Proceedings. Selected papers of the EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012, Granada (Spain), 5-7 September 2012

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1 Proceedings Selected papers of the EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012, Granada (Spain), 5-7 September 2012 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012

2 ISSN: Copyright EFQUEL Editors: Anne-Christin Tannhäuser, Anthony F. Camilleri, Marie Bijnens Publication date: April 2013 Publication design: Published by: EFQUEL asbl 35, Rue des deux Eglises 1000 Brussels Belgium Reg.&VAT Number: BE Tel: Fax:

3 Foreword The EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 has been a great success. With 130 experts in e-learning quality, OER quality and innovative learning practice, the EIF2012 gathered again the key stakeholders around the EFQUEL community. The EIF2012 took place in the Facultad de Comunicación y Documentación of the University of Granada. The EIF was hosted in a Neo-Mudejar style building beside the Monastery of Cartuja in the Cartuja Campus. Highlights During the forum, the EFQUEL team communicated via our EIF2012 Scoop-It online magazine the highlights and key points of the different sessions. The Scoop-It page is still available via: Other highlights are available via the archive section of the EFQUEL Innovation Forum website: Next Innovation Forum The next EFQUEL Innovation Forum, taking place on the 26th and 27th of September 2013 in Barcelona, will be a unique opportunity to meet other experts from Europe and other regions of the world. As part of EFQUEL s core mission to provide services for quality development in education, next conference will focus explicitly on quality issues, taking stock of where we stand now, how the quality scene has evolved and what the future perspectives are and could be. Read all news and updates on the EIF2013 on this website!

4 Scope Learning for Open Innovation. Transformation and Change for Future Learning How can we turn our traditional educational institutions into (r)evolutionary leading organisations? How can innovation be stimulated? The conference will observe and analyse how open innovation can be used to transform today s educational institutions. Educational institutions have mostly taken an evolutionary approach to respond to the challenges of the modern world. But the incremental innovation of our educational institutions is not sufficient to cope with the ongoing fundamental transformation of societies. Change in most education institutions has started too late and is executed too slowly to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Only open, disruptive innovation offers higher education institutions strategic choices to overcome longstanding and deeply-rooted orthodoxies and to make them fit for the future. This conference will question why most educational institutions still educate tomorrow s leaders, experts and workforce with yesterday s tools. The contemporary education landscape is facing disruptive technological advancements and the promises of web 2.0 to foster a new mode of knowledge creation and collaborative learning among students around the world. We are always online, continuously updating and connecting to electronic information nodes in the globalised digital village of the web. A key issue to develop a balanced view on the topic from all perspectives: strategic, pedagogical, managerial as well as technological. We aim to bring in contributions from different domains and disciplines towards open innovation and thus quality. However, the promises of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and e-learning have not effectively innovated universities. Little progress has been made and resources invested into ICT adoption are frequently spent without a clear definition of objectives and change strategies. The future of learning is taking place now and yet educational activities are often stalled in a pedagogical model of transmitting knowledge rather than constructing solutions, following educational approaches which have been put into place centuries ago and still largely dominate teaching and learning in academia.

5 Table of Contents Foreword... 3 Scope... 4 Papers in English... 7 Emotional Ownership as the Key to OER Adoption: From Sharing Products and Resources to Sharing Ideas and Commitment across Border... 8 Strategies for sustainable business models for Open Educational Resources A View on Personal Learning Environments through Approaches to Learning Analysis of successful modes for the implementation and use of OpenCourseWare (OCW) & Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education Teaching and social media: best practices E-Learning quality assurance as a tool for open innovation in educational institutions: an Estonian case Evaluating teaching and management innovations in an e-learning university Transtitution - Transforming higher educational institutions through modernization of its middle management Educational Development at Universities regarding Open Innovation ICT as a tool to support students participation in the curriculum of a host university without requiring student mobility Using Digital Games to Transform Computer Programming Courses in Higher Education Institutions Collaboration and motivation in an online learning environment: students perceptions of collaborative activities and attitudes towards online learning SIMAULA: a needs-based model of virtual practicum for future teachers Knowledge Exchange Across Borders Internationalization of Open Education using Trusted Educational Networks Papers in Spanish OpenApp: experiencias y herramientas docentes y de gestión en abierto Medios Sociales como estrategia de comunicación. Caso práctico del Centro de Enseñanzas Virtuales de la Universidad de Granada Gamificación y e-learning: Un Ejemplo con el Juego Del Pasapalabra Entorno virtual para el aprendizaje de neuro-anatomia bajo el paradigma de la web Desarrollo de un aplicativo de gestión de Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje para la realización de actividades de aprendizaje en red no soportadas por plataformas para gestión del aprendizaje Gobierno TI como factor clave para la calidad e innovación en proyectos y servicios de e-learning...161

6 Calidad de las organizaciones, personas, procesos, productos y servicios en el aprendizaje, la educación y la formación Tecnologías y estrategias didácticas para la mejora de la formación profesional. Valoración de los estudiantes...174

7 Papers in English

8 EMOTIONAL OWNERSHIP AS THE KEY TO OER ADOPTION: FROM SHARING PRODUCTS AND RESOURCES TO SHARING IDEAS AND COMMITMENT ACROSS BORDER Jan M. Pawlowski Global Information Systems, University of Jyväskylä Mattilanniemi 2, Jyväskylä, Finland Abstract Open Educational Resources and Practices (OER, OEP) have been discussed for the past decade extensively. However, in contrast to Open Source or Open Access the initiative has not taken up speed due to a variety of barriers. In this paper, I will elaborate on new ways of sharing towards a participatory approach. Emotional ownership is the key to success and to overcome barriers. In the paper, I will elaborate on the main barriers to OER adoption and elaborate the concepts of emotional ownership and idea sharing. The article looks at the OER development process and provides recommendations how these processes need to be changed and supported to create emotional ownership and improve the adoption of OER and OEP. Keywords: open educational resources, quality, trust, re-use, trusted educational network, recommender systems Introduction and Background Open Educational Resources (OER) and Open Educational Practices (OEP) are seen as a promising concept to reform education and foster educational collaboration and innovation (Atkins et al., 2007). However, in contrast to similar initiatives like Open Source or Open Access, the adoption has still not reached its potentials (Ochoa & Duval, 2009). Many people still hesitate to use OER and even more hesitate to share their own or improved resources. The main question of this paper is how to create stronger user engagement to increase re-use and collaborative development of OER. How can the concept of emotional ownership help to create user engagement and long-term collaborations? In previous research, a lot of barriers and adoption obstacles have been identified (Clements & Pawlowski, 2012) amongst them lack of (technical, legal) knowledge, lack of motivation, insecurities on quality and IPR. We have also seen that the not-invented-here syndrome applies to OER as well. In our study, people expressed that they prefer to produce learning materials themselves or they do not trust others in term of quality (Clements & Pawlowski, 2012). Therefore, re-using and adopting freely available learning resources has not yet become common practice. 8 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

9 Contrasting these problems, there are many opportunities and benefits about using and contributing towards OER (Atkins et al, 2007, Pawlowski & Zimmermann, 2007): Increasing access across borders, reduced cost of material production, establishing teaching collaborations or improving the quality of materials (cf. Pawlowski & Zimmermann, 2007, D Antoni, 2007). Especially collaborative teaching using collaboratively developed OER is a promising concept but it needs awareness and collaboration capacity (D Antoni, 2007). In this paper, I will discuss how to overcome individual barriers by engaging stakeholders. The main idea is to emotionally involve people by active re-authoring open educational resources. The main question is how the concept of emotional ownership can be utilized to increase user involvement in OER re-use and adaptation processes. I will briefly describe the key concepts and elaborate the concept of emotional ownership. I will discuss how this concept can be used for different types of OER and illustrate this in a case study. Background Which approaches can positively contribute towards user engagement and thus increase re-use and collaborative development? As a starting point, different barriers to OER engagement have been discussed (Clements & Pawlowski, 2012). On an individual level, the main barriers are curriculum and didactical differences as well as lack of trust and insecurities regarding quality and copyright issues. Also, stakeholders prefer to develop materials themselves due to the not-invented-here syndrome as well as mistrust. To overcome those barriers, it is necessary to increase awareness (D Antoni, 2007) as well as trust between stakeholders. As one approach, stakeholder engagement needs to be increased. The concepts of co-production / co-creation aim therefore at involving stakeholders (educators, learners) in the production process (OPAL, 2011). It is thus necessary to create a community model (Downes, 2007). Communities around OER need to be established to create collaborations and partnerships (OPAL, 2011). However, this does not apply to highly contextualized or complex resources. Many resources can just be used as-is or it is too complex to modify them. So which approaches can be used to increase user engagement? Stakeholders need to get strongly involved in the re-use / re-authoring process by different means. Mikroyannidis et al (2011) provide mechanisms to recommend appropriate, easy-to-use tools for the adaptation process. Also the concept of co-creation / co-production aims at including educators as well as learners in a collaborative development process. One approach is not to share fixed, contextualized resources but start the exchange in the idea creation process (DeLiddo, 2010). Therefore, stakeholders do not have to re-use completed resources but they are involved in the development process. 9 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

10 A similar approach is discussed from a design perspective by Treviranus (2011) described as the Wabi-Sabi principle. This principle aims at designing resources in an imperfect way that later adopters have certain space to incorporate their own design / pedagogical / technical ideas. Therefore, stakeholders can be involved in an early stage and build new OER. As a summary, it is common to the approaches presented that users are engaged and involved in different stages of the production / development process. It is also common to those approaches that users build a strong relation to both, collaborators as well as the artifacts they create (such as an OER). The emotional binding can have different reasons such as reputation (Downes, 2007). However, the process how and why users engage in the OER process is still not fully understood. Emotional Ownership to Increase Stakeholder Engagement Emotional ownership describes the degree that individuals or groups perceive that knowledge or resources belong to them. The concept has been studied in different contexts such as ownership of family businesses (Björnberg & Nicholson, 2012), regarding ownership of knowledge (Jones & Jordan, 1998) or use of emotions for management purposes (Hochschild, 1983). It is common to those approaches that a personal relation is established in a creation process (e.g. a family establishing a business, an individual creating an artifact, a group creating an innovation). The importance of the concept is that there is a much stronger binding to the artifact than to other resources which are just downloaded and / or used (such as a picture taken from an internet search). So, how can emotional ownership be established? In the following, I will elaborate on the steps towards creating emotionally owned OER from the designers and users point of view. The following figure sketches the design process (cf. Clements & Pawlowski, 2012). Re-Design Collaborative Development Imperfect Design Idea Sharing Design & Develop Re-Use Collaborative Teaching Improvement Reputation Managemnent Re-Publish Design and Development Phase Figure 1: Emotional Ownership in the Development Process The initial phase is the design and development phase. In a traditional scenario, educators develop learning materials on their own based on their expertise and experience. In an OER scenario, 10 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

11 educators search for and modify materials for example in repositories and share those back with the community. The key change in this process is that authors should consider sharing at an earlier stage sharing ideas and receiving feedback allows to initiate a collaboration process with colleagues. This also means that open instead of proprietary formats should be used to enable easy access and modifications. Furthermore, it is useful not just to share the final end-product but to share prototypes, so that re-users can do the finishing on their own. This makes it easy to incorporate personal preferences and modifications as well as creating the emotional binding to the resource. During the process, it is important to allow feedback by colleagues. This also serves as an initiation of the ownership process: people giving feedback feel that they have contributed and their ideas have been taken into account. Thus, I would recommend the following principles: 1. Share prototypes instead of products 2. Share sketches instead of final figures 3. Leave the design open 4. Use open formats to allow modifications 5. Collect commitments from the potential collaborators 6. Allow and take feedback into account Re-Design Phase The re-design phase is a good point to start collaborations. In this phase, potential collaborators should be contacted and early ideas should be discussed. Based on the raw ideas and prototypes a common use strategy can be developed. This strategy should incorporate which parts of OER are used in common, which parts need to be adapted for the different usage contexts and which roles the potential collaborators can have (e.g. adding individual designs, modifying curricular requirements, translations, cultural concepts). For the international use, the adaptation of cultural and language issues plays a major role. It is important that all participants provide commitments and contribute as the creation and development and in particular the adaptation process creates emotional ownership. This strategy combines the main benefits of OER and the traditional development process: the common development saves development efforts, the modifications and adaptations create the emotional ownership, i.e., each participant has the feeling of having contributed. This phase should consider the following principles: 1. Define a collaboration strategy 2. Define commonalities and adaptation efforts 3. Get authors involved, also just for small adaptations Re-Use and Re-Publishing Phase The re-use phase contains the actual usage of the resources as similar resources will be used, this can also be a starting point for developing collaborative teaching scenarios. Re-use also should take feedback into account. Feedbacks should be shared between the collaborators so that all partners receive positive comments for their efforts as well as improvement suggestions. This appreciation (and corresponding reputation effects) will also increase the emotional ownership towards an OER and the newly created OEP. Both, resource and practice should be shared back to the community or 11 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

12 at least to the collaborators. It is also important that success stories are rewarded in some way, either by rewards in the community ( best OER of the month ) or within the group (through personal appreciation). This phase can be summarized by the following principles: 1. Consider collaborative teaching 2. Allow feedback 3. Share positive feedback with all collaborators 4. Plan improvements with all collaborators 5. Share OER and OEP with the community The process described incorporates previous experiences on co-creation and user engagement (cf. OPAL, 2011). However, the concept of emotional ownership changes collaboration, sharing and feedback processes. It needs to be ensured that collaborators are encouraged, engaged and supported throughout the process. However, once the initial emotional ownership has been created, collaboration will improve and engagement will increase, even in phases of conflicts or stress. Summarizing the concept, emotional ownership can play an important role in the adoption of OER and OEP. However, new mechanisms of sharing, collaborating and communicating need to be developed and supported. Case Study: Collaborative Lecture Development In the following, I will briefly illustrate the concept using a case study approach (Yin, 2003). Given is the following scenario at a university a new course on knowledge management needs to be developed for a face to face setting (summer school). Lecturer A is responsible for developing and realizing the course. The initial course outline is established by Lecturer A and communicated to the students. In the first design phase, Lecturer A considers potential resources and contacts also two colleagues. These colleagues agree to provide their (already mature) materials to ease the development process. Based on these initial materials, Lecturer A provides an initial draft (syllabus, contents, draft slide sets) and communicates those to Lecturer B and C. These provide feedback and realize that their own materials can benefit from the collaboratively developed ideas. Lecturer A, B, and C decide to plan the process together. They identify which topics are common and which adaptations are necessary as they are teaching in two different countries. They identify that the key concepts of the lecture are common, only case studies need to be adapted to the curriculum and to cultural aspects. They decide that English will be used as a bridging language, later on translations to German and Finnish will be made. After finalizing three versions of the materials, the course is held in all three locations within 3 months. The feedback is shared, improvements are planned together. In this case, the sharing process has accidentally created emotional ownership in the process of sharing materials. The sharing process has led to an emotional binding and even to a teaching collaboration. After three years of collaborations, the course has been adapted many times and has been shared with different communities. 12 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

13 This short illustration shows at which points sharing, common planning and feedback sharing is required. The feedback of both groups, lecturers as well as students, has shown that this process is feasible and beneficial for all participants. As a next step, it is necessary to move the validation from a proof of concept to a quantitative validation including an operational assessment of emotional ownership in comparison to efforts and impact. Conclusion and Future Research In this paper, I have introduced the concept of emotional ownership to improve the adoption and ease the adaptation of OER and OEP. The development and re-use process has been outlined, identifying main tasks and changes to create and strengthen emotional ownership towards resources and practices. The brief case study illustrated that the concept is feasible also in accidental collaboration settings. As the main benefits of this paper, key principles of the sharing process and main changes to current practices were identified and operationalized. However, further validations in particular focusing on the assessment of emotional ownership are necessary. Acknowledgements This work has been partly conducted with co-operation of European Union-funded projects OpenScout: Skill-Based Scouting of Open Management Content (ECP-2008-EDU , and Open Discovery Space: A socially-powered and multilingual open learning infrastructure to boost the adoption of elearning resources (CIP , References Atkins, D. E., Brown, J. E., Hammond, A. L. (2007) A review of the Open Educational resources (OER) Movement: Achievement, Challenges and New Opportunities. Report to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Björnberg, Å., Nicholson, N. (2012): Emotional Ownership: The Next Generation s Relationship With the Family Firm, Family Business Review, 25. D'Antoni, S. (2007): Open Educational Resources. The Way Forward. Deliberations of an international community of interest. Paris: UNESCO Institute for Educational Planning. De Liddo, A. (2010): From Open Content to Open Thinking. In: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (Ed-Media 2010), 29 Jun, Toronto, Canada. Downes, S. (2007): Models for sustainable open educational resources. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 3. Retrieved 01/03/2010 from: 13 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

14 Hochschild A.R. (1983): The Managed Heart. Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, University of California Press. Jones, P., Jordan, J. (1998): Knowledge orientations and team effectiveness. International Journal of Technology Management, 16, Mikroyannidis, A., Okada, A., Little, S. and Connolly, T. (2011): Supporting the Collaborative Adaptation of Open Educational Resources: The OpenScout Tool Library, ED-MEDIA 2011, Lisbon, Portugal, AACE Ochoa, X., Duval, E. (2009): Quantitative Analysis of Learning Object Repositories, IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 2 (3), OPAL (2011): Guidelines for Open Educational Practices in Organizations - OEP Guide, Open Educational Quality Initiative. Pawlowski, J.M., Zimmermann, V. (2007): Open Content: A Concept for the Future of E-Learning and Knowledge Management? Proc. of Knowtech, Frankfurt, Nov Treviranus, J. (2010): The Value of Imperfection: the Wabi-Sabi Principle in Aesthetics and Learning, Proceedings of Open Ed 2010, United Nations, Barcelona. Yin, R. K. (2003): Case Study Research - Design and Methods, 5th ed., Vol. 45. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. 14 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

15 STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS MODELS FOR OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES Introduction Frank de Langen, Open University of the Netherlands For several years, the importance of continuous education has been stressed by several governmental and non-governmental institutions (Janssen and Schuwer, submitted, Marshall and Casserly, 2006). Education is seen as important both for personal growth and empowerment for one s personal wellbeing as well as for developing the required professional capabilities needed in today s society. In his 2011 State of the Union Obama puts emphasis on the government s ambitions to out-innovate and out-educate the rest of the world. Almost at the same time at the Davos World Economic Forum (2011) the urgency of appropriate education is stressed observing that the current lack of adequately educated people hinders prosperity and economic growth in the near future. The OECD is preparing a proposal to translate these intentions into a concrete policy. However, Kumar (2009) states that the present organization of education will not be able to meet the increasing demand for education, especially in newly developing countries as India and China. He sees the answer to this in the increasing possibilities of the internet in combination with open educational resources, which creates the opportunity to broaden the access of education towards different sectors and communities beyond the existing possibilities. Open Educational Resources are one of the instruments which can contribute to this development. Recently ideas emerged how open access and use of educational resources would serve education around the world. This vision of developing and sharing OER, open educational resources has great potential to substantially help solve some of the existing problems by enabling people across continents and organizations to transform their talents into professional competences and growth (see for example, Kumar, 2009, ETA, 2011, Stacey, 2012). Yet, due to the credit- and euro-crisis, but also as result of a change in (political) orientation, we see a withdrawal of funds away from OER, towards other goals. For example, the House Appropriations Committee adjusted the TAACCCT grant program in the sense that (Watters, 2011): None of the funds made available by this Act for the Department of Labor may be used to develop new courses, modules, learning materials, or projects in carrying out education or career job training grant programs unless the Secretary of Labor certifies, after a comprehensive market-based analysis, that such courses, modules, learning materials, or projects are not otherwise available for purchase or licensing in the marketplace or under development for students who require them to participate in such education or career job training grant programs." Similar statements have been made in the Netherlands (verbal communication, also see the blog of Wiley, 2012). It is therefore important to think about the sustainability of Open Educational resources in term of financial sustainability. This does not mean necessary that an OER-organization has to generate a competitive Return on Investment in financial terms for the providers, but it helps to maximize the effect of the supply of OER within the financial boundaries or possible expanding these boundaries, expanding possibilities. 15 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

