New Zealand, Fouché and Beddoe in Chapter 4 continue this workplace theme with a research study into migrant professionals who have moved to that country and consider the implications for professional mobility in an increasingly globalised world. Although migrants may need to develop familiarity and competence with the local population, they bring their own strengths and assets to the new situation. Respect for diversity demands that migrant social workers be provided with opportunities for induction and an appreciation of the local, regional and professional cultures. Twikirize in Chapter 5 considers the perpetuation of social and economic inequalities within countries and regions through a consideration of the education system in Uganda and the extension of free universal primary education to all children in the country. While the intentions of such a policy are laudable, in practice this equality of opportunity does not exist and particular measures need to be taken by social workers and others to bring about more accessible provision and tackle poverty, exclusion and vulnerability. Ibobor in Chapter 6 considers the role of community soccer in developing community cohesion in a Nigerian community practice context. Following on from a research study he suggests that community soccer promotes opportunities for building effective relationships, integration and democratic problem solving capacity among youth. Activities such as this have profound implications for building a sense of community and social solidarity which outweigh the actual activities themselves. Spaneas in Chapter 7 considers the concept of indigenization of social work and relates this to the country-specific situation of Cyprus. He notes the difficulties encountered in developing localised social work with models of social work developed in and imported from Western countries. However models of practice supporting explicit and tacit knowledge are essential if due respect, dignity and critical understanding is to be given to local people and the strengthening of Cypriot social work theory and practice is vital. Chapter 8 by Hussain, Agleem, Ali and O Dempsey continues the similar 12

13 theme of the importance of human relationships in a localised context in their study of Maldivian Child Protection Groups, where the local social, political, economic and religious aspects of the Maldives culture is respected by social workers guided by a consultant in a culturally appropriate manner. This is a very significant development from the viewpoint of the Global Agenda. Snieškienė in Chapter 9 considers how the situation in Lithuania has changed since the days of Soviet rule and how the struggle to entrench human rights is an ongoing reality. Much is still the same and to some extent there is a continuation of oppressive culture in the post-communist society and a lack of space for the values of human rights and social justice. Snieškienė explains some of the difficulties and potential of teaching a course on human rights in this situation and suggests positive ways forward. Lack of human rights in relation to the elderly from the perspective of Portugal is a topic covered by Carvalho in Chapter 10. She considers the complexity of elder violence in the country and undertakes a small scale qualitative study that examines the phenomenon. She suggests that social workers need to develop training to identify risk indicators, with prevention measures and other supportive initiatives promoted. Dullea in Chapter 11 undertakes some very interesting participatory research with market women in Lesotho. She reflects on her own experience in working with these women which provides an interesting insight into how the expectations of outsiders may not match those of the participants themselves who may have completely different objectives. Dealing with local people on their own terms and helping build on their own self-chosen goals is a highly recommended strategy in any development initiative. In Chapter 12 Moraes examines public policy initiatives in São Paulo, Brazil, to tackle sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. Through a series of focus groups she collates opinions regarding how seriously the authorities are dealing with this issue, and generally finds much improvement required. Tavares in Chapter 13 examines the situation faced by immigrants in their country of destination, where they are easily subject to exploitation. She calls for more concern from the social work profession for people in this situation and developing academic research into the plight of immigrants. Fernández in Chapter 14 considers key ideas for the strengthening of social services in Spain through an initiative of the General Council of Social Workers of Spain - the Alliance for the Defence of the Public System of Social Services, a network of representatives from different institutions and various organisations - to improve social service response to social need. Chapter 15 by Acotto considers social inequalities in Latin America and in particular how policies in the province of Mendoza, Argentina related to work and education have attempted to reverse this situation. She notes their contribution towards the MDGs goal of eradication of extreme poverty 13

14 and hunger, and reports on the obstacles and possibilities of extending the model to the region as a whole. Martínez and Agüero in Chapter 16 reflect on the democratic experiences of Latin American countries which have been quite varied and complex - and which have been the subjects of domination and exploitation. Democracy in a sense is both fictional and a paradox as in reality urgent structural transformation is required to reverse poverty and marginalisation. Finally in Chapter 17 Kuzma examines sustainable geographical development as a social policy strategy in Uruguay, which hopefully should result in collaborative developments based on the protection and promotion of human rights in the country. It is my hope that you find these chapters both interesting and stimulating and that you feel as I do that they contribute substantially to the international debate on the Global Agenda. Nigel Hall, Editor & IFSW Rep. to Sage Publications June

15 Chapter 1 Ebony and Ivory - Sharing Colour and Cultures... as Trusted Friends and as National Assessors for the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers Merrill Simmons-Hansen & Emma Webber-Dreadon National Competency Assessors of the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers Emma Merrill Global Agenda theme 4: The importance of human relationships Many Voices, Many Communities, Social Justice for All E ngaiwi, e nga reo, E ngakaranga/tangamaha, o ngahau e wha, Tenakoutou, tenakoutou, tenakotoukatoa. 15

