1 Broadband Back End Modules for Planck-LFI Radiometers at 30 and 44 GHz Eduardo Artal, Beatriz Aja Department of Communications Engineering RF and Microwave Group (Spain) New Trends in Receiver Developments, Medicina 30-May-2005
3 Microwave Laboratory 50 GHz Network Analyzer Testing the RF to DC response
4 Microwave Laboratory Clean room. Microwave Technology Laboratory. Coplanar probe station, 50 GHz Network Analyzer
5 Planck Mission Overview ESA mission of the Horizon 2000 Programme Planck will measure temperature fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background with: - a precision of ~ 2 parts in a million - an angular resolution ~ 10 Payload: High Frequency Instrument (HFI) ( GHz bolometer arrays at 0.1 K). Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) (30, 44 and 70 GHz radio receivers at 20 K).
6 Simulated anisotropies of Cosmic Microwave Background at the level expected in Planck mission.
7 Herschel and Planck satellites will be launched together in 2007 (Ariane V). Herschel Planck
8 Planck satellite mock-up (2002)
9 -Optical axis shifted respect to spin axis. - One sky circle observation per minute. - Anti-sun oriented.
10 Planck Focal Plane (LFI + HFI)
11 Technical objectives of Planck-LFI radiometers (*) Two complete sky scans within 12 months (**) Pixel = a squared with each side is FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the beam. (***) Including antenna noise temperature
12 Planck Mission radiometer scheme Differential radiometer scheme - Cancellation of 1/f noise - Signal from Sky observed at any time - Phase switching: Sky and Reference same added noise.
13 Two branches of the Back End Module (for one radiometer). A complete BEM has four branches (for two radiometers).
14 RF channels. 30 GHz BEM (QM)
15 Back End Module versions (ESA requirements) Laboratory prototypes (subsystems) (Universities) LNA, band pass filter, detector, DC amplifier Integration (Elegant Breadboard : EBB) (Univ. Cantabria) Last version: EBB QM representative Same electrical performance. Different size and mass. Integration tests with the FEM (Jodrell Bank Observatory) Qualification Model: QM (MIER) Identical to the unit for flight. Size, mass and connectivity: as required for flight. Compliant with space qualification tests: electrical, vibration, thermal vacuum cycling and EMC. Flight Model: FM (MIER). (30 GHz: delivered, 44 GHz: ready) Flight requirements compliant.
16 MMIC Amplifier, 30 GHz BEM (EBB) HMC-263 (Hittite) (2,5 x 1,3 mm 2 ) GaAs PHEMT G ~ 20 db NF < 3 db (27 to 33 GHz)
17 MMIC Amplifiers, 44 GHz BEM Process ED02AH OMMIC PHEMT Transistors Gate Width : 90 μm (6x15μm) Gate Length : 0.2 μm D-HEMT LNA E-HEMT LNA Area of each circuit: 3 x 1 mm 2
18 MMICs at 44 GHz: Gain and Noise Figure Bandwidth : GHz Gain > 20 db Average NF = 3.8 db Gain > 20 db Average NF = 4 db Gain Noise Figure Gain Noise Figure db(s21) Frequency (GHz) NF (db) db(s21) Frequency (GHz) NF (db) D-HEMT LNA E-HEMT LNA
19 Duroid 6002 substrate ε r = 2.94 h = mm Band Pass Filters 30 GHz 44 GHz
20 Interstage attenuators 44 GHz (3 db, 12 db) Alumina Substrate ε r = 9.9 h = mm Size: 2.5x10 mm Size: 2.5x4.5 mm
21 30 GHz detector Prototype of Schottky diode detector at 30 GHz Rectification eficiency at -30 dbm (> > 1000 mv/mw mw)
22 44 GHz Detector Prototype of Schottky diode detector at 44 GHz Rectification eficiency at -30 dbm (~ ~ 2000 mv/mw mw)
23 BEM DC amplifier Detector output DAE
24 30 GHz BEM branch (EBB) LNA Filter Detector Detector output DC amp
25 RF gain Noise Figure 30 GHz BEM EBB RF-DC response (Pin = -60 dbm)
26 44 GHz BEM branch (EBB) LNA Filter Detector Attenuator Detector output DC amp
27 RF Insertion gain Noise Figure 44 GHz BEM EBB RF-DC response (Pin = -50 dbm)
28 Effective bandwidth calculation G( f ) df BW eff = 2 G( f ) df 2 from the RF power gain (including RF detector response) BW eff N N + 1 N i= 1 = Δf N i= 1 V ( V out out ( i) ( i) V V outoff outoff ) 2 2 from DC output voltagev out (V outoff is when sweep generator is Off) N = number of freq. points
29 Equivalent Noise temperature calculation T rec = T ( f ) G( f ) df Y T G( f ) h c 0 0 ( Y ) G( f ) 1 df 0 df from the RF power gain and Y- factor T rec = N i= 1 T h () i V () i Δf Y T V () i det N ( Y 1) V ( i) Δf i= 1 det c N i= 1 det Δf from DC output voltagev det and Y-factor N = number of freq. points
30 Pre-integration tests in Jodrell Bank 30 GHz EBB radiometer FEM BEM
31 Planck pre-integration tests 30 GHz EBB radiometer Two BEM branches connected to the FEM (in Jodrell Bank).
32 30 GHz BEM (Qualification Model) DC regulators (PCB Top view) RF Channels
33 30 GHz BEM (Flight Model) Size: 60 x 65 x 39 mm 3 DC Amplifiers (PCB bottom view)
34 Planck-LFI: 30 GHz FM BEMs Output Voltage 10*log10(mV) Frequency (GHz) Channel A Tnom Channel B Tnom Channel C Tnom Channel D Tnom RF to DC response: four channels at nominal temperature Effective bandwidth 9 GHz. (Input power = - 60 dbm).
35 Planck-LFI: 44 GHz Flight Model BEMs DC Regulators Top view RF Channels
36 Planck-LFI: 44 GHz FM BEMs *log(mV) Frequency (GHz) Channel A Tnom Channel B Tnom Channel C Tnom Channel D Tnom RF to DC response: four channels at nominal temperature Effective bandwidth 8 GHz. (Input power = - 50 dbm).
37 Radiometer Chain Assembly at Alenia-Spazio (Laben) 30 GHz BEM
38 Radiometer Chain Assembly at Alenia-Spazio (Laben)
39 Radiometer Chain Assembly at Alenia-Spazio (Laben)
40 Current activities (Planck Project) Delivery of 44 GHz BEM FM units. Technical support for integration and calibration of radiometers. Next research and development tasks Design of cryogenically cooled LNAs (new cryostat) MMIC low noise technologies evaluation Thank you for your attention!