16 Effort to supply, to exploit and maintenance OER can be financed through voluntary activities, but will also require financial support of some kind (see the discussion in Stacey, 2012). In this chapter, we will discuss shortly what a business model is, after which the motives of participants of the OER-system will be given. Based on work in de Langen (2011) we can give an overview of possible business models in terms of the Business Canvas of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2009). Moving on from the simple Osterwalder Business Canvas towards more complex value networks, we will argument that an OER-business model should involve both a network approach, but also a reversal of the concepts of the consumer and the stakeholder as used in regular business analysis. Open business models for OER The fact that educational materials should be given away for free inspired many authors to try to develop revenue models to analyze the different sources of possible funding for OER (Downes, 2006, Dholakia et al., 2006, Koohang et al., 2007, OECD, 2007, Guthrie et al., 2008, Lane, 2008, de Langen, 2008, Stacey, 2012). By focusing on revenue models (Afuah, 2004), these contributions ignore the complexity of the business model, which provide an integrated framework from inputs to the customer (Osterwalder, 2004, Chesbrough, 2006, Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2009, see figure 1). Alex Osterwalder on business models Figure 1: Alex Osterwalders Business Canvas There is a shift in attention in these new (Open) Business Models. Traditionally business models are used to describe the relationship between resources, activities and the product offering (Porter, 16 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

17 1985, De Wit and Meyer, 2005), viewed from the organization. In modern Open Business Models (especially Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2009, see for example ) the preferences of the consumer are more central. This is combined with the importance of alliances and cooperation on the side of the suppliers. Those two trends coincide with the work of Prahalad and Krishan (2008), for whom each consumer is unique (n=1) and co-creatorship between the supplier and the consumer exists. This uniqueness requires multiple partnerships, to fulfill all the preferences of this unique consumer (r=g in the philosophy of Prahalad and Krishan (2008)). The business model is opened up in two ways: the influence of the customer and the necessity of partnerships, shifting the view from the internal organization towards the environment. Central to this open approach is the question why customers and partners are interested in the offerings of the organization. In de Langen (2011) and Bitter and de Langen (2012) the methodology of these business models is linked to with the philosophy of open educational resources. Question then becomes why people, institutions and organizations participate in OER? To answer this, Hylen (2009) s listing of motives was used to analyze the motives of participants in OER (government, organizations, individuals). Table 1 gives an overview of the arguments used (see de Langen, 2011 for a more extensive treatment). Governments a. Sectoral arguments b. National arguments Organizations a. The public good motive b. The efficiency motive c. The marketing motive Users a. Institutionalised user, educators/institutions, using the open educational resources in their own teachings b. Students and self-learners, who want to further their knowledge Individuals a. Altruistic reasons b. Non-monetary gain c. Commercial reasons d. Arguments of usefulness or costs If the different motives of participants or stakeholders in OER were confronted with each other, it is possible to distinguish fields of tension where the motives of one stakeholder disagree with those of other stakeholders, for example when individuals supply OER from an altruistic motive, but their materials are used for marketing purposes by the organization offering the materials for potential students. It is also possible that the motives enforce each other. Based on overlapping motives, several different business models can be distinguished: 1. Freemium: giving away OER, to get paying students. For example the MIT-experience. This is the marketing motive. Also the split-component model of Mulder (2011) can be seen as a variant of the Freemium model. 2. Efficiency: exchanging OER to become more efficient and effective, for example Wikiwijs (http://www.wikiwijs.nl/sector/) or several government financed knowledge bases. Governments and educational organizations are prepared to contribute to the development and exploitation of these kind of educational instruments because they expect the cost of education to decline and/or the efficiency to rise. 17 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

18 3. Subsidizing: because of the perceived importance of education for the economic development and the social cohesion, different (international) institutions and national governments will subsidize the development and exploitation of OER. The involved organizations have to show that their OER does have a positive effect on the education locally or abroad. Several initiatives which were financed by private institutions as the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, public institutions as the different European governments (Lisbon agenda) and international public institutions as the European Union and Unesco. 4. Platforming: once an organization has a respected supply of OER, other producers of educational resources could choose to link their resources to the portal of this organization, or even host their materials there. The hosting organization can ask a contribution in the costs, supplying the OER for free. For example: The ARIADNE infrastructure provides access to some hundreds of thousands of learning resources from repositories and collections around the world. This infrastructure is serving a dual purpose: first, it hosts repositories for collaborating institutions that use the ARIADNE tools in order to set up and populate their repositories using the ARIADNE infrastructure; second, it harvests and stores locally metadata records from federated repositories that are hosted elsewhere and operated by institutions cooperating with ARIADNE. The following list is non-exhaustive as the ARIADNE network is continuously growing (http://www.ariadne-eu.org/repositories). Of course, combinations of the models above are possible. Writers as Osterwalder and Pigneur (2009) and Teece (2010) point to the importance of an explicit analyzes of the combination of models, in relation to the internal and external possibilities to avoid conflicts in the use of resources or market approaches. However, if open is defined in a strict sense; meaning that no kind of payment takes place between the users and the suppliers of OER, the only sustainable business model is the one based on grants and subsidies, whereas the marketing motive can be a reason for an organization to compensate for the costs of the OER-supply. This means that any organization offering OER should organize testimonials and other proof that the goals of the financers are met. New business model of OER: A community based model A Network Approach Figure 2: the OER-organization in an OER-system 18 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

19 Just as is the case with different kinds of patents and copyrights (see Chesbrough, 2006), there is no open market in which supply and demand for OER-products is coordinated. The role of an OERorganization within the OER-system could be to organize the market place. Instead of three interactions between the end-user, with the Institutions and Individual suppliers (for materials) and with the Government to testify of the importance of OER for its learning process, the end-user has only one relation, with the OER organization which coordinates the incoming streams of money, materials and testimonials and the outgoing streams, distributing the comments with respect of the supplied materials, the testimonials and the publicity. Traditional educational institutions earn their income by both educational subsidies and student fees. In contrast, the OER organization earns its income through: hosting activities quality controls distributional activities. Concrete, an OER organization in the sense above could be a real organization, as MIT or the Open University, or a web based platform as Ariadne or Opener. The overview above indicated that sustainability of OER will depend on the construction of a nonmonetary exchange system: depending on non-monetary exchange rather than monetary trade. By combining the targets of the different stakeholders, organizing an exchange of products, the independent OER-organization could create a sustainable system. As stated by Truyen et al (2011, 7): (..) it becomes clear that OER can only function as part of a well thought-through network that embeds the course in the knowledge and human activity domain it pertains to. Truyen et al (2011, figure 1) does situate OER in the middle between several stakeholders (also see the slides from the presentation by F. Truyen at the OER-HE stakeholder workshop at Leuven, 2011: Here, we see the organization supplying OER (called OER-organization) as the middle of a network, consisting of different stakeholders. This network will be called the OER-system (see figure 2) for short and we assume it to consist of individuals and other organizations using and providing OER, as other institutions and organizations with different motives to participate in OER (governments, institutions ect.). Value networks will emerge when there are externalities (Eriksson, 2010). Marshall-Arrow-Romer externalities indicate that firms will cooperate when there is differentiation and segmentation, leading to specialization (Eriksson, 2010, 14). The aim of cooperation is than cost reduction. Jacobs externalities appear when there is a congestion of similar firms, leading to co-production and integration (Eriksson, 2010, 15). These kind of externalities explain the appearance of Florida s creative cities and Silicon Valley. Verna Allee (in Eriksson (2010) sees the reason for cooperation in the realization of value through tangible relationships (formal, contracts) and intangible relationships (informal learning, knowledge sharing). 19 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

20 Of course, money should enter the system somewhere. Question is why organizations should cooperate within a OER-system. By restating the motives in terms of the products wanted and supplied, we can try to express the reasons for exchanges within this system.the financial relationships could then be minimized in volume if not in importance. Based on their motives of the participants in the OER-process, as described above, we can distinguish several products supplied and demanded by the participants in the total OER-system: Products demanded Participant Products supplied Testimonials Government Finances Efficiency (materials) Knowledge economy (degrees and informal learning) Reputation Individual supplier Materials Altruistic motives Comments Materials Comments Reputation Knowledge about OER and E- learning Institutional suppliers and users Efficiency (materials) Degrees Materials: Content and Knowledge Degrees Individual users OER-organization as intermediary Testimonials Comments Informal learning Knowledge about OER and E- learning Reputation and altruism Degrees In our future research we will extend this model, providing an abstract business model to analyze existing business models of OER organizations, using value networks: the value of partnerships. Asking: If a sustainable business model is depending on the way the partnerships are modeled, what will be the role of value networks in the sustainability? By incorporating these topics and using research on actual behavior (as been done in OERNED), the model above will be extended and improved. Using this model it should be possible to describe the organizational consequences of sustainability, using Osterwalder s Canvas (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2009). Value networks are used to analyze different business perspectives, as of cloud computing (Leimeister et al, 2010, Ojala et al., 2011), open source software (Morgan et al., 2010) open access (Rieger, 2011) and organizations in general (Vanhaverbeke and Cloodt, 2006, Oksanen et al., 2010). The conclusions of this research can be used to develop a model for OER. This chapter is concluded with the do s and don ts as resulted from these network analyses. 20 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

21 Morgan et al (2010) describe the role of value networks in open source software (OSS), where OSS is seen as a community based model, where geographically dispersed programmers collaborate to produce software. Success is described to depend on: 1. a high level of commitment 2. The volume and frequency of knowledge exchange and 3. The alignment of the goals of network participants. From Open Access (Rieger, 2011) we can learn the importance of : 1. a network of stakeholders; the Integration in the academic community and mandate/governance system 2. the systematic development of content 3. the importance of stability versus innovation 4. user-based strategies and feedback cycles: user central The organizational research starts from the customers needs, which (according to Okasanen et al., 2010, 381) defines the features and attributes of its production. In this case, a group of organizations will link together in a sense that all the participants of the consortium benefit. The value network is seen as an extended enterprise (Okasanen et al., 2010, 384). However, in their view the reason for participating in a network and the success factors do not only differ over firms and sectors, but also over the four stages of development, they distinguish in the dynamics of value networks.. However, a collective view on the dynamics is important in all stages of the value network (Okasanen et al., 2010, 394). From the analyzes of value constellations Vanhaverbeke and Cloodt, (2006) find that interorganizational networks linking firms with different assets and competencies together in response to or in anticipation of new market opportunities. However, from some other research it is known that almost identical firms find it easier than other firms to cooperate. It seems to depend on the sector in which the collaboration takes place. Yet, creating and capturing value neither happens spontaneously nor is it the result of an adaptation process of firms to changes in the business environment It requires a central firm that explores the potential to create value for customers in radically new ways and shapes the external environment accordingly. This can happen through acquisitions, licensing agreements, non-equity alliances, joint ventures, contracting and other types of relations that go beyond arm's-length relations. It requires a central firm that explores the potential to create value for customers in radically new ways and shapes the external environment accordingly through acquisitions, licensing agreements, non-equity alliances, joint ventures, contracting and other types of relations that go beyond arm's-length relations Also important is the perception of a fair value distribution in a value constellation, because some actors are automatically better off in the new constellation compared to the old value creating system, but others might be worse off and have to be compensated to get / stay committed to the value constellation. 21 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

22 Concluding, there seem some common requirements for the success of networks in different constellations. Most studies stress the importance of alignment in the strategy/goals of participants, of fairness as the distribution over the supply chain can change and in some cases- leadership within the network. The emergence of an OER-value network should take into account that the different participants should be seduced to participate. In this sense the OER-organization should take the lead, whereas towards other participants (other institutions or the government) taking the lead would be counterproductive. A conceptual model should be developed, based on the conclusions of the value network models in other sectors and industries, to analyze the existing OER-organizations before more definitive conclusions can be drawn. Literature (all websites checked November 2010 unless indicated different) Afuah, A. (2004), Business models. A strategic management approach, McGraw-Hill, Boston Bitter-Rijpkema, M.E. & De Langen, F. (2012), Positioning the OER business model of open education. EURODL , accessed 14 May Chesbrough, H., R. Rosenbloom (2002), The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: evidence from Xerox Corporation s technology spin-off companies, Industrial and Corporate Change, volume 11, number 3, p Chesbrough, H. (2006), Open innovation models: how to thrive in the new innovation landscape, Harvard business school press, Boston Massachusetts D Antoni, S., C. Savage (ed.) (2009), Open educational resources: Conversations in Cyberspace, UNESCO Davos World Economic Forum (2011), highlights-0 Dholakia, U., W. King, R. Baraniuk (2006), What Makes an Open Education Program Sustainable? The Case of Connexions, May Downes, S. (2006) Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources, National Research Council Canada Eriksson, A. (ed), (2010), The Matrix-Post Cluster Innovation Policy, VINNOVA, rapport 2010/10 ETA, 2011, News Release, Obama administration awards nearly $500 million in first round of grants to community colleges for job training and workforce development accessed 14 May EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

23 Guthrie, K., Griffiths, R. and Maron, N. (2008), Sustainability and Revenue Models for Online Academic Resources: An Ithaka Report, Hylén, J. (2009a), Why individuals and institutions share and use OER, Chapter 9 in D Antoni and Savage (2009) Hylén, J. (2009b), Mapping producers and users, Chapter 8 in D Antoni and Savage (2009) Janssen, B., R. Schuwer (submitted), Open Educational Resources and business models in Trendrapportage Surf (in Dutch) Koohang, A., K. Harman (2007), Advancing Sustainability of Open Educational Resources, Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology Volume 4, p Kumar, M.S.V. (2009) Open Educational Resources in India's national development, Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 24: 1,, 77-84, Lane, A. (2008), Reflections on sustaining Open Educational Resources: an institutional case study, elearning Papers, nr. 10, September, Langen, F.H.T, de (2008), Business cases in an electronic environment: lessons for e-education?, Working papers on management, GE 08-01, Open University, March Langen, F.H.T. de (2011), There is no business model for OER: a business model approach, Open Learning, Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 26, Iss. 3 Leismesiter, S, M. Böhm, C. Riedl, H. Krcmar, (2010), The business perspective of cloud computing: actors, roles and value networks, ECIS 2010 proceedings, Paper 56, aisle.aisnet.org/ecis2010/56 Marshall, S., C. Casserly (2006), The promise of Open Educational Resources, Change: the magazine of higher learning, 38:5, 8-17 Morgan, L., J. Feller, P. Finnegan (2010), Open Source as Open Innovation: creating and capturing value in value networks, Proceedings of IFIP 8.2/Organisations and Society in Information Systems, Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems, 10(106), sprouts.aisnet.org/ Mulder (2011), Classical and digital openness in a fascinating blend: global? institutional?, keynote speech at the Eadtu Annual Conference, Eskisehir, Turkey 3-4 November 2011 Obama, B (2011) State of the Union Ojala, A., P. Tyrväinen, (2011), Value networks in cloud computing, Journal of business strategy, vol 32, no Oksanen, P., J. Hallikas, H. Sissonen, (2010), The evolution of value networks, Int. J. Networking and virtual organizations, Vol 7, no. 4, EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

24 Osterwalder, A (2004), The Business Model Ontology: a proposition in a design science approach, Thesis, l Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de l Université de Lausanne, Osterwalder A., Pigneur, Y. (2009), Business Model Generation, self published Porter, M.E. (1985), Competitive Advantage, Free Press, New York, 1985 Prahalad, C.K., M.S. Krishan (2008), The New Age of Innovation, New York Rieger, O.Y.,(2011) Assessing the Value of Open Access Information Systems: Making a Case for Community Based Sustainability Models, Journal of Library Administration, Vol. 51, Iss Stacey, P., The economics of Open, March 4, 2012, accessed 14 May Teece, D.J., (2010), Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation, Long Range Planning, 43, Truyen, F., Van Dorp, K., Janssen, B., Rivera, J., Griset, R., Kuppens, A. (2011). Open Educational Resources in a Muli-Campus and Virtual Campus Environment. In Gómez Chova, L. (Ed.), Martí Belenguer, D. (Ed.), López Martínez, A. (Ed.), EDULEARN11 Proceedings CD. EduLearn. Barcelona, Spain, 4th-6th July 2011 (pp ). Barcelona, Spain: International Association of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), p. 6. Vanhaverbeke, W., M. Cloodt, (2006) Chapter 13: Open innovation in value networks, manuscript, October 26, 2005 for Henry Chesbrough, Wim Vanhaverbeke and Joel West, eds. Open innovation: researching a New Paradigm, Oxford University Press. Watters, Audrey, 2011, Appropriations Bill May Strip Federal Funding for Open Educational Resources, 05 Oct, 2011, accessed 14 May 2012 Wiley, David, 2012, 2017: RIP, OER? February 3, 2012, accessed 14 May 2012 Wit, B. de, R. Meyer (2005), Strategy Synthesis, London 24 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

25 A VIEW ON PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS THROUGH APPROACHES TO LEARNING Esteban Romero-Frías (University of Granada; Jose L. Arquero Montaño (University of Sevilla; Abstract In the past years the impact of social media in students in Higher Education has been remarkably significant (Pew Research Center, 2010). In order to exploit the potential benefits of these tools on education, we carried out different experiments using wikis and private social networks. Although the results were positive, we decided to move towards a more open approach using tools not directly linked to educational purposes. This paper reports on an experience in the use of Personal Learning Environments (PLE) to develop competences needed by students for lifelong learning. PLE is a concept that refers to the set of tools, devices, connections and networks that we used to learn. Nowadays building a digital PLE is key to achieve the goals set by the European Union. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the influence of the approaches to learning of students in the reported effects of the PLE as well as in relevant aspects of the learning process. 245 students enrolled in a course on International Accounting participated in the experience of developing their own digital PLE. Some of the activities proposed used social networks, Twitter, blogs and wikis. The data were gathered through a web based questionnaire in two steps: 1) to obtain a priori self-confidence measures regarding communication in academic tasks and web related tasks, and 2) to obtain a measure of the approaches to learning of the students and self-confidence measures. According to students opinion, the experience was deemed as positive. In order to check the relationships between the impact of the experience and the approach to learning of students, a cluster analysis was performed. Students were classified into two groups. The cluster #1 presents low scores on deep approach and higher scores on surface approach than students classified into cluster #2.Comparing the scores obtained in all the aspects of learning between the two groups, many differences arise. Students in the deep approach group indicated a significant higher impact in all measured aspects. Results suggest that certain type of students, more flexible and likely to manage information in their own, is able to use PLEs more effectively to learn than those who present a more pragmatic orientation focussed on passing the course. 25 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