16 Summary This paper is created out of an enduring relationship between two women of different cultures, of different backgrounds and of different thinking that has been developed in discussion over a period of eight years. We have struggled and explored ways in which we may work within the dignity and worth of people and to be part of an environment that attends to how human rights are formed and informed within respectful human relationships - relating to the Global Agenda 4 The Importance of Human Relationships (IFSW; IASSW; ICSW, 2010). Through this article we would like to share our work as two National Competency Assessors of the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers (ANZASW), one who is a descendant of tribal parents RongomaiWahine and NgatiKahungunukiWairoa origins and one of Celtic and Pakeha origins. Generations of Stories... This article was formed by two women of indigenous cultures in moments of a true relationship that allowed both of us a place to stand which further generated conversations and research of indigenous women by indigenous women. By incorporating generations of stories from each of our tribal parents, we are able to name and claim our human rights and the rights of others so as to move beyond the limitations of conventional legal frameworks for social work and social work practice. Our work is a process that we believe enables the social work profession here in Aotearoa New Zealand to illustrate best practice and to generate a broader understanding of human rights, and culturally appropriate practice that is centred on compassionate social work and community development that includes a broader human and social service. The argument extends beyond the idea of human rights and the realm of theoretical analysis or spiritual grounding. Rather, it moves into an arena of our everyday conversations, exploring our professional practice and social action by the use of critical theory and an eclectic approach to social work. The contexts of current debates about the reality of globalisation and the need to increase global relationships and global cultures can provide an explanation that this is such a small world - and this brings us back to incorporate a critical, indigenous, and internationalist viewpoint of social work practice, because it adds a vital new perspective to the richness of identity informed by women s stories, such as ours. We begin locating ourselves in our indigenous identity that informs the basis by which we locate ourselves and engage in our own place and space. Here we both begin to write individually and collectively that shows in our reflections similar mirrored patterns that were informed by our cultural selves and the multiple relationships we have. 16

17 Emma: HuianuiteMaunga WairoaHopupuHonenganengaMatangiraute Awa RongomaiWahine me NgatiKahungunukiWairoa, ngaiwi, NgatiKahu, NgatiApatari, Te Uri o Te-O-TanekiWairoangaHapu, Takitimu, tewaka KihituteMarae TeRauhinateWharenui Oku MatuaTane - RewiTimanaKamara - Webber Oku MatuaWhaea, TePaeaAhuriri O Keefe Ko Emma Webber-Dreadonahau. I have begun with a greeting to you, and am also allowing you to know who I am, where I come from, who I belong to and who belongs to me. This positions me within my own tribal area but it does not alleviate my responsibility to other tribal peoples and other cultures of this land and beyond, but this greeting is an approach that assists me to reclaim my unique cultural heartbeat and rhythm of life. Colonisation, assimilation and urbanisation have created an abyss of colonial dominance of the tribal peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand, where we are recognised as the indigenous peoples of this land. Proportioned to this is life itself and the need to live together, not as one people, but as partners acknowledging differences and respecting the Treaty of Waitangi, which was signed by the Colonials and Maori, over one hundred and seventy years ago. Maori see this as a living document and contract. This document is a gift of engagement where we recognise the obligations and responsibilities we all have, to each other and to all people that reside on this beautiful land. As Maori, we have been reclaiming our own unique cultural heartbeat, and rhythm, inclusively of the right to be seen, heard, and acknowledged as (indigenous) Maori of this land, and to accept the responsibilities that are generated within those rights, as responsible social workers and social work assessors. Merrill: Do mocaidre a tug, foscadagussolas I acknowledge the land and the ancestors of the land, as a framework to see the world, because words open up worlds. Merrill Simmons-Hansen 2009 This acknowledgement is assembled on and protected by the infinity within a Celtic Knot. I know who I am and where I come from. 17

18 We identify no single discipline that can provide the basis for identity or indeed, social work practice. I, Merrill, have begun in the Gaelic acknowledging of my ancestry and the manner where I am engaged in principles that have shaped my life, knowing who I am. These engagements link me to land and ancestors, and to Emma, in ways similar and distinct, but we dance in unison. I am of an indigenous culture. My ancestors suffered in being lost to themselves, their culture, their land and their patterns of moving within and amongst traditional relationships in different lands. De Certeau (1984) well describes the notion of belonging, while steeped in ancestry. It enables those everyday activities of appropriation over time, belonging and attachment so as to establish and build on through memory, knowledge and experiences of everyday activities. Some of my forebears became repositioned to these, for example the freedom to utilise their language, as words form doorways into their world, where language remains as beacons to the indigenous tradition s distinct capacity to think and respect relationships. Here in Aotearoa New Zealand, my responsibility as a Gaelic woman, engaged as a social work assessor remains responsive in a relationship with the people of this land under TeTiriti O Waitangi, and by knowing the history of Maori, my obligations and responsibilities are to my relationship to and with the Maori. This acknowledgment is informed by my knowledge of racism that continues to occur here in Aotearoa New Zealand. For me, TeTiriti o Waitangi and its Articles offers me a place to stand within the integrity of my Gaelic ancestry, where my relationship with land and ancestry is fundamental to my life; knowing that the way we use words, shapes the way we think and our capacity for respect. (Gaelic refers also to Celtic tribal peoples along the Irish west coast and Scotland). Merrill & Emma To name who we are, who we belong to and who belongs to us has assisted us to share words that we have been able to weave into our own individual meanings and thoughts. This can be likened to us climbing an ancestral mountain, we both want to reach the top, but we just take different pathways. Social Work and Competency Assessments As social workers and National Competency Assessors, our practice is held within a multiple of accountabilities, not only to the applicant for an assessment, but also to their family or whanau (family), hapu (sub-tribe) and iwi (tribe), and a further relationship with mother earth (Papatuanuku) and TeAo Maori (the people). It is all of these things that motivate our sense of justice to each other and TeTiriti o Waitangi and the ANZASW Code of Ethics (2008). Such is our relationship; it informs our integrity, our tinorangatiratanga (absolute integrity) and self-determination to live and work together within a principled relationship of responsibility and reciprocity. 18

