Ecotourism in Nature Conservation Projects in Mexico and Belize

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1 Ecological Economics Ecotourism in Nature Conservation Projects in Mexico and Belize Approaches for supporting protected areas through sustainable and market-oriented tourism management

2 Ecological Economics Ecotourism in Nature Conservation Projects in Mexico and Belize Approaches for supporting protected areas through sustainable and marketoriented tourism management Wolfgang Strasdas, M.L.A. Eschborn, 2000

3 TÖB publication no.: TÖB F-V/8e Published by: Responsible: Author: Edited by: Translated by: Produced by: Nominal fee: DM 10,- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Postfach 5180 D Eschborn, Germany Begleitprogramm Tropenökologie (TÖB) Tropical Ecology Support Program Dr. Claus Bätke Wolfgang Strasdas, M.L.A. Palmstr. 13, Munich, Germany Phone: , Fax: , Michaela Hammer ISBN: All rights reserved Marton Radkai (Munich), Wolfgang Strasdas TZ-Verlagsgesellschaft mbh, D Rossdorf, Germany

4 Preface Tropical ecosystems are the essential life-sustaining basis for the majority of the Earth's human population. Human intervention is destroying the environment and degrading natural resources at an alarming rate, increasingly jeopardising efforts to attain sustainable development and effectively alleviate poverty. The Tropical Ecology Support Program (TÖB) strives, in a development cooperation (DC) setting, to contribute to more effective processing, evaluation and implementation of the knowledge and experience gained on these issues. TÖB provides its services on a supraregional basis. The Program is implemented by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). TÖB supports, upon request, back-up studies on issues relating to tropical ecology. The Program endeavours to further the development of concepts by which to protect and sustainably use tropical ecosystems, and to derive from these concepts innovative tools by which to enhance the ecological sustainability of DC project impacts. By incorporating scientific findings into advisory and consultancy activities, the Program helps DC projects implement international agreements such as Agenda 21 and the Convention on Biological Diversity, to which BMZ attaches great importance. It is pivotal to the design of the Program that German and partner country scientists work jointly on applications-oriented issues. TÖB thus makes an important contribution to the practical training of counterparts and to the establishment of tropical ecology expertise in partner countries. Through its publication series, TÖB makes accessible, in an understandable form, the findings and recommendations for action that derive from its backup studies to the organisations and institutions operating in the development cooperation arena, and to a broader public with an interest in environment and development issues. I. Hoven Head of Division Environmental Policy, Protection of Natural Resources, Forestry German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Dr. C. van Tuyll Head of Division Rural Development Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

5 Acknowledgements The present paper would not have been possible without the support and the willingness of many people in Mexico, Belize, and other countries to provide me with information and discuss important issues. Special thanks are owed to my two professors, Helmut Scharpf, and Ludwig Ellenberg, as well as the staff of the following organizations, with whom I worked together in the examination of the case studies: Acuerdo México-Alemania: Helmut Janka, Alberto Ehnis as well as all the other staff members of the Acuerdo; in Calakmul: Leticia Valenzuela (Asociación de Guías de Xpujil), Alejandro Marín and Inosente Alcudia (Coordinación de Turismo, Campeche), Armando and Fernando Sastré (Pronatura Península de Yucatán); in Cancún: David Gutiérrez, Tomás Camarena and their co-workers (Instituto Nacional de Ecología) as well as Rudolf Bittorf (Amigos de Isla Contoy); Programme for Belize: Joy Grant, Audrey Wallace and Roger Wilson; Toledo Ecotourism Association: William Schmidt, Pablo Ack and Reyes Chun. I also want to thank many other interview partners. Those who are quoted directly are mentioned at the end of the report. I also received precious advice and appraisals from many other people. I