26 Introduction Social Web or Web 2.0 has become very popular in the last years, particularly among new generations that use this type of tools (such as social networks) in daily basis. For example, the Pew Research Center (2010) reported that 95% of Millennials in the United States (generation born between 1977 and 1992) go online and that 83% use Social Networking Sites. In Spain, the AIMC s survey on Internet users Navegantes en la red (October-December 2011) reports some facts and figures that describe the context of the educational experience that we analysed in this paper: Increase in the use of smartphones and tablets, geolocalized services and cloud computing applications. Use of different social networks: Facebook 90%, Twitter 37%, Tuenti 25%, Google+ 25,5%. 68% of respondents accessed a social network the day before. Main uses of social networks: friendship relationships 84%, hobbies 37% and professional relationships 32%. Social software or Web 2.0 services are remarkably effective in connecting people and in facilitating the exchange of information, providing new opportunities for improving the acquisition of transversal competences in higher education. The European Commission (2008) highlighted the need for integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in all levels of education in order to support lifelong learning and innovation. LMS and LMS Supported by social practices and by institutional recommendations, we decided to use Web tools to improve an offline course on International Accounting by establishing a space to create, share and connect all type of content and relationships. Currently the most extended way to incorporate Internet into education is through the use of Learning Management Systems (LMS). LMS, such as Moodle or Blackboard, are fully seated on educational institutions. Most universities have one or more of these systems as instruments to deliver virtual courses or to support offline courses. However, as mentioned before, the emergence of the Social Web or Web 2.0 has created new trends based on the pedagogical and learning capabilities of these tools (social networks, blogs, wikis, etc.). LMS are designed to facilitate management and administrative task done by teachers. However, the new generation of tools allows new pedagogical designs based on creating and sharing contents and connections in the open environment of the Web as a whole or within the huge interaction spaces created by social networks. Some authors (Brown and Adler, 2008) pointed out that LMS do not fulfil all the expectations given to them. For example, Atwell (2007) indicates that learning design is usually more focused on the institution or the course rather than on the students needs to improve learning. Also LMS constitute closed environments that generally are used to provide contents, replicating the traditional offline system, without generating opportunities to acquire competences and knowledge from experience and interaction with non-formal learning spaces (emergent learning). 26 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

27 In order to solve these problems we decided to adopt a different approach to incorporate Web tools to education, the Personal Learning Environments (PLE). A PLE can be defined in different ways. Atwell (2007) indicates that a PLE is not an application, but is comprised of all the different tools we use in our everyday life for learning. Nowadays, many of these tools are based in Social software that fits the learning subject s needs. Basically, a PLE is a concept that refers to the set of tools, devices, connections and networks that we used to learn. Social software (Redecker et al., 2010) is considered to be effective in developing essential skills (selecting relevant information, critically interpreting and analysing the socio-cultural context, working collaboratively, sharing knowledge, etc.). The development of a PLE integrating Web 2.0 tools allow students to face the real world context by using tools that could be used in personal basis after ending the formal course or the formal education period. The development of a PLE could contribute to achieve the purpose of lifelong learning. The use of PLEs instead of Learning Management Systems allows the subject: To use for learning purposes tools that are generally used for social purposes (i.e. Twitter, blogs, social networks, etc.). To create a sustainable environment for lifelong learning that goes beyond the formal educational period at the University (Atwell, 2007). To develop the student s own digital reputation (personal branding) to facilitate employability. Description of the experience By definition a PLE is personal, however we proposed the students to use a set of commonly used Web tools that are considered to accomplished different objectives (see the table below). Tool Type Use Activities included in the final evaluation Facebook Social Network We set a private group to communicate and coordinate activities in the course. Twitter Microblogging (Information Network) To disseminate information and to interact with other users. - - To search and disseminate information using a particular hashtag #NCI2011. Assessment 5% 27 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

28 Blog Publishing platform To create content with a critical point of view. The teacher s blog was used to publish activities and materials for the course. To write two critical articles in the own student s blog on business issues. To write a short essay about the use of the PLE. 10% 5% Descuadrando.com, the open encyclopedia on business Wiki To create content with a neutral and objective point of view. To write two encyclopedia entries. 10% In addition to the activities indicated in the table, the students had to do a final exam (70% grade). Other tools such as Slideshare or Google Docs were used during the course. Objectives Once described the experience, the first objective of this paper is to analyse its impact in relevant aspects of the learning process. The second objective is to test the existence of differences in the reported impact due to the approach to learning taken by the student and relevant self-confidence measures. As Arquero et al (2010) indicate, the main studies on approaches to learning, from Marton and Saljo (1976 and 1984), identified two basic approaches to learning that may be adopted by students: deep and surface approaches. A student taking a deep approach tries to make sense of what is to be learnt in terms of ideas and concepts. In this case, the student s conception of learning is understanding. In contrast a student adopting a surface approach sees what is to be learnt as a series of unconnected facts that need to be memorised. The student s conception of learning is reproducing. Method Sample The sample is composed of 245 students enrolled in International Accounting, an elective subject taught at the Business & Administration Degree. The vast majority of students (87%) were enrolled in the business degree, the rest in the joint degree law-business. Most students are enrolled in high 28 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

29 courses, more than 75% in 3 rd and 4 th courses. By gender, the composition of the sample is 37% male, 63% female. Students age range from 19 to 32 years old, with a mean of 19. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 168 students. Instruments The data were gathered though a web based questionnaire in two steps. The first set of questions was designed to obtain a priori self-confidence measures regarding communication in academic tasks (6 items) and SNS related tasks (14 items). This questions were designed to be answered from 0, no confidence at all, to 10 total confidence, being 5 just acceptable. This scale is used due to the familiarity for the students of this range of assessment (identical to the one used in the grade system). The first instrument also included the N-SPQ 3f, a questionnaire designed to measure the approaches to learning of the students. This instrument is a modification of the reduced version of the SPQ-3f by Fox et al (2001) adapted by Fernández y Arquero (2011). This first part of the questionnaire was distributed during the first week of the course. The second set of questions is based on the instrument used by Arquero and Romero-Frías (2012) and was designed to obtain information on the impact of the innovation in relevant aspects: Active learning (7 items) Collaborative learning (11 items) Content learning (4 items) Communication skills (4 items) Critical thinking (3 items) General assessment (4 items) The questions are to be responded in a 5 points Likert scale from 1 total disagreement to 5, total agreement, being 3 the neutral point. Scores on individual items were used to build additive scales for each aspect assessed. In order to allow comparisons, those scales range from 1 to 5. This part of the questionnaire was administered once the course was ended. Results An overwhelming majority of students had previous contact with SNSs. 95% indicated that they had a Facebook account before the course, and close to 50% access this account at least once a day. This percentage rises to 96% when the question points to the Internet in general terms. About 60% of students used a general SNS previously for academic purposes, although 40% never used Facebook or Tuenti for such tasks. The relevance of laptops and mobile devices is increasing rapidly: 92% of students have a laptop and 52% a smartphone with Internet access. 29 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

30 Regarding the impact of the innovation in relevant aspects of the learning process, in general terms, the experience was deemed very positive by students in all aspects covered in the questionnaire. As table 1 shows, students reported a positive impact of the experience in all the aspects assessed. Table 1. Impact of the innovation on learning. Descriptive statistics. Active learning Collabor. learning Communic. skills Content learning Critical thinking General assessm. Valid Missing Mean 3,8 4,0 3,6 3,7 3,8 3,9 Std. Dev. 0,7 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,5 0,7 t-test sig.*,000,000,000,000,000,000 * t-test comparing the mean against the neutral point (3) SNS and other tools integrated in the PLE are expected to have a positive impact on collaborative aspects of learning. The results support this expectative (mean: 4). Analysing in depth the component of this score (table 2), students indicated a very positive impact due to the possibility of learning from other students: from the opinions and contributions and by getting questions solved by other students. Table 2. Collaborative learning items. Descriptive statistics The tools used and activities developed... Mean Mode S.D. - Helped us to solve questions and doubts about the subject to 4,42 4 0,60 another students. - Allow all the members of the class to benefit from the contributions 4,39 4 0,62 and opinions made by the students. - Make easier to approach the teaching staff to get questions and 4,38 5 0,72 doubts about the subject solved. - Allow sharing easily other interests (academic or personal) with 4,21 4 0,74 other classmates. - Help to the diffusion and sharing of our own ideas and points of view 4,15 4 0,69 to the rest of the group. - Facilitate the teamwork of the groups. 4,08 4 0,73 - Helped us to better communicate with the classmates. 3,92 4 0,83 - Helped us to learn from and consider the views and opinions of 3,89 4 0,64 other students on a certain topic. - Allow an easier coordination with other students for another 3,86 4 0,77 activities out of the subject (v.g. tasks or papers for another subjects). - Helped to get in touch with classmate that otherwise we could not 3,60 4 0,91 meet. - Helped to adopt a more proactive attitude opening links with classmates. 3,52 4 0,86 30 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

31 The possibility to access easily to the teaching staff is also highly valued. The second question aimed to investigate whether there was any influence of the approaches to learning of the students and the perceived effect of the innovation. In order to check these relationships a cluster analysis was performed. Students were classified into two groups, according to their approaches to learning (table 3). Table 3. Final clusters centers Cluster #1 #2 SPQ_deep_ini 15,33 21,79 SPQ_surf_ini 14,33 11,10 Sig of differences The cluster #1 (n: 64) presents low scores on deep approach and higher scores on surface approach than students classified into cluster #2 (n: 75). In general terms, students in cluster #2 present a more appropriate approach to learning, in comparison with their counterparts. Comparing the scores obtained in all the aspects of learning between the two groups, many differences arise (table 4). Table 8. Impact of the innovation on learning by cluster N Mean S.D. t-test sig q_active 1 surface 64 3,5848, deep 75 4,0286,46202 q_colabo 1 surface 64 3,9105, r 2 deep 75 4,1903,38603 q_comun 1 surface 64 3,4375, deep 75 3,8100,55726 q_conten 1 surface 64 3,5156, t 2 deep 75 3,9200,55012 q_critical 1 surface 64 3,6563, deep 75 3,9689,44913 q_val_gr 1 surface 64 3,6445, al 2 deep 75 4,1300,53170 Students in the deep approach group indicated a significant higher impact in all measured aspects. Therefore, students that present an a priori more appropriate approach towards learning are also more likely to obtain a better result from innovations. Examining actual academic performance, 31 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

32 students at deep approach cluster obtained better results in the exams (7,1 versus 6,2; t-test sig: 0.004). Discussion of the results The main aim of the present paper was to assess the impact of using a PLE in a offline course on International Accounting. The PLE include a selection of digital tools that fits the learning subject s needs. The results are indicative of a positive impact in all the aspects of learning measured. This impact is similar to the results obtained using specifically designed SNSs (Arquero & Romero-Frías, 2012) with the advantage that general purpose tools are available outside the academic context and most of the students have previous experience (at least with some of them). This previous experience could act as a facilitator that allows obtaining similar results in comparison with specifically designed tools where students have no previous experience. When comparing results of students presenting different approaches to learning several differences appear. Deep approach students tend to consider the educational experience as having a higher impact in terms of acquisition of competences, present higher levels of self confidence in their own capabilities (specially in communication tasks) and finally obtain better grades in the exam. In this way they could have an active role in the learning process not as a mere consumer of content but as a participant. Further evidence on the impact of ICT in education is needed, particularly in the use of social software and PLE approaches to education. References Arquero, J.L., González, J.M., Hassall, T., Joyce, J., Germanou, H. & Asonitou, S. (2010). The Approaches To Learning Of European Accounting Students. EuroMed Journal of Business. Vol: 5-3, Doi / Arquero and Romero-Frías (2012). Personal learning environments and approaches to learning. British Accounting and Finance Association. Accounting Education SIG Annual Conference. Sheffield, May Attwell, G. (2007). The Personal Learning Environments - the future of elearning? elearning Papers, 2(1). Brown, J.S. & Adler, R.P. (2008). Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, and Learning 2.0. Educause Quarterly, 42(6): European Commission (2008). The use of ICT to support innovation and lifelong learning for all - A report on progress. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved from European Commission website (31 July 2009): 32 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

33 Fernández Polvillo, C. y Arquero, J.L. (2011). Evaluación de Innovaciones y Enfoques de Aprendizaje. Presentación Preliminar de un Instrumento de Medida. En: Buitrago Esquinas, E. y Sánchez Franco, M.J. (editores): Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES).Innovaciones Metodológicas en la Economía y la Empresa, Edición S.L.L., Sevilla, pp Fox, R., McManus, I.C. & Winder, B. (2001). The shortened Study Process Questionnaire: An investigation of it structure and longitudinal stability using confirmatory factor analysis. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71: Marton F. & Saljo R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning - 1 Outcome and process. British Journal of Educational Psychology, (46): Marton F. & Saljo R. (1984). Approaches to learning, in Marton et al (Eds.) The Experience of Learning, Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh. Pew Research Center (2010). Generations Retrieved from Pew Research Center (14 February 2011): Redecker, C., Ala-Mutka, K., Bacigalupo, M., Ferrari, A. & Punie, Y. (2010) Learning 2.0: The Impact of Web 2.0 Innovations on Education and Training in Europe (Final Report). Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. European Commission. Retrieved from: 33 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

34 ANALYSIS OF SUCCESSFUL MODES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION AND USE OF OPENCOURSEWARE (OCW) & OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES (OER) IN HIGHER EDUCATION Edmundo Tovar (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), Igor Lesko (OpenCourseWare Consortium), Eva Sancho (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid) Abstract This paper presents results from research on the use of OCW and OER in Higher Education (HE). The research was carried out with leaders of OCW/OER initiatives at HE Institutions and Organizations around the world. The aim was to identify successful practices for implementation and use of OCW/OER in HE and to investigate how OCW/OER could facilitate student virtual mobility. The aim of the paper is not to provide a thorough analysis of the use of OCW/OER around the world but to highlight important lessons learned from the studied initiatives. The findings provide important insights into factors that enable as well as inhibit implementation and use of OCW/OER in HE and subsequently enable or inhibit student virtual mobility. These factors are predominantly related to institutional support, copyright or faculty s perceptions and attitudes towards open sharing in education. Furthermore, it appears from the findings that insufficient consideration is placed on how OCW/OER could facilitate student virtual mobility. In conclusion, we highlight important successful lessons learnt for the implementation and use of OCW/OER in HE and briefly propose next steps for developing scenarios for the promotion of student virtual mobility through the use of OCW/OER. The research was carried as part of the project on OpenCourseWare in the European Higher Education Context: how to make use of its full potential for virtual mobility. The Project is contextualized within the framework Mobility strategies and removal of barriers to mobility in HE (http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/llp/erasmus/erasmus_multilateral_projects_en.php). One of the Project s aims is to identify existing scenarios, and propose new ones, for the promotion of virtual mobility for students and life long learners by using OCW in an European environment. The focus of the Project is the creation of preconditions for a strong European OCW framework. A stronger framework, we believe, will mean closer cooperation between European institutes, which may result in mutual use of materials. Mutual sharing and use of materials will enhance quality and increase the usage of online courses, therefore facilitating virtual student mobility and an increase in real student mobility. An improved European OCW network will improve conditions for Lifelong Learners, an important user group of OCW/OER. The Project is carried out with support the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union. 34 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

35 Methodology In consultation with the Project partners, a survey instrument containing 26 questions (closed and open-ended) was developed during January/February The questions were related to the following aspects: 1. Motivation behind implementing OCW/OER initiatives 2. Characteristics of the initiatives such as licenses used, types of materials published under open licenses, language of materials or links to repositories where OCW/OER are stored 3. Use of OCW/OER in Teaching & Learning. Questions in this category were soliciting feedback related to the ways in which OCW/OER are used in teaching and learning, to describing characteristics of learners and faculty involved in the projects or to providing information as to how the learning process via OCW/OER is evaluated or certified (if applicable) 4. Exploration of factors that inhibit or enable implementation of OCW/OER initiatives as well as identification of benefits to the institutions involved in OCW/OER initiatives. 5. Existence of open content policies (institutional or national) For this paper, we consider responses only to a selected number of questions; questions that we consider relevant when attempting to identify modes for successful implementation and use of OCW/OER. A full report, incorporating analyses of all questions in the survey instrument, will be available on the Project s website (http://www.opencourseware.eu/) as part of Deliverable 1.1 under Work Package 1. Responses to the survey were received from 31 Higher Education Institutions and organizations (see Table I below) from 14 different countries namely the United States, South Korea, United Kingdom, Indonesia, Taiwan, Israel, Spain, Dominican Republic, Canada, Estonia, Portugal, Finland, Germany and Italy. Table I. Institutions participating in the study Names of Institutions Johns Hopkins School of Public Health People's Open Access Education Initiative MEITAL Sterling College Silla University APTIKOM Taipei Medical University Centro de Enseñanzas Virtuales de la Universidad de Granada Universitat de Barcelona Universidad de Cantabria Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia Universitat Politecnica de Valencia Instituto Tecnológico de Las Américas (ITLA) Links to information about the Initiatives ocw.jhsph.edu Not yet applicable & & & 35 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

36 The Saylor Foundation Open.Michigan open.umich.edu OCAD University Inclusive Design Institute National Taiwan Normal University Universidad de Sevilla MIT University of California, Irvine The Open University UK Tallinn University & Universitat Oberta de Catalunya ocw.uoc.edu & openaccess.uoc.edu Universidade Aberta, PT LECH and Netcu Erasmus projects The Open University of Israel Metropolia UAS Cogi, Inc FernUniversität in Hagen Università Telematica Internazionale Uninettuno Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Analysis of Results Characteristics of studied OCW/OER Initiatives Majority of respondents (81%) defined initiatives at their Institutions as OpenCourseWare (OCW) with the remaining 19% contextualizing their projects within the broader spectrum of Open Educational Resources (OER). Most of the OCW/OER from the initiatives described in this paper are located within institutional repositories with a number of them being also available in external repositories. Such repositories include YouTube, itunesu and more. The OCW/OER materials are published under a variety of Creative Commons (CC) licenses and in more than 20 different languages. 36 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