19 This then brings about another interesting dimension, that we believe relates to the Global Agenda Themes, given that we both support the importance of social justice and human relationships, but it comes with a question. Are our professional competencies more than a mechanical process? Today we invite ethical reflections of our practice around social work competency, while honouring the relatedness of the applicant, and their family or whanau (two or more generations, possibly sharing care of children), but more so acknowledging that ancestry is what has shaped us, and the people we serve as applicants, panellists, community members, kin, work colleagues, whanau, hapu and iwi and the ANZASW, to whom we are accountable. We, as two National Assessors, look at our own philosophical selves, when we invite an applicant to take part in an assessment process that maintains the applicant in their cultural being, thereby supporting the applicant to a positive outcome, and then invite them to be a part of the ANZASW as a professional social worker. The ANZASW offers itself as the professional body of social work in Aotearoa New Zealand. Power Social workers are particularly positioned to link into the world of policy makers and the disadvantaged (Ife, 1997; O Brien, 2005). This link has a complexity of rights and responsibilities that inform our profession. Competency in Aotearoa New Zealand has been traditionally set by the ANZASW, where a panel invite the applicant to share and reflect, as a provisional member, on their practice. If they successfully evidenced safe practice through our ten practice standards, then they are able to move on to full membership, and from there they are able to apply for registration as a social worker. The competency itself invites best and safe ethical social work practice by the use of ten practice standards (see ANZASW practice standards). These occur through a considered, planned and scheduled meeting or hui of two peers and the Competency Assessor. The process then moves into a two way dynamic, one of power and one of competency. It is at this time a change in relationships occurs between the assessors and the applicant. Importantly and interestingly Everiit, Hardiker, Littlewood & Mullender (1992) describe social work as an activity that is accountable to people; however there are significant pressures in workplaces that lose sight of the relationship between knowledge and power. A social worker is called to be mindful of oppression and power, so an invitational response is to seek open spaces with the applicant, where differences enable an understanding about power, professional relationships, and reciprocities. The oppression through ethnicity and gender is seen by socialist feminists as a situation where male values are assumed to be the norm, and then applied to all people. This 19

20 results in a subjugation of female voices, and their nourishing role (Radney, 1993; Mikaere, 1994). Here it is proposed that a fair and just process in relationship to an applicant being assessed is to understand how history may shape a person and how important it is for them to have space to enable them to locate their own voice and stories. This may be expressed through an invitation to choose how, when and where the applicant might want their competency to be assessed, how they might want it to look like, and to also have the space to raise questions that enables them to maintain their integrity. Here are two assessment processes. Emma A Tangatawhenua Competency Tikanga Maori is enacting custom and obligation (policy), and Kaupapa Maori is the action, the way we do things are founded on traditional belief systems, which are made up from a set of ideals and values that personified principled conduct according to Maori ancestral laws (Pohatu & Pohatu, 2004). However, they do not only operate by these rules or law alone; they also lived and operate by principles, values and ideals that informed us as a whanau (extended family), hapu (can be up to 20 or 40 whanau groups) and iwi (tribe). Maori relied and still rely heavily on collective efforts, in order to survive, and as a result certain values and ideals have been developed, and they became part of tikanga and kaupapa Maori. These assisted to regulate and guide behaviour, and in particular allow a collective responsibility of belonging, that assists in the maintenance of social harmony. Given such an approach here in Aotearoa New Zealand, the nihotaniwha competency process for tangatawhenua (people of this land) is an important model for social justice and social change. An elder TuroaHarongo (1996) gifted and enabled Maori Assessors to be trained in the use of this model for Maori and by Maori. Maori social workers however are also able to complete their competencies in the generic model of competency on paper or face to face. The following is a model is the nihotaniwha, a Maori model of assessment. This process begins with the arrival of the Assessment Panel, taking care of time, so not to be late, as this may show disrespect, not only for the applicant, but also for their whanau, hapu and iwi. Whether it is on the Marae, at the work place and or at the applicant s home, the rituals of encounters are the same. It is the delivery that is different. Whanau are also invited to take part, to hear what their daughter, son, mother, father, aunty, uncles, and grandparent are doing. This also gives the professionals and the whanau a kanohikitekanohi (face to face) of not only the process, but also 20

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