6 Table of contents SUMMARY...VIII A INTRODUCTION... 1 II Background...1 Objectives...2 Realization of the research project and selection of case studies...7 Methodology...9 B ANALYSIS OF THE CASE STUDIES MÉXICO - CONTEXTO NACIONAL Desarrollo y política turísticos Política de protección de la naturaleza y áreas protegidas RESERVA DE LA BIOSFERA DE CALAKMUL Situación de partida Espacio natural y manejo del área protegida Condiciones generales socioeconómicas Problemas y conflictos Proyectos para el desarrollo y la protección de la naturaleza en el entorno de Calakmul Uso turístico Oferta turística Demanda turística Planificación y fomento del turismo Efectos del turismo Financiamiento del área protegida Efectos económicos a nivel regional Efectos socioculturales y socioeconómicos Conclusion and recommendations AREAS PROTEGIDAS MARÍTIMAS EN CANCÚN Situación de partida Espacio natural y manejo del área protegida Condiciones generales socioeconómicas Problemas y conflictos Uso turístico Oferta turística Demanda turística Planificación y dirección del turismo...72

7 3.3 Efectos del turismo Conclusion BELIZE - THE NATIONAL CONTEXT Tourism development and tourism policies Nature conservation policies and protected areas RIO BRAVO CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT AREA General conditions Natural habitats and protected area management Socio-economic conditions Problems and conflicts Touristic utilization Touristic supply Tourist demand Tourism planning and -management The effects of tourism Conclusion TOLEDO ECOTOURISM ASSOCIATION General conditions Natural habitats and protected areas Socio-economic preconditions Problems and conflicts Touristic utilization Founding, structure and principles of the Toledo Ecotourism Association Tourism product Tourist demand Tourism planning and -promotion Effects of tourism Economic effects Socio-cultural effects Acceptance of nature conservation Conclusion C RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS POSSIBILITIES OF FINANCING PROTECTED AREAS Preconditions Touristic attractiveness of an area General touristic preconditions of a destination Political and institutional framework III

8 7.1.4 Break-even level of tourist revenues The role of the stakeholders Nature conservation authorities Non-governmental organizations Tourism businesses Recommendations STRATEGIES FOR GENERATING INCOME FOR THE LOCAL POPULATION Weaknesses in community-based tourism projects Insufficient quality of the supply Absence of market orientation Absence of business management Strong points of community-based tourism projects Offering selective services Targeting appropriate market segments Local groups forming a regional association The role of stakeholders The local population Nature conservation and development organizations Tourism companies Recommendations Participation and professionalism Types of local economic participation in tourism Types of participation depending on demand segments CAN ECOTOURISM CONTRIBUTE TO THE ACCEPTANCE OF NATURE CONSERVATION? Nature conservation organizations Local population Governments of developing countries Tourism companies Nature tourists BIBLIOGRAPHY Please note that chapters B.1 through B.3 (case studies in Mexico) are only available in Spanish, except for the results of each case study (chapters B.2.4 and 3.4) which were also translated into English. IV

9 List of figures Figure 1: Case study locations...6 Figure 2: Reserva de la biosfera de Calakmul...23 Figure 3: Areas protegidas marítimas en Cancún...62 Figure 4: Río Bravo Conservation and Management Area...96 Figure 5: The villages of the Toledo Ecotourism Association List of tables Table 1: Criteria for selecting the case studie...8 Table 2: Datos económicos del turismo en México...13 Table 3: Número de visitantes y pernoctaciones en Calakmul...37 Table 4: Características de los segmentos de la demanda turística en Calakmul...39 Table 5: Número de visitantes del Parque Nacional Isla Contoy...71 Table 6: Ingresos turísticos de Amigos de Isla Contoy...80 Table 7: International tourist arrivals and expenditure in Belize...87 Table 8: Number of visitors and nights spent in Rio Bravo Table 9: Coverage of overall management costs through selfgenerated income of Programme for Belize (in BZ$) Table 10:Relationship between tourism-related income and expenditures of Programme for Belize (in BZ$) Table 11:Visitor statistics of the Toledo Ecotourism Association Table 12:Important features for creating an ecotourism typology for the case studies V