37 Main Goals & Objectives of OCW/OER initiatives Graph 1: Goals & Objectives of OCW/OER initiatives. Respondents could select more than one option, therefore totals and percentages add up to more than 31/100%. The results suggest that the main aims of these initiatives are to promote creation, sharing and use of OCW/OER at their institutions. OER/OCW projects are also introduced with an aim to improve existing educational materials or to improve learning experiences of students. On the contrary to this, there is no special emphasis on investigating attitudes and beliefs towards OCW/OER. Furthermore, little attention appears to be given to how OCW/OER could facilitate physical or virtual mobility. A number of respondents stated that OCW/OER initiatives are aligned with their institutional vision/mission or existing policies to provide, increase or widen access to education/educational materials. Furthermore, such initiatives are also considered to be important in the context of an institution s marketing activities. OCW/OER materials are used to showcase educational quality to the rest of the world in order to develop new partnerships or collaborations or to attract new students into formal degree programs. Respondents commented the following: (OCW/OER) Extend the mission of the School which is to provide education in public health discipline to include those who may not be able to enroll in degree programs. Our University is trying to use OCW as a way to encourage professors to use New Technologies in Education. We also try to improve our educational materials, to show what we do all over the world and to improve the learning experiences of the students. 37 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

38 The OCW movement forms part of the solidarity policies of the university management team whose aim is to take knowledge to countries with less educational resources and to under privileged sectors. The fact that this is a worldwide movement also fits the international cooperation policies of our university. At the same time, our OCW site is a showcase of the university's high teaching standards resulting in a way to attract new students. The Saylor Foundation is a non-profit whose mission is to provide free education for all, deploying openly-available resources in fully-articulated, college-level courses. These courses are made available online for use by anyone at any time; we especially seek to assist those students who have limited opportunities for higher education as a result of excessive cost, geography, or other barriers to access. Sharing our best-practices for the public good, and facilitating the usage of OERs among other universities in Israel. The pioneering of the OCW project at the Open University of Israel catalyzed the participation of other institutions. The purpose is to set up a site for sharing courseware in our university and promote the usage of OER - both creating them and using them. The primary use of our OER is to allow the wider and simpler access to knowledge to disadvantage people. We support the university's mission, including education for all. We support goals both of individual professors, some of whom are committed to the general idea of the project as well as support the university's interests through raising its profile among a wide variety of audiences. The Use of OCW/OER in the Context of Teaching and Learning The use of OCW/OER in Teaching and Learning Frequency Percentage To achieve professional qualifications 7 22% To obtain official degrees 4 13% To support teaching 25 78% To increase physical mobility 2 6% To increase virtual mobility 6 19% To simply provide open materials 24 75% Other 7 22% Table II: How OCW/OER are used in the context of teaching and learning. Respondents could select more than one option, therefore totals and percentages add up to more than 31/100%. The findings indicate that OCW/OER are predominantly used to support teaching & learning activities, or to simply provide access to learning materials (by making course content available in online repositories under open licenses). As stated earlier, there is very little consideration as to how OCW/OER could increase virtual or physical student mobility or how learning achieved via OCW/OER could count towards formal degrees or qualifications. 38 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

39 In a small number of cases, OCW/OER are integrated in the curriculum. Students are expected to use OCW/OER as part of their course requirements and the learning is formally evaluated (through exams). In some cases, the evaluation process counts towards students final course mark. In other cases, it creates opportunities for students to earn a credit or to obtain a certificate of completion. These are important findings to consider when thinking of ways to encourage the use of OCW/OER but also when considering how such materials could facilitate virtual or physical student mobility. Respondents commented the following: There are some professors using OCW at the classroom, or using it as an "e-learning" tool. Moreover, we are working with some faculties to show all their courses in OCW: Nursing, Economics, Business Administration, Mines and Energetic Resources. In the future, we think that it could be possible to use OCW for postgraduate courses or for lifelong learning. OER are not officially integrated in the curricula but some instructors direct their own students to their OCW course as an alternative to the same course on the university learning platform. Is supporting the teaching and learning process. The typical use case is a professor referencing their own video lectures and materials for use of current students. This is in three ways. A proportion of every course/module (5%) is made openly available. Equally all module teams are encouraged and supported in identifying OER to include as resources for their module. Lastly OER are used as part of e-learning journey for people to move from informal learning to formal learning and back again as part of their lifelong learning. As the main materials supporting the teaching of the courses (formal or informal). Some OER are well organized. Each week, I require student read one topic according to the OER schedule. Then, I assign homework, either in team or in person. Students have to submit the homework on time each week. Faculty use OER when creating lecture content and courses that include a large component of online technologies. Many of our undergraduate courses are large at U-M and faculty use online content to complement the class and lab sizes. Much of this includes interactive experiences, like OER or Open Access quizzes, digitized primary source documentation and original video content. They use the OCW site to support flexibility in classes, eg. one section used the video lectures rather than a face-to-face course and another was able to accommodate student absences around holidays. Otherwise, we can't report different educational designs based on OERs. There is homework each week. The instructor will score the homework. In the end of one semester, Instructor will count all the scores and come up a final score. If students pass, they can get the credits. We are incorporating badges into the Open.Michigan experience for our community members who go through training, attend events or publish content with open licenses. These badges will 39 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

40 eventually address learning needs and may potentially support the review of an OER module hosted on the Open.Michigan collection. Currently, each of our courses concludes with a final examination, which is administered through Moodle.com. Individuals receiving a grade of a 70% or higher on the final exam are given the option to download a certificate of completion. In the future, we plan to issue Mozilla open badges in addition to certificates. We will create badges that are tied to some sort of evidence, to be determined, but most likely based on quizzes. Factors that Enable or Inhibit Implementation and Use of OCW/OER in HE Respondents identified a number of factors that contribute to successful implementation of OCW/OER initiatives. These are related to the following aspects: Institutional support An institution supports open sharing in education through: Actively encouraging participation in the production and sharing of OCW/OER amongst faculty members Implementing open content or open access policies Providing resources (financial and staff) to assist faculty members in the production of OCW/OER Providing incentives to faculty members to engage in the production and sharing of OCW/OER Positive attitudes from faculty members The respondents commented the following: Enthusiasm and determination of OCW Office team. Firm belief of faculty in OCW movement. We incentivize the production of OER with a small economic prize. We also issue certificates of the produced OER so that faculty can include it in their educational curricula. Teachers remuneration. Institutional and staff support. Personal enthusiasm of some academics, support of European projects and development funds, organizational culture. Senior management wants to keep the project going. A new portal is expected to be launched in 2013 with new technology. Many teachers are eager to publish the material, and the general attitude to this is great. 40 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

41 We also have institutionally supported open access initiatives on campus. Thanks to incentive programs to our faculty, we have achieved an increased number of annual contributions to the OCW repository of our university. More than 200 teachers of our university have worked with us. We give to them all the facilities to upload their materials and to improve them. Faculty from all disciplines taught at UC3M take part in the OCW project. They are provided with support from the OCW Office but most of them follow our DIY model for sustainable course production, and do most of the production process by themselves. Helsinki University has committed to publish all research openly. The factors that inhibit implementation of OCW/OER projects or that inhibit the use of OCW/OER (especially when attempting to reuse materials produced elsewhere) are the following: Lack of institutional support Negative attitudes from faculty Copyright-related challenges Lack of information about institutional benefits related to OCW/OER projects Difficulties with finding appropriate and quality OCW/OER (when attempting to reuse materials produced elsewhere) The respondents commented the following: Lack of information. Copyright issues when authors reuse materials from others. Lack of official institutional support. We have problems with copyright (we have to find new resources or make them). When we are working with a full degree, sometimes we have problems with some professors, because they don't want to participate. We would like more implication for the Institution (direct link from the main page of our university to OCW). Copyright related issues are complicated and can require considerable time and effort, on behalf of the OCW Office staff, to help faculty clear their materials of third party IP rights. The project is run with limited resources, a team of 3 (1 full time, 2 part-time), but has not been a drawback to encouraging faculty to take part in our OCW project and to being an active member of the OCW movement. Motivational issues for teaching staff combined with institutional support factors. Lack of resources to help faculty in the creation of OER. We try to make available to the faculty a wide range of tools that they can use to produce the OER by themselves, or with a little help from our staff. 41 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

42 Negative attitudes from faculty. The teachers time. We intend one day to host 100% of our materials. The barriers have been (1) finding sufficient, quality OER, (2) Managing dead links to external materials, and (3) dealing with copyright barriers and some resistance of content owners to re-license their material. Currently we are not fully supported by the university, but housed in the Medical School. Our university is primarily focused on in-person education and we can face some resistance from faculty about "giving away" their content. There is still confusion (at all levels) about what licenses are, how they work with copyright and what it means to use them and we continue to educate our community about these issues. This is a topic in our e-learning Council of University right now and preparing a new e-learning strategy for our university. The teaching load is very high and it is not always easy to motivate teachers to use extra time in developing OERs. There are no motivation systems and involvement of different faculties varies. The institutional support is weak. Copyright issues were resolved through a special budget allocated to clearing rights where needed. While the senior management was supportive, the faculty failed to cooperate and could not identify with the project goals. Observed benefits of OCW/OER initiatives to the Institutions Respondents identified several benefits to their institutions resulting from their OCW/OER projects, such as increased international visibility (based on user statistics), increased numbers of students (in some cases) and new collaborations: Content of OCW courses is used by educators, professionals, and independent learners, as seen from anecdotal results from feedback. Providing OCW has become one of University's KPIs. This initiative does not yet apply to any business model but could be in the future. Benefits come for the increase of visibility and collaboration at international level. Now we have more than visits every month Benefits obtained: -Collaboration with other universities -Greater visibility for faculty and for their course materials -Recognition for faculty (awards) -University showcase, of interest to school leavers, to attract new students. 42 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

43 As a public university in an era of austerity, the attraction of highly qualified students outside of California is a core goal. The OCW website attracts 1/3 of its visitors from the rest of the US and 1/3 internationally. Reputationally, we are becoming known for our OCW projects in many parts of the world. On an outbound basis, professors look for a way to send their materials to colleagues in other countries. More internationalization, more students, marketing of our materials, promotion of the university. Conclusion and next steps The lessons learnt from this research indicate that there are a number of factors which need to be considered with regard to succesful implementation and use of OCW/OER in Higher Education. Institutional support and positive attitudes from faculty members have been identified as the most important enablers for such initiatives but can also act as major inhibitors as far as lack of institutional support or negative attitudes from faculty members are concerned. Incentive programmes for faculty members proved to be beneficial and to encourage participation in the production and sharing of OCW/OER. Copyright-related challenges, plus issues related to finding appropriate and good quality OCW/OER, both act as inhibitors to either producing or resuing/repurposing OCW/OER produced elsewhere. This highlights the need for continuous training and support in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for more institutional case studies or success stories describing best practices and lessons learnt, as well as highlihgting institutional benefits to implementing OCW/OER initiatives at HE institutions. Finally, the findings revealed that insufficient consideration is given to how OCW/OER could facilitate student virtual mobility, which is the main focus of this research project. Next steps Based on the findings, information related to the various uses of OCW/OER in HE was organized into a mindmap (see Figure I). 43 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

44 Figure 1. Uses of OER through the survey done This instrument was used in a workshop on Scenarios for the promotion of virtual mobility by using OCW during Cambridge 2012 Conference. The aim of the workshop was to identify successful OCW scenarios to reach virtual mobility between HEI in the EU. Ultimately, these scenarios will be used to elaborate guidelines for the successful implementation and use of OCW for virtual mobility. Acknowledgements This research was carried out as part of the project on OpenCourseWare in the European HE context How to make use of its full potential for virtual mobility with the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union. Authors would like to thank to the Project partners for their valuable contribution to this study. 44 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

45 TEACHING AND SOCIAL MEDIA: BEST PRACTICES Juan Julián Merelo 1, Rosana Montes 2, Fernando Tricas 3 1 Open Software Office, University of Granada 2 Virtual Learning Centre, University of Granada 3 School of Engineering and Architecture, University of Zaragoza Abstract Social media is increasingly a part of our life. This is also the case for our students: most of them have Facebook, some of them have a Twitter account and they are more and more accustomed to these tools and others so it makes sense to try to integrate some of them in our teaching routines: the class is not only a place, but a set of resources available on-line and off-line in such a way that on-line resources enrich our interaction with teaching topics. From our experience, the use of such those tools should not be an additional work but it should be a way to provide more value with contained cost: the wide availability of tools should help us to find the ones that are adequate to us and which can be integrated in our daily routines without too much harm. We have investigated in the past in integrating several tools for a connected class [1] and in trying to expand the ways we can interact with students using these tools [2]. Social media include a host of internet-accessible applications (social networks, microblogs, LMS) and devices (desktop, mobile and sensors) which are already integrated into our daily life. The best way to incorporate them into our daily teaching routines is to make use of them in the most natural way, incorporating them into our data and workflow, and obviously also into the one of the learning subjects, the students and coworkers. In this paper, which draws from our own experience, we will describe how these social media applications and tools can be easily integrated into virtual and presencial classrooms, what tools can be used to do it more efficiently and what are the effects observed on the learning and assessment processes. Introduction The social media phenomenon is breaking the concept of what is communication in several ways. It is growing very fast, it is used daily by people of all ages, and its acceptance among our students (and university faculty) is undeniable. Social media has come to the classroom whatever we wanted or not. The problem is that not all teachers are equally prepared to face the challenge of using these tools in their teaching practice. Many teachers are reluctant to new technologies, while many others want to change their habits and start employing these tools but they do not know how to start. A basic start point is to know what social media is and what is generated by its use. According to Wikipedia [3], social media includes web-based and mobile based technologies which are used to turn communication into interactive dialogue among organizations, communities, and individuals. Is a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. We are referring here to well known web sites such as Facebook [4], Twitter [5], del.icio.us [6], Pinterest [7] LinkedIn [8] and many others, but clearly we also include learning communities (formal or informal) that we can create using web facilities in the line of Ning [9], Elgg [10], MediaWiki [11] or Wordpress [12]. We are 45 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

46 not going to describe each of the resources cited, as it is out of the scope of this paper. However, it is our intention here to emphasize that all of them are mere technological tools and having the knowhow to use them does not enable you to properly employ them in the classroom. This statement would be like saying that to have fast beats as typewriter make you a good writer. In the same way, a teacher can know how to use the the tool (how to type), but he or she should also seek for examples of best practices in its use to understand what is the best way to use them when teaching. For this reason, our goal with this article is to provide a series of good practices in the use of social media in the classroom. Motivation and state of the art Having a set of social networking facilities and good practices for them, does not suffice as other questions may arise. What social network to choose? What social networks are best suited for education? Do I have to be on all of them? The answers depend on the profile of both students and teachers. For example, if a high percentage of your students already use Twitter [5], it makes no sense to ask them to register in a new community that they barely will follow. So as a teacher, select the tool that you have learnt or you are willing to learn, but think first what your students are already using. The more integrated the network is in the daily practice of everybody, the more communication success will be achieved. Once we have chosen the best social network for our purposes and with our students in mind, we have to focus on what it expected by each role. It is clear that the teacher should be a catalyst for strong student interaction and online communication and it comes through a high dose of creativity. On the other side, we expect from students a response, but care should be paid to not exceed limits in the workload demanded or students will not respond properly to the activities. However, we must not forget a third role: the higher educational institution (HEI). We should employ already available tools from our institution to create a strong sense of community. For example, if the HEI has a multimedia repository of educational objects [13] it is more appropriate to use this channel, that another of similar use as could be YouTube [14]. Other fundamental thing is that a teacher should be clear why to use social media in education. It will demand great effort and if we are not able to see the big picture and the subsequent benefit to our students, we will hardly want to start taking steps in that direction. Do not forget that the ultimate goal is that our students will learn more, in a more convenient and enjoyable way. And how will be the future of education? Do we know the consequences of using a new tool in a broad way? Well, learning from history, we have a set of samples of how tools could change life. For instance, printing press came in medieval time for religious purposes and it became a total revolution even nowadays, despite the electronic substitutes to books and newspapers. So we think it is advisable to go check on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) gradually. The answers to the questions we have raised probably involve another new set of questions, and the landscape of social networks and other tools is so broad that we hardly will find a unique teaching methodology for the correct use of social media in education. However, when something works it makes sense to copy it. That is why learning by example is suitable for inexperienced in ICT teachers, 46 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

47 and proves to be effective in encouraging creativity and adaptation of ideas. The following sections propose, based on our experience, best practices in the use of social tools and applications. Even the use of the web 2.0 term is declining substituted by social media it is still worth reading the JISC report [15]. There, web 2.0 technologies were defined as more than a set of cool and new technologies and services. Since then more and more professors and educators are using them in their day to day labour with the participation of students that are using these tools in each and every aspect of their lives and feel the attractive of them for their activities. We can talk about networked learning and, from the point of view of the students (at least, for some of them) makes sense the creation of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) [16-17], observing a switch from the topicoriented learning to the student-centered organization of the learning process [1]. All of this, of course, with new tools and uses as mobile phones, tablets... [18] and new environments (at least, from the point of view of educational use) as social networking sites [19]. Most of the work has been done by more or less innovative professors but, what about the use of these technologies and tools for the rest of us? The truth is that we are being introduced in the transformation of we can do with our students and the way we can do it, in our academic work [20]: Whilst it seems inevitable that many scholars will adopt new tools and technologies as they have done in the past, it is by no means inevitable that this will transform their work practices or affect the established norms and values of academic work which have remained relatively stable of the years (or if they have changed it has been due to much bigger forces, such as the move from elite to mass participation, introduction of fees etc.). In the case of teaching the driving forces are outside of our control: students using the new tools and our need to engage them [2]. With the diversity of tools available [21], it seems quite difficult to find the adequate one, but it is also difficult not to find one (or more) that suit our needs and which we can adapt to our routines. Recommendations for a successful merging of teaching and social media As we have stated above, the most important issue in social media is to incorporate it seamlessly into our daily workflow so that it becomes painless for us (and our students) to use them to enhance the educational experience. It is easy to do so in online courses, but in-class learning must strike a balance between keeping the students focused in the topic and creating knowledge via online tools; the professor must also keep focused in monitoring and guiding the learning without making this veer too much away from its daily routines. That is why, in this paper, we will present a series of rules based on our own experience that have helped us to improve our performance in class. We will present them in temporal order, starting before the class. Creation of a wiki node for the current class [22,23]. This can even be done before the previous class, so that material can be added to it during the period between classes, or it can be used directly to link the class notes that the students can also take in class. These notes can be browsed at the beginning of the following class, or be used to keep track of the timing of the material. In our case we have use the wikis included in Google Code hosting projects; for instance this one has been used in a semester course for Telecommunications engineering. 47 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