10 List of abbreviations AIC AMA AMTAVE ANC ANP ANSIM ASK BAS BEST BETA BMZ BR BTB BTIA CI CMA CP CRAX CT(A) DC DN EIA ESTAP FONATUR GEF INAH Amigos de Isla Contoy Acuerdo México-Alemania Asociación Mexicana de Turismo de Aventura y Ecoturismo Asociados Náuticos de Cancún Areas Naturales Protegidas (Protected Areas) Asociados Náuticos y Subacuáticos de Isla Mujeres Amigos de Sian Ka'an Belize Audubon Society Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology Belize Ecotourism Association German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development Biosphere Reserve Belize Tourist Board Belize Tourism Industry Association Conservation International Conservation and Management Area Consejo de Planeación Consejo Regional Agrosilvopecuario y de Servicios de Xpujil Consejo Técnico (Asesor) (Protected area advisory council) Development Cooperation Developing Nations or Countries Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental, Social and Technical Assistance Project Fondo Nacional de Fomento al Turismo Global Environment Facility Instituto Nacional de Arqueología e Historia VI

11 INE Instituto Nacional de Ecología INEGI Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática INI Instituto Nacional Indigenista MTE Ministry of Tourism and Environment NGO Non-governmental Organization NP National Park PACT Protected Areas Conservation Trust PFB Programme for Belize PMN Parque Marino Nacional (Marine National Park) POA Programa Operativo Anual (Annual plan of operations) PPY Pronatura Península de Yucatán PRI Partido Revolucionario Institucional PROFEPA Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Ambiente RBCMA Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area SCT Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes SECTUR Secretaría de Turismo SEDEMAR Secretaría de Marina, Armada de México SEMARNAP Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca SHO Self-help Organizations TAA Toledo Alcaldes Association TEA Toledo Ecotourism Association TMCC Toledo Maya Cultural Council TNC The Nature Conservancy WWF World Wildlife Fund VII

12 Summary This research report is based on the hypothesis that the implementation of the economic aims of ecotourism in connection with securing protected areas and supporting the local population is only possible under certain circumstances. These will be examined by means of a stakeholder-centered analysis based on four case studies in southern Mexico (Calakmul Biosphere Reserve and marine protected areas around Cancún) and in Belize (Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area and Toledo Ecotourism Association). The preconditions for the development of ecotourism in Mexico and Belize are completely different. While Belize has concentrated on the market niche of nature tourism, Mexico does not have any experience with this segment in spite of a long tourism tradition. Both countries seek to finance their systems of conservation areas partially with ecotourism and to generate an alternative income for the local population. The results show that protected areas can be financed, in part or in full, with income from tourism. Conditions for this are a high touristic attractiveness, professional tourism management and cooperation with the private sector. However, most of the tourism businesses are still not willing to commit themselves financially to conservation areas, though environmental awareness is on the rise. The more important intact nature is as a touristic resource and the more transparent the financial transactions by the conservation organizations, the greater will be the enterprises' readiness to cooperate. Inclusion of the local population in tourism development is a more difficult matter. Though development cooperation is offered in southern Mexico as well as Belize there are hardly any community tourism projects that are functioning. The local population generally does not have the skills to run VIII

13 tourist enterprises independently. Bad quality offers and a lack of marketing are the result. There are also internal conflicts. The analysis also shows that the NGOs and DC organizations involved in almost all projects hardly have any tourism know-how. Nevertheless community-based tourism projects can be successful. The preconditions necessary are are the existence of tourist attractions, accessibility, long-term professional support and / or a close cooperation with responsible tourism businesses. In socio-culturally homogeneous societies less internal conflicts occur than in heterogeneous colonization areas. In general, functioning ecotourism has a positive effect on the participants with regards to the acceptance of nature conservation. 1 1 For those readers, who have more time, but do not want to read the complete report, I suggest concentrating on the results of the case studies (chapters B.2.4, 3.4, 5.4 and 6.4) and on the general conclusions in chapter C. IX