48 Update course materials (kept in an online learning system such as Moodle or plain vanilla web pages) by checking stale links, fact-checking for freshness time-dependent affirmations (such as the availability of software, its releases, and what is or is not fashionable at the moment). You can use online checking tools such as the one provided by the W3 consortium: Check wiki comments, which can be used as a class forum, along with the mailing list for more private questions and comments. The students might have decided not to go to class today due to a college-wide event, for instance. It can also go in the other direction: we have some agenda problems preventing us from going to class, so we warn the students not to take the trip using the mailing list. It is quite convenient to keep interactive forums alive by timely answering questions, greeting newcomers, and encouraging students. Check wiki nodes created by students, and correct them for precision (and, sometimes, typos). Comment on them, suggest merging of different nodes into a single one, encourage connections among students. Link from the wiki node of the current class (but it is much better to have the students do it by themselves). On the way to class, use your smartphone to check the hashtag you have created for the subject (for instance #greencomputing101) for updates, expectations by the students, and more content they might have found relevant to the current class. There might be also some reaction on the class outline you have already published on the wiki. Use FourSquare [24] or other check-in service (like Gowalla, or even Facebook [4]) to check into your classroom, and encourage the students to do so. This is transmitted to Twitter or other services so that students on the way will know you are already there, and if students do it systematically its presence might be rewarded too. Besides, it can be used to arouse interest on the subject from those who are not enrolled. You can incorporate some material into the check-in if needed, or a class lema, or a short URL. During class, encourage students to post new material on the wiki, and do so yourself as answer to questions; you can also correct your class content online if you have also posted it on that format, or create a list of errata to correct it afterwards. During periods of students personal work, check the backchannel for class reactions. You can use the hashtag, or a Twitter list, or just Twitter searches. If there is not such period, designate somebody who can incorporate new items to the wiki, which essentially becomes the clearinghouse for real-time acquisition and broadcasting of knowledge during class. Take into account that real-time social networks such as Twitter are ephemeral, and must be etched in stone to settle the knowledge distilled by them. After class, go back to the wiki comments, Twitter and the class wiki node itself to check student s work and participation. Besides, there could be some interventions from people outside the classroom, which can be used to comment in the following classes or noted down in the wiki. Update class materials with corrections made by students, links to the most interesting or best assignments made in them, and whatever is worth to incorporate into the more permanent class repository. In the above list we have talked about several tools, but you will have to adapt these tools to those that better fit our daily use and skills. For instance: 48 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

49 Any user-editable document can serve as well as a wiki. These can be shared documents such as those provided by Google Docs [25], real-time collaborative editors such as Etherpad, or even plain vanilla web pages with some versioning system like those provided by Wordpress [12]. Moodle and other LMS also provide wiki functionality, but the important issue to take into account is that the wiki is the core interaction site and also the permanent store of the information and knowledge created in class. There are many microblogging tools, and some communities are more present in identi.ca than in Twitter. You can also install your own open-source ones using status.net, for instance. The whole point is, however, to let people keep using whatever they already use (plus the wiki, but that can be embedded in tools used in other courses). Other tools can complement the wiki and be used to create rich content. For instance, Storify [26] can be used to add context to Twitter streams and store them permanently; these can also be aggregated using paper.li. Multimedia content can be added via Instagram, Pinterest [7] or Youtube [14]. However, it is very easy to share content uploaded to those tools via Twitter, and include links in wikis. Measuring activity can be a problem, as well as measuring prestige within the (limited) class social network. That is one of the reason why wikis are chosen: activity can be easily measured using online or offline tools, and can be quantified in terms of number of lines created. Activity and prestige in social networks can also be measured using tools such as Klout [27] (but check the privacy conditions first). This daily routine can be incremented with longer-term maintenance tasks: revision of last-year timing and content, checking for asynchronous updating by students or any other contributors or using Q&A sites such as StackOverflow [28] (or Reddit [29]) for updating content months before the beginning of the semester. New material can be tested within your social network using links posted in Facebook, for instance. However, since Facebook is, essentially, a closed garden and its use is mainly personal, it is probably not a good idea to use it as class support; students, besides, are mainly reluctant to connect to professors online [30]. Other vertical or professional social networks such as LinkedIn might be of use, but only if they really are used by all students in class. Eventually, the objective of this initiative is to make the students create their own Personal Learning Environment (PLE), which begs for tools they already use, whenever possible. Of course, using them in class can make them learn (or teach them) to use them better, and put them to use in learning. That would be a positive, although unintended, side effect. Conclusions This paper describes several practices used in our daily routine as university professors that can be used to incorporate the use of social media in the classroom via aggregation of applications they already use nucleated around a wiki and the course material which is accessible online. 49 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

50 References [1] Juan Julián Merelo, Carmel Hassan, Juan Luis Jiménez, Fernando Tricas. SWECAI: Sistema web centrado en el alumno inteligente. In Actas de las XIII Jornadas de Enseñanza Universitaria de Informática (JENUI), pp , julio Teruel. Spain. [2] Fernando Tricas, Juan Julián Merelo y Carmen Hassan-Montero. Bitácoras: ampliando los canales de comunicación con los estudiantes. In Jornadas sobre Innovación docente,tecnologías de la información y la comunicación e investigación educativa en la Universidad de Zaragoza. [3] Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia [4] facebook [5] Twitter https://twitter.com/ [6] del.icio.us [7] Pinterest [8] LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/ [9] Ning [10] Elgg - Open Source Social Networking Engine [11] MediaWiki [12] Wordpress [13] itunes U platform of University of Valladolid [14] YouTube- Broadcast Yourself [15] Paul Andderson, What is Web 2.0? Ideas, technologies and implications for education. JISC Technology & Standards Watch, Feb Accesed June 30, [16] Bauerová, D. (2009): Elearning How Can Higher Education Benefit from Web 2.0? Proceedings of EDULEARN 09, Barcelona. ISBN , International Association of Technology, Education and Development, Barcelona, ES. Pgs [17] Bauerová, D. and Sein-Echaluce, M. L. (2007): Herramientas y metodologías para el trabajo cooperativo en red en la Universidad. Revista Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado. N.º 58, Volume 21(1), ISSN: Pgs [18] Lewis, S., Pea, R. Beyond participation to co-creation of meaning: mobile social media in generative learning communities in Social Science Information. September 2010 vol. 49 no EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

51 [19] Caroline Lego Muñoz, Terri Towner, Back to the wall : How to use Facebook in the college classroom. In First Monday, Volume 16, Number 12-5 December 2011 [20] Nick Pearce, Martin Weller, Eileen Scanlon, Sam Kinsley, Digital scholarship considered: how new technologies could transform academic work. In education, 16 (1). [21] Martin Ebner, Conrad Lienhardt, Matthias Rohs, Iris Meyer. Microblogs in Higher Education A chance to facilitate informal and process-oriented learning?. In Microblogs in Higher Education A chance to facilitate informal and process-oriented learning? [22] Hemmi, A., Bayne, S., Land, R. The appropriation and repurposing of social technologies in higher education (2009) Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 (1), pp Cited 30 times. [23] Yalvac, B., Ayar, M.C., Soylu, F. Teaching engineering with wikis (2012) International Journal of Engineering Education, 28 (3), pp [24] FourSquare https://es.foursquare.com [25] Google Docs https://docs.google.com/ [26] Storify - Find the best of social media [27] Klout - The Standard for Influence [28] StackOverflow [29] Reddit - The front page of the internet [30] Katherine a. Karl and Joy V. Peluchette, Friending professors, parents and bosses: a Facebook connection conundrum, Journal of Education for Business, vol. 86 (4), 2011, p EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

52 E-LEARNING QUALITY ASSURANCE AS A TOOL FOR OPEN INNOVATION IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: AN ESTONIAN CASE Anne Villems (University of Tartu), Lehti Pilt (University of Tartu), Toomas Plank (University of Tartu), Merle Varendi (The Estonian Information Technology College), Eneli Sutt (The Estonian Information Technology Foundation), Marit Dremljuga-Telk (The Estonian Information Technology Foundation) Abstract Open innovation has received ample attention in the business management and policy literature, but not so much in the educational context. E-learning has been one of the main fields of innovation in the teaching and learning side of higher education for already many years. The quality assurance process in e-learning can be used as an innovation in education. In 1999, Estonian universities had only 14 e-learning courses, but with twelve years this number has increased to more than The process of awarding the e-course quality label was initiated in To run the awarding process, e- Learning Development Centre has formed a quality assurance task force, consisting of experts from many different higher education organisations. The latter developed a manual with quality criteria, set up a 3-tier process, beginning with self-evaluation, followed by organisation evaluation containing also learners feedback and 3-member team expert evaluation. Applicants and experts are encouraged to fill a feedback form about the application and evaluation process, which helps to improve the process from year to year. In 2011 the e-learning quality web, which supports all 3 tiers of the process, was created. The quality web is also a good tool for collecting statistics. Approximately 35 e-courses have participated in the application process each year. While only 39% qualified for the quality label during year 2008, the rate of successful applicants for the most recent year was 63%. The feedback from applicants suggests that this rise can be attributed to clearer understanding of quality criteria and better preparation of evaluators and streamlining of the process itself. Researchers in company management and innovation area have suggested many models how open innovation is working in companies. But the models of open innovation in companies and in higher education are different. In our case the latter resembles more the well-established model of company and higher education collaboration via common development organisation and task forces like CODASYL in 60-ies and IMS now. In this paper we will look into the innovation of teaching and learning of the Estonian universities and vocational education institutions giving an overview how the system for quality assurance in e- learning was collaboratively prepared for an open innovation at national level. 52 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

53 Introduction Open innovation has received ample attention in the business management and policy literature, but not so much in the educational context. There are many models how open innovation is working for companies. But what about open innovation within the universities (and other higher education organisations) themselves? As an organisation, they too need successful innovation schemes to survive in a contemporary world. Universities, having two main processes: research and education, have to innovate both. Innovation in universities has attracted researchers attention mainly in the framework of scientific research and collaboration with companies - new innovative university-company partnership forms, management of university research capacity etc [1]. But the other important side of the university - teaching and learning - has been very seldom mentioned in the context of literature on open innovation [2]; only very few papers, e.g. paper [3] are considering impact of university-company collaboration on learning activities. E-learning has been one of the main fields of innovation in the teaching and learning side of higher education for already many years [4]. E-learning can facilitate new active learning methods into the traditional learning process, present new ICT-supported collaboration schemes for students, preparing them for future collaborative work in companies, can propose successful means to fight with premature dropping out etc. But as any tool, it can also cause problems due to misuse and bad quality. Quality of everyday educational practice in the higher education system lays mainly in the hands of higher education organizations themselves as the national ministry has only indirect influence - approving the study programs, distributing financial support between institutions and programs etc. How a collaboratively prepared system for quality assurance in e-learning can work for an open innovation on national level is the theme of this paper. We look at organizational means for quality assurance in e-learning in Estonia - country with 39 universities and colleges and 42 vocational schools. Quality assurance as the tool for open innovation Innovation is not an act, innovation is a process. Another important process for learning is quality assurance. P.Gupta writes in [5]: I see a striking commonality between quality improvement and innovation. It is said about business development, but applies also to the learning process development. E-learning also is not a one-shot issue, it is a long process with an ultimate aim to improve the quality of learning. But as e-learning tools are in the state of flux all the time then the introduction of e- learning starts a never ending process of improvement. One of our slogans expresses it as follows: the aim of an introduction of e-learning is to remove the first e from e-learning, i.e. the development has to produce the situation, where all learning happens in an ICT-rich environment 53 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

54 and there is no border between e-learning and traditional learning. The quality assurance process in e-learning can be used as an innovation in higher education. Estonian system for quality assurance in e-learning 1. Retrospective view of Estonian e-learning quality assurance system development In 1999, Estonian universities had only 14 e-learning courses, but with twelve years this number has increased to more than This rapid growth has led to the need to actively disseminate "best practices" among the novice course designers, to create instructional materials on how to build a good e-learning course and to identify e-course quality criteria. Since 2004 Estonian e-learning Development Centre, which coordinates developments in the e- learning field in Estonia, runs a contest for the title "E-course of the year". To run this contest, e- Learning Development Centre has formed a quality assurance task force with the following aims: To create guiding materials for the instructional design process of e-learning and blended learning courses, aimed at the teaching staff and educational technologists of higher and vocational education organisations. To publish quality criteria for e-learning courses and design the process of awarding "Estonian e-course Quality Label". The process of awarding the e-course quality label was initiated in the autumn of Development of the quality label awarding process coincided with compilation of the manual for teachers [6] which was created on the basis of the Quality Manual for E-learning in Higher Education [7]. Manual focuses on how to create an e-learning course with a good quality. This is a step by step guide on how to create your first e-course or improve existing and operational ones. Essential quality criteria are indicated at the end of each chapter of the manual which have to be met in order to the e-course and its instructional process to be recognised of fulfilling defined requirements. The latter serve as a basis for self- and expert evaluation within the quality label process. 2. Quality assurance process The entire process of awarding quality labels is structured on three tiers [8]. Self-assessment level. Each applicant will make a self-assessment based on a given form. The purpose of this assessment level is to increase the awareness about the acquired quality criteria and to motivate authors to analyze their e-courses. Organizational level. The objective for the organizational level is to gain feedback from organization administration and learners, also based on a fixed review form, which is completed by the person authorized by the organization (e.g. manager of the curricula) and confirmed by the direct superior. Applicant has to submit the organizational review along with the proposal form. Expert level. The expert level assessment, as the name hints, consists of evaluation by a group of e-learning experts (a third objective party). This level concludes with the decision to 54 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

55 either recognize or not recognize the course with the quality label. Evaluation at the expert level takes place after the authors submit the self-assessments and organization reviews, and is also based on a pre-determined assessment form. Every applicant will receive feedback on their e-course from the panel of experts. Expert groups, who assess e-courses, are formed from network of educational technologists and teachers. It must be noted that the process evaluates only criteria related to e-learning design and elements and not the content of the learning materials. Quality of the content of the learning materials will be improved at the organisational level. During latter years more emphasis has been placed on preparation of applicants and evaluators participating in the process. Information days are held for applicants concentrating on topics such as an overview of the entire process, importance of self-evaluation and introduction of the online environment used in the application process. For preparing the evaluators, information days and a compulsory training event are held in order to ensure thorough understanding of the quality label process, its main values and the evaluation criteria by the people embarking on evaluating the e-courses. One of the main aims of compulsory training is to acquaint the people in evaluation groups in order to facilitate cooperation, discussion and reaching consensus. It is worth mentioning that evaluating the e-courses is voluntary work where 40 e-learning experts from 27 different institutions from all levels of education participated during the last year. 3. Software support for the quality system Although the quality system has been in place for many years already, special software to support the process was first implemented in this year s process. Online software (see screenshot on figure 1) consists of Quality Manual for E-courses and tools for self-evaluation and quality label process management. 55 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

56 Figure 1. Screenshot of the Estonian e-learning quality web Everyone can complete a self-evaluation form to analyze his/her e-course. Doing self-evaluation does not presume that the user has to participate in the quality label process. By following the guidelines next to each criterion, user can decide if the e-course meets the requirements of a high-quality e- course or anything in it needs to be improved. If user thinks the course is good enough to take part in the quality label process, he/she has to fill in the application and can use the self-evaluation filled in before. After the system administrator has created evaluation expert groups and assigned courses to them, evaluators can start their individual evaluations. Group evaluation will start immediately if all group members have finished their individual evaluations and this step has to lead to consensually decided marks and feedback to the applicant. Both applicants and evaluators can give feedback to the process in the web. Feedback forms are open from the time user is counted as the applicant (from submitting the application) and evaluator (from starting the evaluation process). Feedback can be edited as many times as needed during the feedback period. Upon every step the system supports user according to the phase user is at. Everything that is connected to the user or needs user s attention (filled in self-evaluations, courses for evaluation and so on) will be displayed on user s homepage. Like every online database-based system, the quality web is a good tool for collecting statistics. Although the system is new, there has already been interest for that from other quality evaluation processes in the field of education in Estonia. Evaluation of the quality assurance process One principle of the Quality assessment is the continuous improvement of the process. To evaluate and make adjustments to the implemented process, the feedback questionnaires are distributed to: Applicants, whose e-course was recognized with the quality label; Applicants, whose e-course did not receive the recognition; Experts, who evaluated all the submitted e-courses. The results of the feedback will be analysed by the quality assurance task force. The results give valuable input to improve the guiding materials and the application process: to edit the handbook ( Quality Manual for E-courses ) and evaluation forms. Process for applying for an e-course quality label has been run for five years (see the overview of the results in Figure 2). Approximately 35 e-courses have participated in the application process each year. While only 39% qualified for the quality label during year 2008, the rate of successful applicants for the most recent year was 63%.The feedback from applicants suggests that this rise can be attributed 56 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

57 to clearer understanding of quality criteria and better preparation of evaluators and streamlining of the process itself. 45 Number % % % 56% 58% 27 63% Percent of e-courses recognised with quality mark Number of e-courses recognised with quality mark Number of applications Figure 2. Recognition of quality label Model of open innovation in learning process Researchers in company management and innovation area have suggested many models how open innovation is working in companies. O.Gassmann and E.Enkel [9] list 3 archetypes: (1) the outside-in process, (2) the inside-out process, (3) the coupled process. L. Dahlander and D.M. Gann [10] formulated 4 types, based on their research of 150 open innovation articles in Thomson s ISI Web of Knowledge. Their classes are created depending on inbound/outbound and pecuniarity/nonpecuniarity bases. In both studies, universities have been usually only mentioned as one of the typical open innovation partners for companies (others being customers, suppliers, research institutes etc). We believe that e-learning development is one of the most important innovation processes on the teaching and learning side in higher education. If we compare e-learning quality assurance system with above mentioned open innovation models for companies then this process is different and will not properly fit into suggested classes. But it resembles many models of company-higher education collaboration models from the past and nowadays. CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages [11]), formed in 1959, was an university-company collaboration body which designed the programming language COBOL, formed a Database Task Group and designed a network model for databases. Now IMS GLC (Global Learning Consortium [12]) is a global nonprofit organization to enable the growth and impact of learning technology in education and corporate training. Many well known companies and universities belong to this organisation. We think that our national effort will serve the learning communities in Estonia as the Codasyl did in 60ies and 70ies and as the IMS GLC is doing it now globally. Probably it is too early to ask for a suitable model of open innovation for educational institutions as we are not yet in the stage where companies were in 2008: where ~50 research articles were published yearly about open innovation. And when after some years somebody will start to build suitable open innovation models for teaching and learning in higher education then we hope that our case supports this process as one of the cases. 57 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

58 Conclusions In this paper we looked into the innovation of teaching and learning of the Estonian universities and vocational education institutions giving an overview how the system for quality assurance in e- learning was collaboratively prepared for an open innovation at national level. In 2008, the e-learning Development Centre in Estonia formed a quality assurance task force with the aim to create guiding materials for the instructional design process of e-learning and blended learning courses, publish quality criteria for e-learning courses and design the process of awarding "Estonian e-course Quality Label". The entire process of awarding quality labels is structured on selfassessment, organizational and expert level and is supported by special interactive software. During latter years more emphasis has been placed on preparation of applicants and evaluators participating in the process. Much emphasis is placed on continuous evaluation of the process itself and making adjustments to the implemented e-learning quality assurance system process using the statistics collected by the quality web software and feedback from applicants and experts, who evaluated all the applicable e-courses. The results from the feedback give valuable input to improve the guiding materials and the application process. These all are the tools for the open innovation in education. Literature [1] Y.Wang, et al (2003) Exploring the impact of open innovation on national systems of innovation A theoretical analysis, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 79, Issue 3, pp [2] G.Winckler (2010) Innovation strategies of European universities in the triangle of education, research and innovation, in University Research for Innovation, Economica Ltd, pp [3] Ó.Lucia (2012) et al Educational opportunities based on the university-industry synergies in an open innovation framework, European Journal of Engineering Education, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp [4] R.Raj (2011) Evaluation the innovation of online learning system in higher education, International Journal of Management Cases, Vol. 13 Issue 4, pp [5] P.Gupta (2012) Innovation: The New Face of Quality, Quality Digest Magazine [6] M.Dremljuga-Telk, et al (2010) Juhend kvaliteetse e-kursuse loomiseks (Quality manual for e-courses) Tallinn EITSA, lk 44 [7] G.Ubachs (2009) E-xcellence. Quality Assessment for E-learning a Benchmarking Approach. EADTU [8] M.Dremljuga-Telk, et al (2011) E-learning Quality Assurance System for e-courses in Estonia. In Eisenschmidt, E. & Löfström, E. (Eds.) Developing Quality Cultures in Teacher Education: Expanding Horizons in Relation to Quality Assurance. Tallinn: Tallinn University, pp EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