14 A Introduction A Introduction Background The objective of this research project is rooted in an earlier study ( Ecotourism as a Conservation Instrument?, EWG 1995), which the author prepared for the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) in The study s answer to the question formulated in the title is a cautious yes, but it also points out the difficult implementation of this complex strategy. Ecotourism meanwhile plays an important role in many nature conservation and rural development projects of the GTZ, and is the subject of several research projects supported by the Tropical Ecological Support Program (TOEB) (TOEB 1997). In connection with protected areas the following aims have been stated for ecotourism: ecological and socio-cultural compatibility of tourism development as basic condition, contribution to the financing of protected area management, generating income for the local population, achieving acceptance of nature conservation as an indirect effect of economic impacts. The background of such a conservation-oriented strategy is the extremely difficult situation of protected areas (and for nature conservation in general) in developing countries or nations (DN). It is thought that conservation areas conceived as reserves which are isolated from the outside without allowing any land use cannot be financed in the long run nor can they hope to be accepted by the local population or by a country s ruling economic and political interest groups. That is why the necessity of 1

15 Ecotourism in Nature Conservation Projects in Mexico and Belize the sustainable use of natural resources in protected areas has achieved a consensus in the conservation community. This has been expressed e.g. in the Convention on Biological Diversity (Article 10) as well as in national strategies, action plans and national reports for the implementation of the Convention. Ecotourism can play a major role here in conjunction with other types of use (e.g. bioprospection, agroforestry, wildlife management, etc.). Even though the potential of ecotourism as understood above is repeatedly stressed in conservation and tourism circles as in development cooperation (DC), analysts worldwide regularly conclude that in reality there are few examples for successful (i.e. for the benefit of nature conservation) ecotourism projects. Rather negative assessments of the concrete implementation of the concept predominate (e.g. BRANDON 1996), and this is causing skepticism on the part of several organizations involved in nature conservation and development cooperation. Objectives The present study will focus on this point by examining how the ecotourism concept might be implemented in working nature conservation projects (including buffer zone development). The compatibility aspect will only be discussed as a side effect; of primary interest will be the exploitation of the economic potentials of ecotourism. This main point of interest was chosen for two different reasons: 1. Supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity with the aim of its better protection is the main point of the ecotourism approach. 2. The implementation of ecotourism's economic aims (including the related promotion of acceptance) causes even more problems than the controlling of the ecological effects. 2

16 A Introduction Ecotourism as development support Ecotourism only constitutes a niche, namely those forms of tourism relating to nature, within the global travel market. The main interest lies not in the ecologizing of massive tourism development, which can be observed typically on many ocean beaches. The ecological (and socio-cultural) compatibility in the sense of impact minimization is no doubt, too, an important condition for ecotourism, but not the primary goal of this approach. Rather the existing forces of market economy are to be used and promoted, in order to achieve a positive effect on nature conservation. An example of this happening would be when ecotourism replaces environmentally destructive forms of land use, thereby indirectly providing relief to the ecosystem. Secondly, ecotourism offers a potential for the long term co-financing of nature conservation projects (including measures for the local population) which would have been neglected or given up because of lacking funds. Tourism development under these circumstances can be seen as desirable. It should be controlled but not unnecessarily restricted. Furthermore, a passive-wait-and-see attitude on the part of nature conservation will be of no help to the concept of ecotourism (cf. STECK/STRASDAS/GUSTEDT 1998). Priorities in steering ecotourism In the protected areas used for tourism in developing countries two dominating development types can be distinguished (EWG 1995): 3

17 Ecotourism in Nature Conservation Projects in Mexico and Belize (A) highly attractive areas for tourism, easily accessible, where expansive nature tourism 2 develops by itself and largely without controls. Private enterprise determines the dynamics of development. Turnover is high, but only a small amount reaches the protected areas or the local population. Tourism leaves traces of environmental damage. (B) less attractive areas, or areas that are difficult to reach, with local operators running smaller, economically marginal tourism projects that are often supported by nature conservation or development organizations. The tourism development is under control, but does not have notable impact on income because of low turnover. Negative environmental effects are hardly extant or probable. The environmental effects of tourism only play a critical role in the first type of area and have been examined in numerous publications. 3 Hence there are well-known and tested steering instruments available (visitor management, EIA) that can be used, as long as there is the political will and the protected area administration has the personal capacity to do so. The bulk of DC-supported conservation projects is concentrated in areas where ecologically unsound mass-tourism is not possible. The tropical rain forest in particular as a center of global biodiversity and therefore a priority area for international nature conservation can be classified under the second area type. On the other hand, a satisfactory use of the economic potentials of ecotourism, i.e. generating substantial revenues for the protected area and 2 Nature tourism can be understood as being all those tourism forms that take place in natural habitats. It is aimed at tourists who see an important attraction in experiencing nature. As opposed to ecotourism, the effects do not play a role. In this definition ecotourism can be understood as an environmentally and socially compatible form of nature tourism. 3 Cf. Also SCHEMEL 1992, AGÖT 1995, CEBALLOS-LASCURAIN 1996, BFN 1997, ROE et al

18 A Introduction local income, has proven to be very difficult in both types of area. While in the first case the income from tourism, simply said, only has to be redistributed, the principal task for lesser developed conservation areas as regards tourism is to build up sufficient business volume to provide noticeable support to protected area management. In general to implement the widespread participation of the local population in tourism causes even more problems than the direct financing of protected areas (cf. amongst others BRANDON 1996). This is by no means supposed to play down the ecological aspect of ecotourism. Rather, the point here is to design a sensible focus for the study and to narrow down the issues. As the following case studies will show, minimizing the impact of tourism on the environment must be an integral component of protected area management, especially those of the first type. According to the focus mentioned above, the present research project has the following aims: 1. Identification of strategies to co-finance the protected areas through ecotourists and the private tourist sector (see chapter 7), 2. Development of both participative and economically sustainable strategies for generating tourism-related income for the local population (see Ch. 8), 3. Estimation of how economic impact will affect the acceptance of nature conservation by the relevant stakeholders (see Ch.10). This analysis will pay particular attention to which factors either promoting, enhancing or impeding success are crucial for implementation and what role the participating stakeholders are playing (political/economic interests, professional expertise). The recommendations derived from the research results are addressed primarily to administrations of protected areas, governmental and non- 5

19 Ecotourism in Nature Conservation Projects in Mexico and Belize governmental conservation and development organizations as well as supporting DC organizations. 4 Figure 1: Case study locations Source: own drawing 4 Specific intervention forms of DC organizations for the support of ecotourism projects are not part of this report. Instead it can be found in the publication Tourism in Technical Co-operation: A guide to the conception, planning and implementation of project-accompanying measures in regional rural development and nature conservation (STECK/STRASDAS/GUSTEDT 1998). Important DC results of this research project have been discussed already in this guide and shall not be repeated here. 6