59 [9] O.Gassmann, E.Enkel (2004) Towards a Theory of Open Innovation: Three Core Process Archetypes. ( ) [10] L.Dahlander, D.M.Gann (2010) How Open is innovation? Research Policy 39, pp [11] T.W.Olle (1978) The Codacyl Approach to Data Base Management, J.Wiley & Sons [12] IMS Global Learning Consortium 59 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

60 EVALUATING TEACHING AND MANAGEMENT INNOVATIONS IN AN E- LEARNING UNIVERSITY Ferran-Ferrer, N. (Lecturer at the Information and Communication Sciences Department and Assistant to Vice President for Research and Innovation, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC), Enrech, M. Manager of Innovation Program, UOC) and Sancho, T. (Vice President for Research and Innovation, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) Abstract The Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) is an e-learning university that has innovation as a transversal feature in all its activities and process. Therefore, innovation is present in the annual objectives of all the academic and management departments in order to increase student satisfaction. UOC stimulates innovation by funding strategic projects as well as organizing regular internal calls for small projects which arises innovative academic and management proposals. UOC provides a framework where ideas are cropped up, harvested and converted into projects which received support and evaluation by the university itself. For this mean, the university endows the Program of Innovation that, among other objectives, manages the internal calls for innovation, what is called as APLICA. APLICA seeks for innovative projects for teaching and learning activities as well as for managing purposes. Last call (2012) with a budget of 60,000 received 70 proposal, 55 lead by academic staff and 15 by management staff. The university has 725 employees, more than 30% (227) were involved in some of these proposals. The evaluation process was performed by the Innovation Support Committee integrated by one lecturer from each department, one responsible for each of the management areas more related to innovation (Learning Technology, Information Systems, Academic Services, Library and R&I Support Office) and the Research and Innovation assistant and vice-director. Criteria for assessing the proposals were organized in four sets. First of all administrative data was assessed for each project where interdisciplinary and transversality were requirements. Then several aspects were taken into consideration for evaluating the description of the proposal, for instance, the main objectives, product/results expected or problems/needs to be solved. A set of other indicators were needed to evaluate the internal consistency of the proposal such as the viability or applicability/scalability. Finally the required budget was also reviewed. 15 proposals received funding from the APLICA call but 24 more were brought into practice after some efforts for integrating proposals to existing projects and therefore broadening the scope of the original projects (10), modifying existing budgets in order to welcome innovation (7), obtaining greater involvement from responsible of departments and management areas (5) or merging proposals with similar needs/problems to fulfill (2). 60 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

61 Successful projects of this APLICA call will be ready for use on Open Apps platform, a previous innovative strategic project, which is managed by UOC s Innovation Program, which provides open access to UOC s innovations and tries to achieve further developments through communities of interest sharing similar needs or problems related to the learning and teaching process or management aspects of the university. Introduction The Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) is an online university that has innovation as a transversal feature in all its activities and processes. Therefore, innovation is present in the annual objectives of all the academic and management departments in order to increase student satisfaction. UOC stimulates innovation by funding strategic projects as well as organizing regular internal calls for small projects which brings about innovative academic and management proposals. In this paper we present the method for evaluating teaching and management innovations through internal calls (APLICA), by selecting which initiatives are suitable to become strategic innovative projects (INNOVA) or which features should compose any application available at the OpenApps platform. Besides, general indicators used by the Innovation Program to evaluate the activities carried out are also reported. Internal support to Innovation The Office of the Vice President for Research and Innovation provides a framework where ideas are collected and converted into projects that receive support and evaluation by the university itself. In order to develop this process three mechanisms are established: two commissions related to innovation (Innovation Council and Innovation Support Council) and the Program of Innovation. The Innovation Council acts in the strategic level and is consisted of the four Vice Presidents of the university (Research and Innovation, Technology, Faculty and Academic Organization, Postgraduate Studies and Lifelong Learning) and the Director of the UOC. Besides, the Innovation Support Council is a consultation organ for strategic decisions and develops its role in the selection and evaluation of internal processes related to innovation. This Council is integrated by one lecturer coming from each department, one person in charge of each of the management areas more closely related to innovation (Learning Technology, Information Systems, Academic Services, Library and Research and Innovation Support Office) and the Office of the Vice President for Research. Finally, the Innovation Program guaranties that the main ideas of the strategic plan, as well as the main objectives of both councils, are achieved and managed in an optimal way. 1.1 APLICA: internal annual innovation projects call The Innovation Program, among other activities, manages the internal calls for innovation, which is called APLICA. 61 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

62 APLICA looks for innovative projects in teaching and learning as well as in management. Last call (2012) with a budget of 60,000 received 70 proposals, 55 led by academic staff and 15 by management staff. The university has 725 employees therefore more than 30% (227) were involved in some of these proposals. This 2012 call has been the most participative of the last 6 years, as from 2007 to 2012 there have been 963 participants in total. The total amount of participation is 338 as almost half of participants were in more than one proposal. The most active lecturers leading projects were coming from the IT, Multimedia and Telecommunications Department (19 leading proposals, as shown in figure 1) and the management department with more proposals led was the Virtual Library (3 leading proposals, presented in figure 2). It is needed to say that the Educational Technology Department is leading only 3 proposals but they are present and enforcing most academic proposals as memberships. Figure 1. Fifty five innovation project coming from academic departments. Figure 2. Fifteen innovation project proposals coming from management departments. The evaluation process of 2012 APLICA s call was performed by the Innovation Support Council. Criteria for assessing the proposals were organized in four sets. First of all, taking into account that 62 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

63 interdisciplinary and transversality were required, administrative data was assessed for each project. That is to say, the Council was looking for project proposals integrated by lecturers coming from different departments and disciplines as well as was appreciated that the composition of the project consortium was partly academic partly coming from management staff. Afterwards, formal aspects as the main objectives, product and results expected or problems and needs to be addressed were taken into consideration for evaluating the description of the proposal. A set of other indicators were needed to be evaluated, such as the internal consistency of the proposal, in other words the viability, applicability and scalability of the projects. Finally the required budget was also reviewed. The number of beneficiary people of the innovation, students or management staff, was taken in consideration. 15 proposals received funding from the APLICA call but 24 more were brought into practice after an effort to integrate proposals to existing projects and therefore broaden the scope of the original projects (10), modify existing budgets in order to welcome innovation (7), obtain greater involvement from people responsible for departments and management areas (5) or merging proposals with similar needs/problems to address (2). Successful projects of this APLICA call will be reviewed in order to become either an internal strategic project (INNOVA) or as a possible application or learning experience ready to be accessed from Open Apps platform (presented below). From this internal call, the evaluation indicators to assess the innovation success annually were established as presented on table 3. Proposals Faculty involved in innovation proposals Projects (proposals with internal funding) Academic Departments / Management Departments Participation (distribution academic departments / management departments) Total Responsible of proposals Members of proposals How many are member of consortiums of more than one proposal Total Academic Departments / Management Departments Participation (distribution academic departments / management departments) How many students will benefit from the innovation How many classrooms will benefit from the innovation How many academic departments will benefit from the innovation How many staff will benefit from the innovation Total 63 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

64 Number of previous projects with internal funding that are being used in the classrooms or are in exploitation stages Number of projects transferred to other educational institutions Table 3. Evaluation indicators to assess the innovation success per year. 1.2 INNOVA: internal requirements for becoming an strategic innovative project An INNOVA project is a strategic project of innovation developed and funded by the university. The proposals for becoming an INNOVA project can be addressed to the Office of the Vice President for Research and Innovation at any moment. The proposals have to be adjusted to the innovation strategy and also have to assure a transversal impact in the institution. The impact can be achieved by different factors, being the most common, that different challenges coming from different academic departments and management areas are collected and achieved. This is possible due to the fact that the composition of the working teams is heterogeneous, where knowhows and goals are merged and the final purpose reaches different challenges of the innovation strategy. The INNOVA projects are approved by the Innovation Council Currently, there are two INNOVA projects in process, the m-uoc and OpenApps, which involved 54 participants. The m-uoc is the project that leads the university from the actual multiformat to multidevice and multimedia university. Many departments at UOC have worked during the past years to integrate the academic activity into mobile devices for making our university more flexible and adaptable to new trends. The muoc project is focused mainly on two aspects: (1) Identify and promote key projects, and (2) facilitate the implementation and adaptation to this multimedia and multidevice scenario. muoc reflects the commitment of the UOC with the mobility and multimedia contents. Next course, September 2012, students and lecturers will be able to use tablets, phones, PCs to learn and teach. The other strategic project, OpenApps, it is a platform that runs from July 2012 that collects teaching experiences and open apps from the UOC. Open Apps makes available and opens to any person or education institution a catalog of applications and innovative teaching experiences generated at the UOC, in the framework of internal projects, to that may be used freely in other environments looking for open collaboration. These teaching experiences and apps have been conceptualized, developed and piloted by UOC teachers and developers. In the near future apps designed and developed by students will be available at OpenApps too. The INNOVA projects receive technical and/or management support by the Innovation Program. These projects are also internally evaluated through the indicators used by the Innovation Program (see table4). 64 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

65 Project/result Leader Risc Applicability Satisfaction of the result Level of achievement Time of achievement Department/Area/Team Number of classrooms Number of processes Number of students Development/Pilot/In production/abandoned Predicted Superior Inferior Table 4. Innovation indicators for the UOC strategic projects in the learning/teaching or management innovation. 1.3 OPEN APPS platform: requirements for becoming an App As previously stated, successful innovation projects coming from APLICA s program or external funded projects can be selected as a potential apps for the OpenApp platform. The term app is broadly taken as can include, in this context, any learning experience, any educational system/tools software or any web-based service. These initiatives for being able to be accessed from OpenApps need to fulfill a brief set of requirements: Born in the UOC s environment: that is promoted by lecturers, management staff, students, etc. or they are members of the team that designs and/or develop the app. Be innovative: has to present a novel idea or method for innovation Open source code and open content: source code available in the case of tools developed by the university and content liberally licensed for re-use in the case of educational content. When the App is a learning experience this.knowhow is offered freely too. Be transferrable: useful for other educative organizations or other types of enterprises. This platform provides open access to UOC s innovations in the learning and teaching arena as well as management, and tries to achieve further development through communities of interest sharing similar needs or problems related to the learning and teaching process or management aspects of the university. Innovation Program: general indicators for evaluation The indicators defined for evaluating the innovation activity in the UOC Innovation Program include data coming from all departments and areas from the whole university. 65 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

66 On one side, the innovation is evaluated by the Innovation Program from data generated by the support and service activities provided by the Innovation Program itself. That is to say from the two ways of innovation funding coming from the internal budget of the university, the APLICA annually call and the strategic projects INNOVA (both presented above) which are the main axis of activity of the Innovation Program. And on the other side, as previously stated, innovation is a transversal feature in all UOC activities and processes. Therefore, innovation is present in the annual objectives in all the university structure and thus generating innovation results. The Innovation Program collects all these indicators and analyses them in order to facilitate a regular feedback to the strategy and general management of the UOC. In this sense, the Innovation Program identifies, collects and updates data that reflects the real innovation effort dedicated in the UOC. Data coming from the number of initiatives and budgets is presented in table 5. Innovation Indicators at UOC 2012 UOC innovation projects (IPD and other departments) UOC innovation successful results (projects from 2012 already in production)* 39 (24 from the Innovation Program: 22 APLICA and 2 INNOVA) Innovation Budget ,00 Innovation Program Budget ,00 Cofunding from other departments ,00 External funding ,00 Departments involved in innovation projects 11 Proposals received in the Vice Presidency for Research and Innovation for INNOVA Table 5. Innovation indicators used by the Innovation Program to provide feedback of university innovation annually. (Note: data from 2012 is uncompleted as the 95% of the project still in development or piloting phase of the project). Further work In this paper it has been stated the procedures that encourage innovation in an online university as well as the initial established method for evaluating teaching and management innovations. Adding to that, some general indicators to evaluate the emerging and the strategic innovation have been presented. During the academic year data is attempted to be collected to fulfill the given indicators and processes. Afterwards the results have to be analysed in order to be able to enhance existing internal calls, review current indicators as well as adapt common procedures and activities to the successful innovations. Furthermore, when possible, knowledge will be transferred to other education institutions and general society. 66 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

67 TRANSTITUTION - TRANSFORMING HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS THROUGH MODERNIZATION OF ITS MIDDLE MANAGEMENT Radojka Krneta (University of Kagujevac, Technical Faculty Čačak, Serbia), Rolf Reinhardt (Learning Agency Network, Brussels, Belgium), Danijela Milošević (University of Kagujevac, Technical Faculty Čačak, Serbia) Abstract Modern societies are deeply characterized by professional expertise as a way to meet the challenges of the 21st century. As a response to those challenges in the corporate sector, organizational change has become a substantial part. However, the organizational changes in higher education institutions usually start too late and run too slowly, not allowing it to fit into the future on time. In addition, an increasing competition between higher education institutions is taking place in Europe particularly, both regarding students, as well as public and private funding. In order to meet these challenges, the development and education of specialized academic managers, especially in the middle management segment of university administrations through the so-called professionalization of administrative middle managers, is regarded as organizational innovation and follows the actively entrepreneurial nature of university governance as a way for increasing demands of accountability to external and internal stakeholders. Transforming higher educational institutions through organizational change comprises development and training of university middle management for the purpose of their professionalization. In order to lift up and enable transformational processes in higher education institutions, a new service called Transtitution is currently developed. The service is based on the Transtitution Maturity Model (TMM) which covers four development stages, such as instruction, application, sharing and finally inspiration related to external stakeholders. Internally, the three development stages of resources (e.g. templates, ICT systems), practices (e.g. processes) and culture (e.g. policies) can be defined. However, transformation is always related to individuals. Here, the willingness, the ability and the possibility to apply change plays a major role. Taking into account the systemic impact of a transformation, all three dimensions need to be considered at the same time. However the direction of a transformation can be initiated both ways: Top-down and bottom-up. This is one of the reasons why middle managers will play a crucial role in the facilitation of the transformation. Methods and tools of the Transtitution service are described as the conceptual model of organizational change in higher education institutions. The Transtitution service is demonstrated on the example of transformation of higher educational institutions in Serbia towards strengthening of its managerial capacity. 67 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

68 Introduction The modernization of EU higher education systems through organizational change of HE institutions is the way to meet challenges in their external environment and respond to the needs of modern society. The new agenda for modernization of Europe's higher education systems, published in September 2011, highlights the need to invest in people, to support future leaders and encourage the professionalization of higher education management at all levels. Transforming higher educational institutions through organizational change is one of the dimensions around which professionalization within universities across European higher education systems seem to be converging in order to strengthen the managerial institutional management. The development and education of specialized academic managers, especially in the middle management segment through the so-called professionalization of administrative middle managers, is regarded as organizational innovation and follows the actively entrepreneurial nature of university governance as a way for increasing demands of accountability to external and internal stakeholders. However, instead of a transformation of educational institutions, we often face rusty hierarchical structures, crippling bureaucracy, stiff cultures and an overwhelmed middle management, which is not able to facilitate a transformation. From that reason, the importance of enhancing the training and development of managers in higher education has been identified by numerous sources [Maassen, 2012], [Blumel, 2008] [Schofield, 1996], etc., as a priority if greater effectiveness is to be achieved in university management. When we talk about higher education institutions, it is important to consider that they differ from each other in type, size, strategy and culture and that there can be no one-size-fits-all solution to problems of transforming higher educational institutions. Besides, transformation of an educational institution is huge and serious and long lasting activity (include many parallel processes). Therefore, a general conceptual model of organizational change in higher education institutions was considered. Based on these assumptions, a transformational model, called Transtitution Maturity Model (TMM) has been developed. Bearing in mind that The Strategy of development of education in Serbia until 2020 emphasizes entrepreneurial university concept, allowing such universities to be nucleus of creating new industries based on knowledge, Transtitution service is demonstrated in the example of transformation of higher educational institutions in Serbia towards strengthening their managerial capacity. Professionalization of HE institution middle managers Universities in many developed countries have invested heavily in academic training and development within the last decade and this contrasts with a much more limited growth in management training. The demand for and provision of education and training activities in the area of higher education management and leadership in Europe have addressed by EU-funded project MODERN [Maassen, 2012] and also by [Blumel, 2008]. HE administrators need more management 68 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

69 skills but also academics with leadership and management responsibilities need to be trained regarding their professionalization. Skills and competences in management & leadership have to be developed in an evolutionary way for both groups. This is accompanied by new, different kinds of responsibilities, such as intensified PR work, relationships with alumni, international relations, career development, e-learning, fund-raising, and internal and external communication, all of which require special know-how as well as the involvement of managerial experts. Middle managers are not belonging to the executive or senior leadership of universities. We have described them as non-academic staff holding responsible administrative and managerial positions below the level of registrar or chief administrative officer; or as academic staff at the level of heads of departments, subject areas, or research units and who may formally report to either a faculty dean or direct to the vice-chancellor depending upon the decision making structure [Schofield, 1996]. An another description of academic middle managers that they face the challenge of functioning at the interface between the university s central administration and the faculties and departments where the rubber of the new marketized and strategic research environment meets the road of daily academic life [Boyko, 2008]. Regarding roles of middle managers in allocating resources and coordinating business processes, they can make sizable contributions to institutional strategy by leading efforts for operational effectiveness [Fugazzotto, 2009]. Although the focus of middle management is initially on solving problems identified operationally they should be changed (developed and trained) with the intention of creating changes in university policy and practice. What is also needed is a cultural change, allowing for an effective cooperation between professional institutional leaders & managers and academic staff [Maassen, 2012]. University administrations in most European countries served mainly as discrete working bureaucracies responsible for general maintenance and implementation of decisions taken by the academic councils. There were strict boundaries between the academic core and the university administration as well as for its interaction with external partners and public agencies. In addition, there seems to have been a strong negative perception of academics that felt university administrators to be autocratic [Blumel, 2008]. In the middle-out approach [Cummings, 2005], the institutional culture emphasizes collaboration, partnerships, negotiation, and distribution of authority. The middle management development and training requires not only proactive leadership from senior staff, but for training and development to become an integral part of departmental and institutional life. Training and development may be organized as part of an overall institutional quality improvement strategy. The conceptual model of organizational change in HE institutions Cumings at al. [Cummings, 2005] favor The Content, Context and Process Model (CCP) developed by Pettigrew and Whipp (1991). The main premise of this model is that successful change is a result of the interaction among the content or what of change (objectives, purpose, and goals); the process or how of change (implementation); and the organizational 69 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