20 A Introduction Realization of the research project and selection of case studies The research project was carried out in cooperation with the GTZsupported forestry project Acuerdo México-Alemania (AMA) on the Mexican Yucatán peninsula. This region (including the neighboring countries Belize and Guatemala) seemed to be particularly appropriate for the objectives mentioned above, because on the one hand it offers a wide network of different protected area types, and on the other hand tourism is in part well developed. A great number of DC organizations are also operating in this region. The AMA, which operates regionally and supraregionally and has established a network of contacts, had an advisory function in the context of this research project as well as the role of offering an organizational and logistical base. With this as a basis, visits were then paid to a variety of both touristically used protected areas and community tourism projects in the vicinity of protection areas in Mexico as well as in neighboring Belize. After intensive preliminary talks with the respective executing agencies and other participating organizations, two case studies were finally selected in Mexico and two others in Belize (see Figure 1 and Table 1). This multiplecase study approach was chosen in order to allow for a comparison of the different starting parameters (type of protected area, stage of touristic development, executing agencies) and of different strategies for earning income from tourism activities. This in turn permits conclusions with more general validity, which would not have been possible with the analysis of one project. A fundamental parameter for selecting the case studies was that tourism be at least developed to a noticeable degree. Furthermore, the investigation was to focus on the one hand on situations typical for the region (to permit derivation of generally valid conclusions from them), and on the other hand 7

21 Ecotourism in Nature Conservation Projects in Mexico and Belize on positive, innovative case studies with the aim of pointing out model measures (see Ch. C for the issue of general applicability). Table 1: Criteria for selecting the case studies Calakmul Biosphere Reserve Mexico Isla Contoy National Park / PMN Cancún, Mexico Rio Bravo Conservation & Management Area, Belize Toledo Ecotourism Association, Belize Protected area type tropical rain forest, archeological sites coastal ecosystems, coral reefs tropical rain forest, wetlands tropical rain forest, (wetlands) Tourism development stage beginning to developed (type B) 5 developed to overused (type A) beginning to developed (type B) beginning (type B) Structure of the executing agency governmental, NGO, SHO governmental, business associations NGO SHO Focus of the analysis income for local population financing of the protected areas financing of the protected area income for local population Special features local cooperatives cooperation with tourism companies NGO acting as a tourism company regional network of local cooperatives Besides Mexico, Belize was included in the investigation for the same reason. Both countries constitute very different types in relation to their predominating forms of tourism, to the degree of touristic development and to the participating stakeholders in both tourism and nature conservation. Mexico boasts a long tradition in the areas of cultural tourism and holiday centers, whereas nature tourism is only now being discovered as a new market segment. By comparison, Belize is less developed, but right from 5 For the classification type A/B see above (objectives) 8

22 A Introduction the start it specialized in the niche market of ecotourism. Both countries have developed interesting national strategies for co-financing their protected areas through tourism (see Ch. B.1 and B.4). Methodology The analysis of the case studies represents the core of the present study. The areas chosen are notable for their fairly good touristic, socio-economic and ecological data base. Moreover, in two cases research into partial aspects of tourism use had already been conducted. This by and large nullified the need to carry out quantitative empirical research. Some gaps in the existing data and documents were of no import because of the more qualitative interest of the research. After evaluating the basic data and information, in-depth, partially structured interviews with all groups of stakeholders involved (government institutions, NGOs, organizations of the local population, tourism companies, DC organizations) were conducted and written down. The interviews formed the actual heart of the stakeholder-focused analysis of the case studies, since this proved the best way to investigate their interests and capacities. Analysis of the case studies proceeded in three phases: 1. Preliminary discussions with the executing agencies and first on-site inspections (September - December 1996); 2. Review of the basic data, in-depth conversations with all important stakeholders, on-site inspections, elaboration of a draft evaluation as a basis for discussions (January - April 1997; an approximately two-week stay in each case study area); 9

23 Ecotourism in Nature Conservation Projects in Mexico and Belize 3. Supplementation, updating, modification of the research data and evaluations during a second visit (March - April 1998). If not otherwise noted, this is the latest reference date for the analysis of the case studies. Because local conditions are often heavily influenced by national politics and other exterior conditions, further research and interviews with significant stakeholders (nature conservation and tourism authorities, NGOs operating nationwide, and tourism associations) were conducted in the capitals or economic hubs of each country. In addition, the literature covering other ecotourism projects in the region (neighboring Petén in Guatemala, for example, besides southern Mexico and Belize) was also reviewed. Some of these projects were also visited. 10

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