70 context of change (the internal and external environment). The model proposes the following eight interlinked factors as important in determining how successful a specific change will be: Key people leading change (especially a multidisciplinary team) Quality and coherence of local policy (analytic and process components) Cooperative interorganizational networks Supportive organizational culture, including the managerial subculture Moderate, predictable and long-term environmental pressure Simplicity and clarity of goals and priorities Positive patterns of managerial and staff relations Fit between the change agenda and the locale [Blumel, 2008] assumed that the establishment of specialized networks and professional associations at least in certain functional areas of higher education management can be witnessed. These would have to be relevant platforms for coordination and knowledge exchange for administrative middle managers. Furthermore, it is expected that there are academic programs or intramural training courses that middle managers in the field know and increasingly participate. Taking into account the analyzed models of organizational change in HE institutions we developed Transtitution service focused on the lifecycle of a transformation (organizational change). Transtitution provides internal and external stakeholders networking in order to facilitate best practice and reflect next practices in development and training of HE middle management. The creation of a communication platform for exchanging experiences (the networking), as an important part of the professionalization of institutional management & leadership, also outlined by MODERN project [Maassen, 2012]. The Transtitution Maturity Model (TMM) (shown in Table I) is based on the assumption that an organisation gradually develops higher levels of maturity in its culture, its resources and its practices, starting with external instruction to be able to apply the knowledge transmission. The second stage (application) adds practical experiences to the theoretical instruction. In a third stage, based on the theoretical knowledge and practical experiences, it is possible to share the own insights with a community. On the last level, it is envisaged to become a benchmark which inspires others to learn from the own example. Table I Practical examples for Transtitution Maturity Model (TMM) using the dimensions External and Internal : 70 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

71 1. Instruction & Consultation 2. Application & Localisation 3. Sharing & Evaluation 4. Inspiration & Benchmarking Culture Going through Systemic Needs Analysis (status-quo) Launching internal project (change) Involving internal and external stakeholders for evaluation (adaptation) Consulting other institutions, demonstrating leadership, quality development (support) Resources Reading external manuals, guidelines etc. (acquisition) Adapting external guidelines for Internal use (localisation) Creating public material (e.g. in blogs) on institutional change (production) Writing articles in scientific and general journals (contribution) Practices Attending workshops (experimentation) Peer learning in institutional Community of Practice (selfassessment) Peer learning in specialised topic communities (peer evaluation) Teaching in MOOCs, Speaking at conferences, Quality demonstration (spread) Conceptual model of Transtitution Development Cycles for middle management in HE institutions is shown as three-dimensional model on the Figure 1. Figure 1 Three-dimensional conceptual model of Transtitution Development Cycles 71 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

72 Transformation of HE in Serbia towards strengthening of academic managerial capacity One framework of reform in Governance and Management of Higher Education in Serbia given by Tempus project GOMES [Moustakis, 2011]. As a solution for overcoming of HE institutions tendency to consume itself with internal matters rather than attending to social needs and values, emerges as a turn of the traditional management pyramid up-side-down to emphasize the role of internal and external stakeholders students and society. The reverse management pyramid emphasizes that governance and management should tune into society goals and aspirations and that Administration and, broadly speaking, middle management should view itself as a Facilitator of these goals and aspirations or efficient Interface between Department Heads and Faculty Heads (Deans) / Faculty Heads and Senate / Rector / Vice Rectors. Bearing in mind that The Strategy of development of education in Serbia until emphasizes entrepreneurial university concept, allowing such universities being nucleus of creating new industries based on knowledge, Transtitution service, described in previous sections, can be successfully applied as a tool for planning activities by systematic needs analysis of organizational change at HE institutions in Serbia, as well as the implementation of those activities by launching internal projects, evaluation of the implementation by involving internal and external stakeholders and making changes improvement of HE institution effectiveness based on the evaluation before starting the development cycles over. This developing cycles leads to the professionalization (improved management skill set) of higher education middle management. Reinforcing the skills and capacities of the middle management will enable strengthening (or establishing) international relations offices, management and library information systems, financial management, public relations, marketing and similar new academic and administrative services leading to international, modern and professionalized HE system in Serbia. Conclusion In modern higher education society the need to improve its middle management capacities to meet strong demands of accountability to external and internal stakeholders has emerged. Such organizational change requires a systematic approach, and thus we have developed the new Transtitution Maturity Model (TMM) with three dimensions and 10 development stages in total. TTM covers wide spectrum of aspects, which are gradually developed by realizing the importance of an organic process organization - internally involving culture (whereas culture is more intrinsic than context), practice (highlights the practice and not the rather theoretical process) and resources (to be distinguished from content). It is important to point out that all three levels (culture, practice and resources) have to be developed in parallel with the other two dimensions, since otherwise the transformation of a institution would get stuck. The TMM has foreseen the active involvement of external stakeholders in the dimension External, consisting of four stages in which the communication with consultants or other transforming or 72 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

73 transformed instititions plays a critical role. Furthermore, the institutional staff is addressed by the dimension Individual, covering willingness, abilities and possibilities of internal stakeholders. The TMM highlights the possibility to initiate change both top down, where the faculty or the top management follows a defined strategy and bottom-up, where an open culture allows teaching staff to get inspired by international benchmarks and to develop own practices which can then be spread and anchored within the institution. By recognizing the importance of Middle Managers to facilitate the change, the Transtitution service will be piloted and conceptually applied to HE institutions in Serbia with aim of reaching the entrepreneurial university concept as emphasized by The Strategy of development of education in Serbia until References [Boyko, 2008] Lydia M. Boyko, Glen A. Jones, The Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Management (Chairs and Deans) in Canadian Universities, Chairs and Deans Canada: Paper In-press (November 2008), Available on: [Blumel, 2008] Albrecht Blumel, Professionalizing administrative middle management in universities? Conceptional framework and preliminary findings for Germany and selected European countries, Eurodocs Conference at CIPES Porto 2008, Available on [Cummings, 2005] Cummings R., Phillips R., Tilbrook R., Lowe K., Middle-Out Approaches to Reform of University Teaching and Learning: Champions striding between the "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning (IRRODL), Vol. 6, No 1 (2005), Available on [Fugazzotto, 2009] Fugazzotto, Sam J., College and University Middle Management and Institutional Strategy, College and University, v85 n1 p34-39, 41-43, Sum 2009 [Kwiek, 2008] Marek Kwiek, Academic Entrepreneurship vs. Changing Governance and Institutional Management Structures at European Universities, Policy Futures in Education, ISSN , Volume 6, Number 6, 2008 [Maassen, 2012] Maassen P., Pausits A., Mapping the field The needs and supply of Higher Education Management Programmes, Report on MODERN project, January 2012, Available on [Moustakis, 2011], A framework of reform in Governance and Management of Higher Education in Serbia, Report on Tempus project GOMES, Available on %20serbia%20-%20vassilis%20moustakis.pdf [Papadimitriou, 2010] Antigoni Papadimitriou, Bridging the loop, introducing professionalization in Greek higher education management and beyond, The 5th European Quality Assurance Forum November 2010, University Claude Bernard Lyon I, Working group session II: paper abstracts, Available on 73 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

74 [Schofield, 1996] Allan Schofield, Strengthening the Skills of Middle Management in Universities, A Study undertaken within the framework of the UNESCO/ACU-CHEMS Joint Action Plan in Higher Education Management, Paris 1996, Available on 74 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

75 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT UNIVERSITIES REGARDING OPEN INNOVATION Elisabeth Saalman* and Tom Adawi Chalmers University of Technology Division of Engineering Education Research Abstract The very fast technology development is rapidly changing the whole society. Teaching and learning in higher education is, of course, also affected. New ways of knowledge creation and collaborative learning among students take place around the world using the World Wide Web and electronic resources. However the development at our educational institutions, necessary to adapt to the new students needs, move slowly forward. How can the necessary transformation and adaptation of educational institutions be realized? This paper deals with teachers needs and competencies to bring about educational change. Teachers are the key-group necessary to make things happen. The issues raised in this paper are based on experiences and data collected in the higher education course Learning in Digital Media, offered to teachers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, over a period of seven years. The projects that have been carried out by the teachers in the course illustrate how teachers use IT and digital media for pedagogical purposes. It is, however, neither simple nor obvious to all teachers how to start to use IT in teaching to support student learning. To many teachers it is a rather huge threshold to overcome to start and teachers often report on both technical and administrative problems. Thus, teachers rather frequently have negative attitudes towards using IT and feel insecure and hesitant. Time is needed for teachers reflection, acceptance, competence development and the development of courses. It seems natural to let the notion of scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) guide our work concerning IT, learning technology, blended learning and online pedagogy in higher education. Reflection and dialogue sit at the very heart of the scholarship of teaching and learning. Furthermore, there is a need to look at policy in higher education. The management in higher education institutions has to be better informed and engaged in questions concerning IT and flexible learning. There is an obvious need for university leaders to make strategic decisions concerning IT in education, pointing out the direction for the university and its staff to take in order to be able to meet the needs of tomorrow s students. It is also very important to focus on developing a good technical infrastructure in order to be able to work with IT and flexible learning and, at the same time, emphasize the importance of both technical and pedagogical support. 75 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

76 Keywords: Educational development, pedagogy, open innovation, e-learning, blended learning, digital media, teacher competencies, learning communities. Introduction There is a huge literature on the use of IT in educational settings but the pedagogical questions are seldom discussed [1]. Pedagogical aspects of virtual environments using digital media, virtual communication and examination online need to be exemplified and discussed to a much higher degree than today and in a deeper sense. There are several questions that need to be discussed in order to create good conditions and environments for learning. For example: What does good online pedagogy mean? How can modern IT be used to facilitate learning, contact, communication and reflection among students in blended learning? What competencies are needed by teachers to start to use IT in education and what are the needs for competence development? What are the students needs and desires? [2]. In this paper, we argue that there is a strong need for academic development initiatives to promote university teachers use of technology in teaching and learning, i.e. to enhance teachers digital competence. There is a need for an ongoing dialogue, exchange of experiences and research among teaching staff regarding how IT and digital media can be used to support teaching and learning. At the same time, it is important to consider teachers attitudes and emotions regarding technology in education. The importance of offering both technical and pedagogical support of good quality has been demonstrated in many studies [3]. This affects how willing teachers are to meet the new era with IT and digital media. Universities need to make IT and virtual communication to an obvious part of education. For students of today, these tools are natural ways of communicating and finding answers. There are studies showing that students of today read fewer textbooks, use the World Wide Web more and more in their studies and prefer to be active when they learn together with other people, in real face-to-face meetings or virtual meetings in computer-mediated communication and social communities on the web [4,5,6]. By offering more resources for learning, the students can engage with the material in more ways and become more active. Teachers therefore have to facilitate student learning through the pedagogical use of modern technology and virtual communication. Both the teachers and the students need to be flexible enough and motivated in order to adopt innovative and flexible course design. The teachers need to be well qualified for supporting learning in virtual environments, in addition to the traditional university setting of face-to-face teaching [7, 8, 9]. Wenger [10] speaks about communities of practice and the importance of mutuality, working together, shared interests, engagement as well as the way, frequency and quality of communication in a virtual learning environment. Since learning is seen as a collective process here, it is necessary to offer good opportunities and tasks for teamwork also in a virtual learning environment. The issues raised in this paper are based on experiences and data collected in the higher education course Learning in Digital Media, offered to teachers at Chalmers University of Technology. The 76 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

77 overall aim of the course is to support teachers in using digital media in their own courses to improve student learning. Experiences from the course Learning in Digital Media In the course Learning in Digital Media each participant carries out an individual project, and they are encouraged to implement their intervention in an ongoing or coming course. The topic of the project is of each participant s own choice but it should concern the use of digital media to support student learning by creating a stimulating learning environment. The fact that the project is of their own choice is important since it reveals the teachers thoughts and prior knowledge in relation to teaching and learning with digital media. Furthermore, the free choice encourages the participants to take responsibility for their own learning and supports active learning. In this way, motivation and engagement are built into the course from the start. By the end of the course, the participants should be able to identify situations where digital media can be used to enhance the quality of teaching and learning and to be able to use a virtual learning environment and online communication tools. They should be able to implement the knowledge and skills they have gained in the pedagogical project. During the course, the participants learn how to use digital media by way of practice and they are required to reflect on the pedagogical aims and consequences of using the specific media, including how it affects both teaching and learning. All projects and discussions are visible to everyone in a learning platform, and the participants are encouraged to be active and contribute to the discussions, for example by providing feedback on the other projects. From these discussions, it is obvious the participants bring valuable knowledge and skills to the course. Learning communities are frequently formed within the course, with valuable discussions and feedback [11]. Since the course first started, seven years ago, a wide range of projects have been carried out and implemented. The participants are asked to motivate, from a pedagogical point of view, their choice of a certain digital media in their individual project. In some cases, they also mention the effects on student learning. Some teachers also describe how they will continue to develop their courses using digital media. Looking back it is obvious that the projects have become more advanced over the years, which probably reflects the change in society with increasing professional and private use of IT and digital media. The principal pedagogical ideas/aims that the teachers mentioned to motivate their choice of a certain digital media in their projects can be summarized and divided into four groups as follows: 1. Preparation of lectures and follow-up on student performance; promoting understanding and problem solving; possibilities for repetition; student self-assessment possibilities; facilitating learning through engagement, encouragement, by making learning more interesting; using instructional videos to prepare class/labs; raising the quality in teaching and learning; making administration better and easier. 2. Promoting effective and active learning through student responsibility and metacognition, 77 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

78 critical thinking and self-assessment. 3. Promoting quality learning through virtual communication, collaboration and interactivity as a complement to traditional teaching and learning. 4. Flexibility (place and time); distance courses and communication; remotely controlled labs. It is also interesting to read how the participants act as teachers when using digital media. Some mention that they have come to act more as a coach than as a traditional teacher. But they also report that it takes time to start to use digital media and learn about them, and that there is a lack of time for this type of time-consuming course development. Quite a few mentions the rather huge workload when starting up and carrying out their projects. On the other hand, when they get in contact with former course participants, teachers that already have been working with digital media for some time, they often report positive experiences such as: it leads to better pedagogy, it simplifies administration, it is appreciated by the students, and it saves time. Discussion It seems clear from experiences of giving the higher education course Learning in Digital Media for several years that motivation is necessary to get high quality in teachers projects and learning. The importance of attitudes, personal goals, engagement and willingness to participate in a learning community is crucial. It is therefore important to try to create an open, positive, trustful, creative atmosphere among the teachers. Key concepts are collegiality and transparency in getting a mutual learning environment with ongoing dialogue and feedback to each other. Learning and knowledge building take place when you reflect together with colleagues and use the knowledge to solve authentic problems. A fact to be aware of is the very fast technological development with new digital media developed and continuously marketed, which needs to be judged pedagogically before used. Also the old technology like Power Point, learning platforms and web conference systems are updated all the time with new functionalities. This means that you regularly have to update yourself and to learn new things, as captured in the notion of lifelong learning. At the start of a course you have to adjust your course to the new possibilities offered regarding the digital media you choose to use in your course. It is commonly reported that it takes time to start to use digital media and learn about them and that there is a lack of time for such time-consuming course development. It is therefore not easy for teachers to start to use IT to support teaching and learning. It can be a rather huge threshold to overcome and not all teachers have the necessary knowledge to implement IT in education. Teachers also report on technical problems and administrative problems when using digital media. Negative comments often concern poor user interface and non-intuitive interaction design. In addition, teachers may feel insecure or have negative attitudes towards using IT. It seems natural to take advantage of the impact of scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) on the educational development at universities also concerning learning technology, blended learning and online pedagogy. SoTL is important in order to reflect and share experiences among colleagues in higher education and to take advantage of an academic pedagogical dialogue [12]. The start up 78 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

79 and establishment of collegial pedagogical discussions that are regarded as rewarding could help to meet tomorrow s needs and demands on teaching and learning. The aim is to create an ongoing, valuable dialogue among academic staff in order to support organisational development, both individual and collective competence development. There is a need for more research on factors that influence student learning in virtual learning environments. How do students learn in online courses using virtual communication, teamwork and online assessment? It is of great importance to focus on developing a good technical infrastructure in order to be able to work with IT and flexible learning and, at the same time, emphasize the importance of both technical and pedagogical support. It is also important to consider the more administrative aspects of learning technologies from a pedagogical point of view [13]. What role you get in a learning platform, for example, has consequences for what you can do in the platform and how you behave. This influences the interactivity, how people collaborate and communicate. Conclusions In this paper, we have focused on how teachers use IT and digital media for pedagogical purposes in teaching and learning. It is urgent to identify the needs for teachers competence development in this area and to provide support. Teachers are the key actors in driving the change in the area of teaching and learning using IT, digital media and new learning technology. There is a need for ongoing dialogue, exchange of experiences and research among teaching staff on how IT and digital media can be used to support teaching and learning. In this paper, we suggest that an interesting area for research, within the area of academic development, is how teachers choose to use IT to support learning and how they motivate their choices from a pedagogical point of view. This may result in useful and valuable information about what competence development is needed, what technical infrastructure and teacher support is needed. Furthermore it can support sharing of experiences, use of digital media and research on learning technology and pedagogy among teaching staff. Universities need open-minded, engaged and reflective teachers willing to use new learning technology in order to meet, coach and act as mentors and supervisors to our multi-tasking students of today. To succeed in bringing about the necessary educational change we claim that there is a need to look at policy in higher education. The management in higher education institutions has to be better informed and engaged in questions regarding IT and flexible learning. There is an obvious need for university leaders to make strategic decisions concerning IT in education, pointing out the direction for the university and its staff to take in order to be able to meet the needs of tomorrow s students. 79 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

80 References [1] Mikropoulos, T. A. & Natsis, A. (2011). Educational environments: A ten-year review of empirical research. Computers & Education 56(3), [2] Saalman, E. Flexible learning and teaching a challenge to teachers in higher education, In Proceedings of the eight international workshop ALE2008, Universidad Nacional, Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia, [3] Wisker, G. The good supervisor. Palgrave Macmillan, UK, [4] Hemmi, Bayne & Land The appropriation and repurposing of social technologies in higher education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 25( 2009) [5] Tolmie, A., Boyle, J. Factors influencing the success of computer mediated communication (CMC) environments in university teaching: a review and a case study. Computers and education, 34 (2000), 119. [6] Östlund Prerequisites for interactive learning in distance education: Perspectives from Swedish students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 24, 1 (2008), [7] Bennett & Lockyer Becoming an Online Teacher: Adapting to a Changed Environment for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Educational Media International, 41, 3 (2004), [8] Collins, Neville & Bielaczyc (2000): The Role of Different Media in Designing Learning Environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 11 (2000), [9] de Jong Technological Advances in Inquiry Learning. SCIENCE, 312 (2006), [10] Wenger, E. Communities of practice. Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge, Cambridge university press, [11] Roth, W-M., & Lee, Y-J. (2006) Contradictions in theorising and implementing communities in education. Educational Research Review, 1, (1), [12] Hutchings, P., & Shulman, L. S. (1999, September/October). The scholarship of teaching: New elaborations, new developments. Change, [13] Collis, B., Moonen, J. Flexible learning in a digital world: experiences and expectations. Kogan Page. London, EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

81 ICT AS A TOOL TO SUPPORT STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN THE CURRICULUM OF A HOST UNIVERSITY WITHOUT REQUIRING STUDENT MOBILITY E. Palacios1, a, M. Jantunen2, F. Santos1, T. Adrada1, T. Hämäläinen2 1 Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Técnica Industrial (EUITI), UPM, Ronda de Valencia, , Madrid, Spain 2 Metropolia University of Applied Science, Bulevarden, , Helsinki, Finland a corresponding author Abstract An innovative educational experience had been carried out by the Metropolia University of Applied Sciences of Helsinki and the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM). The main motivation was to study the potential of ICT as an instrument to make possible students from both universities not only to participate in the curriculum of the host university without the need for the students to leave their place of residence but also to promote long-standing ties of friendship and cooperation. In this experience, communication between Finnish and Spanish students was entrusted to Google+ besides English as a common language. The learning strategy chosen was PBL. It was found that ICT provides a flexible environment that allows heterogeneous team works together. Keywords: ICT, active learning, small-group configuration, problem-based learning, multicultural teams. Introduction A deep-seated policy and culture shift is taking place in the labour market, ending the era of a jobfor-life career pattern. Nowadays, there is a need for learning those skills that enables employees to move more easily from job-to-job in order to achieve employment security, instead of job security. In the labour market of a more and more globalised world, skills as creativity and collaboration become essential. It does not care what task is for, it there will be someone anywhere in the world that it will do the same cheaper. At present, companies tend to take an international dimension in order to improve their competitiveness. Thus, it is increasingly likely that opportunities arise to interact with multidisciplinary and multicultural work parties operating in a global environment. Such interactions may take place in a given place, the same for all the participants, involving in that case geographical mobility, or not. Currently, meetings via videoconferencing are highly attractive, becoming a standard feature of business landscape. 81 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

82 Many employers agree that strategies that let students to participate actively in their learning are poorly developed in classrooms. Thus, skills such as the capability of self-expression and of response to the viewpoint of others are not enhanced enough. According to them, recent University graduates have a great deal of knowledge but they will need and extra valuable training to move easily at the workplace. These skills become the key for live time, not only just for finding a job. Therefore, it seems feasible for Universities to be proactive in what is happening and to accommodate their undertakings to this new scenario. Traditionally, teacher has been the main player in the learning process, as the unique source of knowledge. Teacher was expected to be absolute. The student role was merely to learn the lessons without any discussion. University role was knowledge broker. However, the new social and economy needs urge changes in teaching methodology. Teachers are encouraged to move to be learning facilities instead of knowledge brokers. Thus, they are expected to be able to give structure to the knowledge acquired by students from other sources. Source materials come into play a new role as a resource to generate high level knowledge. Currently, science and technology progress without a break, and knowledge become out of date quickly. Consequently, updated resources should include the new potential of information and communication technologies (ICT). Teachers should involve all-round education of their students, including curiosity and critical sense, which could help them to develop an entrepreneurial attitude. It is important to bring home that the aim is for the student to learn, not for the teacher to teach. The goal is students acquire new strategies involving creativity, competitiveness and collaboration. In this way, students will be able to make use of any chance to update their first knowledge allowing them lifelong learning. Consequently, learning moves to be based on students preparing them for self-directed learning. Now, the practical application of what has been learnt, the creativity development, the coordinated work is given priority in learning. According to Noguero [1], some of the primary purposes of learning are learning to live together, within the framework of pluralism and the mutual understanding, learning to act with personal autonomy and responsibility. Given that education is based on competences, it is necessary a clearer definition of objectives. One of the most feasible ways for University to meet the new social and economy needs is learning based on small group configuration -action learning set (ALS)-. In this methodology, small groups meet regularly to discuss a common issue. Small group learning methods encourage learners to explore attitudes and skills with other learners, such as verbal skills, innovation capability and critical approach. Additionally, ALS allows promote abilities as leadership, planning and providing support to the others, between others. Exley and Denick, [2] highlighted that the fact that the most capable learners help to learn to those with less experience lead the first ones to have a deeper and lasting understanding. 82 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

83 Noguero [1] declared that the key point to consider for small group learning is partners interaction on the same footing, where students are considered adults in similar stage of emotional, social and cognitive development. This author highlighted that face to face interrelations among students in a learning context have a powerful effect on their learning process and even on their self-esteem. Given that in ALS learners have to sharing viewpoints, it seems suitable multidisciplinary and multicultural group formation. In this regard, ICT may greatly facilitate, or sometimes even enable, communication among partners (Cebrián, [3]). Thus, ICT allow going beyond conventional ALS by including distance learning. Consequently, there is an increased interest of using ICT as a communication tool among students. Among the different methodologies used in ALS is problem-based learning (PBL), that characterizes by self-directed learning that allows developing skills for critical assessment. Students engage actively in the process of learning (Exley and Denick, [2]). PBL can lead learners to face the transition towards internship. The objective of the educational innovation experience that was carried out, which is described below, was to provide the learners an opportunity to develop knowledge skills and social competencies in a multicultural environment. PBL was used as a learning methodology and ICT as communication tool and source of knowledge. Development of the educational innovation experience In order to implement PBL methodology, a multicultural work team was formed. The team included two homogeneous sub-groups, one of them consisting on three students from Metropolia, and the other comprised of other three students from UPM. Notice that both subgroups had the same size. Therefore it is considered that the work team was balanced. In addition, the number of components allowed oral contribution of every participant in both the subgroups and the group. It should be noticed that universities are sited in different European countries, with very different cultural and linguistic background, namely Nordic and Mediterranean. Both subgroups shared the same grade and a similar degree Program. The components from each subgroup that took part in the experience were studying the same subject as well. Therefore, it is expected all of them to have reached a similar stage of emotional, social and cognitive development. UPM Metropolia Degree program Industrial Mechanic engineering Specialization Mechanic Environmental engineering Course 3º 3º Cultural background Mediterranean Nordic Mother tongue Spanish Finnish Table 1.- Background of the participating students 83 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

84 1 Initial approach Student interaction was carried out on the basis of a study about the state of art of biofuels in Finland and in Spain from an economic, technological, environmental and availability of resources perspective. The task that was entrusted to the learners was specifically Biofuels legislation in Finland and in Spain as an approach to European Union Policy. Similarities and differences between both countries. Environmental impact in Finland and in Spain Biofuel resources. Types and challenges in Finland and in Spain. Technology strategies in power plants. Specific characteristics in Finnish and in Spanish plants. Costs associated with biofuels production and biofuel-based energy production. The project was implemented by the students in the second semester of the academic course , representing a workload of 160 hours per student. Table 2 show the schedule of the project, which was announced to the participants to the end of December Project plans clarified to students by teachers Initial meetings Project plans accepted State reports Final reports to teachers for evaluation Final meeting Final reports ready Seminars Table 2.- Schedule of the project. Neither of the participating students submitted additional information from their respective supervisors. They developed the project on the basic of what had learnt in other subjects as a first knowledge. They could find additional information in the source material that was available in the library of each college and on the network. Communication between both subgroups was entrusted to ICT given that location of the participants and distance made it impossible for them to meet face to face. Online meetings were called weekly, which made possible thanks to Google+. English was chosen as the communication language, spoken by all the participants. Nevertheless, the level of English of the participants was quite uneven. The results of the study would be reported and presented orally for each sub-group to other students in seminars held in their respective colleges. 84 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

85 2 Full implementation The project started the last week of January 2012 on the occasion of the UPM supervisor was invited by Metropolia to visit its campus and start the project. In that time it took place a first face-to-face meeting as a contact between the Metropolia subgroup and the UPM supervisor. Later, it was held a second meeting in which Google+ was configured starting the communication between Metropolia and UPM subgroups. Finally, a third meeting took place in Metropolia campus, in which Metroplia subgroup proposed the flowing schedule for the project: Week Task 5-7 Legislation 8 Break for the Finnish subgroup 9-11 Environmental issues Power plant technologies Biofuel resources Economics Final report 19 Final report 20 Seminar Table 3.- Detailed schedule of the project. As a consequence of the temporary delay in the start of the second semester in UPM, UPM subgroup took the project by mid-february (seventh week) once their examination period was over. UPM subgroup delay was overcome during the eighth week, when Metropolia subgroup was on holiday. The frequency of online meetings of the group, initially scheduled weekly, decreased shortly to once every time a new task started. It should be noticed that neither of the participants knew how to use Google+. It took some considerable time to them at the start of the project to know its operation. Meetings of the group were conducted firstly by written communication and then orally. Despite the tasks entrusted to the students had been specified initially, these was vast enough to require further specification for setting goals. Thus, in the successive meetings students had to decide what aspects of the proposed task would address. As the project was progressing, subgroups were drafting their reports according to what had decided. Some extra activities were carried out as well. Hence, in order to motivate students and give them the opportunity to take part in a professional environment, UPM subgroup attended a conference cycle organized by Comillas University Cátedra Rafael Mariño- about biofuels. Table 4 shows the frequency at which progress reports were uploaded and shared with the other subgroup. It is shown when the conference cycle took place as well. 85 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

86 Week Metropolia UPM conference cycle CRM 5-7 x x x x x x x 19 x x 20 x Table 4.- Uploading of progress reports and schedule of some extra activities. As it was initially established, each subgroup presented orally at the end of the project their results in English. 3 Difficulties The need for all the participants of using a language other than their mother tongue made it difficult the implementation of the project. Thus, the workload increased and interaction between the subgroup was less effective. On one hand, local information about biofuels is usually written in the official language of the country itself. This may make easy to carry out the information synthesis but slows down its translation into English. On the other hand, difficulties in using and/or understanding spoken English interfered with the sharing of information and discussion required in each task. The process of their familiarisation with Google+, subject at that time to frequent updating, inferred with the project implementation at its beginning. Online communication facilities become sometime troublesome. Students used their laptops in the online group meetings, finding some difficulties due to use a single microphone per subgroup. The fact that the participants from both colleges had never met to each other before made more difficult the task of breaking the ice. It took time to break the ice. 4 Weaknesses Communication between subgroups could have been more effective. The students in each group with higher level of spoken English become soon the spokesman for each subgroup, taking a leadership role. If the spokesman role is established, communication could have been more effective if this role had changed during the project. In addition, it would have been convenient the students specified closely beforehand the point that they were going to deal with and, maybe, to increase the meeting frequency. 86 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

87 5 Strengths Students had the opportunity to communicate to each other in English in a professional and in an informal way, learning in an international environment. It should be noticed that, when there is not student mobility, its need for adaptation to a new culture is also minimized, and so do their associated benefits and drawbacks. Nevertheless, ICT makes way for a third option, the virtual student mobility, which, additionally, has the advantage of not having an economic cost. Understanding the existence of different realities of the same topic was strengthened. The participants increased their self-esteem and independence facing a challenge outside their usual environment, which, on the other hand, was solved satisfactorily. This experience will help them to face future challenges. Supervisors put themselves in a second plane, directing subtly the learners. Participants had to determine the specific focus of every task, engaging closely in their own learning. This motivated the students. Despite of all the participants were third-year students, it was noticed that the expectations of the components of each subgroup were a little different. This may be attributed to the fact that the UPM participants were thinking about their immediate integration in the labour market. In fact, third course for the UPM students is the last course before their graduation. Some of the UPM participants had already got their first job. This could justify the more regular work pace of the UPM subgroup, as table 4 shows. In addition, Spaniards have usually a more talkative nature what helped the implementation of the project. Google+ let the students work flexibly, not only geographically but in time, overcoming the obstacle relating to the different school calendar. Conclusions ICT plus learning methodology focused on the student seems to be a suitable framework to promote the integral development of the learner. It let the student implement communication strategies with other students out of its usual environment, enhancing the coordinate work. At the same time, it strengthens the reality awareness about the others, leaving a door open to future gatherings. References 1. Metodología participativa en la enseñanza universitaria, Fernando López Noguero. Ed. Narcea 2. Enseñanza en pequeños grupos en educación superior, Kate Exley and Reg Denick. Ed. Narcea 3. Enseñanza virtual para la innovación universitaria, Manuel Cebrián. Ed. Narcea 87 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

88 USING DIGITAL GAMES TO TRANSFORM COMPUTER PROGRAMMING COURSES IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS Anna E. Kasimati (Athens University of Economics & Business), Efpraxia D. Zamani (Athens University of Economics & Business) Abstract Learning a programming language is usually considered a highly demanding and difficult process for students of all disciplines. This results in programming courses being often characterized by high dropout rates. The paper s objective is to propose an innovative game-based learning approach towards enhancing the effectiveness and attractiveness of computer language learning courses in Higher Education Institutions. The use of digital games in learning has been increasing lately since it has been proven that they are highly effective in interdisciplinary areas, where students are required to combine knowledge from different fields and apply critical thinking and problem solving skills towards achieving a learning goal. The paper is focused on C programming language, which is considered a significant skill for the development of advanced systems (used in a number of sectors, e.g., business, education, government, health) and is the basis for Java and C++ programs. Towards deciding on an appropriate learning approach, the paper investigates the major challenges and problems the field is faced with and makes a comparative analysis of strategies, approaches and tools that have already been implemented. The proposed approach uses the Microsoft Kodu tool as a mean to provide an immersive, 3D gaming environment, where students can practice their programming skills by first developing their own game and later through their participation in a more sophisticated game, designed by their instructor. The overall approach is aligned with the experiential learning model, while it incorporates problem-based learning principles, aiming to enhance students involvement within the learning environment and to strengthen their creativity, high order thinking and problem solving skills. The proposed methodology is expected to have a positive impact on students attitude regarding programming, maximising the educational impact of the proposed game-based activities. Keywords: game-based learning, computer science, C programming language, Kodu visual programming tool. Introduction and presentation of the problems addressed Learning a programming language is often considered to be a quite demanding process for students of all disciplines (Chang, Chou, & Chen, 2011; Wilson, 2002), while programming courses are frequently characterised by high dropout rates (Ala-Mutka, 2004). Based on the results of a survey, carried out in 63 institutions, the average pass rate in CS11 courses was estimated at around 67% (Bennedsen & Caspersen, 2007). However, even students, who successfully complete such courses, are often found to have difficulties in developing a simple application software (McCracken et al., 88 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

89 2001), designing operation systems (Loftus, Thomas, & Zander, 2011) or even interpreting small code fragments (Lister et al., 2004). According to the literature, there are several reasons for the field s overall difficulty and low success rates: Complexity of the programming process: Programming is seen as a complex process that necessitates students to build and apply high cognitive skills (i.e., abstraction) in order to solve specific problems (Or-Bach & Lavy, 2004; Robins, Rountree, & Rountree, 2003). Apart from basic programming knowledge, which includes the language's syntax and constructs, the difficulty lies also on the programming process as a whole. Programming requires problem solving skills (Rajaravivarma, 2005) and as a result students need to combine their theoretical knowledge with mental operations towards achieving a specific goal, usually towards solving a defined problem (Mayer, 1992). Therefore, those students, who may not be equipped with sufficient skills in problem solving, can face problems in achieving high performance in CS1 courses. 1 CS stands for Computer Science, while 1 refers to the course s level. Motivation: Students' prior knowledge, personal characteristics and attitude towards technology in general, can affect their motivation in attending or even achieving high performance in CS1 programming courses (Gomes & Mendes, 2007). Therefore, their success lies also on their instructor s capabilities of enhancing their interest, engagement and motivation during the courses (Chang & Chou, 2008). Connection with real outcomes: In language programming, there is always the problem that even if students understand and learn the basic theoretical knowledge, they cannot easily realize the potential results of their syntax in real-life scenarios (Jenkins, 2002). In other words, they often can t combine individual code parts, which they may have developed themselves, in order to develop a program. The aforementioned challenges depict interrelated, large categories, all of which need to be considered in order to develop an effective learning approach for CS1 courses. Admittedly, as recognized by Howell (2003), the educational approach used for instructing any programming language is the most important tool towards overcoming all of them. The present paper is focused on novice programmers, i.e., 1st year students, who are at the beginning of their programming studies. The paper is specifically concerned with the teaching and learning of C programming language, one of the most popular languages, as, on the one hand, it is the basis for many others (e.g., C++, Java), and, on the other, it is used for developing advanced and sophisticated system software (Chang et al., 2011). Furthermore, the overall methodology is based on the use of Microsoft Kodu Software for the design of an educational, digital game to strengthen the lecture-based instruction of C programming language. 89 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

90 Digital Game-based Learning in C Programming Language Instruction Digital Game-based Learning was introduced by Prensky (2001) and it refers to the combination of fun and engagement with serious learning, introduced through an interactive entertainment, that of digital learning games. Digital Games, in order to be effective within the learning context, need to have clearly defined rules, objectives and expected outcomes. They also need to provide direct feedback, describe a story, challenge learners and offer interaction possibilities. Using games can be a good practice towards raising motivation and engagement in learning processes and have proven to be highly effective in interdisciplinary areas, where students are required to combine knowledge from different fields and apply critical thinking and problem solving skills towards achieving a learning goal (Shabalina, Vorobkalov, Kataev, & Tarasenko, 2008). This suggests that they can be effective for the purposes of teaching Computer Science, where students need to develop their programming and algorithmization skills for solving complex, interdisciplinary problems, as for example program development for the needs of the business sector. Further to the game-based approach, in order to enhance students' potential to acquire both theoretical knowledge and their skills to orchestrate the obtained knowledge into a single program, the proposed methodology follows a problem-solving approach, which has been previously identified as highly effective for the instruction of C programming language (Davies, 1993). The instruction is designed so as to ensure the use of the learning material during the problem-solving process and that its use has an impact on learners progress and the completion of educational games (Chang & Chou, 2008). Moreover, the design needs to safeguard that learners strengthen their theoretical knowledge and receive the results of their code in a visualized, easy to understand way. Previous Work In the past, there have been several efforts to implement digital games in the instruction of programming languages. Specifically, Li & Watson (2011) have proceeded into developing a categorisation of such solutions for game-based programming learning following a systematic analysis. Table 1 presents the adaptation of their classification scheme, for the needs of our study, using the following criteria: The approach followed: there are two major approaches; the authoring-based, aligned with the constructivist theory, which requires from the learner to develop computer games in order to learn programming, and the game-play approach, which instructs the learner to carry out a series of missions, by developing programming strategies and code in order to complete tasks and progress within the game. The gaming environment s characteristics: this refers to 2D or 3D environments. The learners' characteristics: age, knowledge level, previous programming experience. The way of coding: Typically, there are three forms of coding; typing the code, using graphic objects and completing predefined forms. The concepts thought. The type of language thought. 90 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

91 Multiplayer gaming possibility. To date, and to authors knowledge, there hasn t been any coordinated effort towards using gamebased learning for the instruction of C programming language at university-level with the help of visual programming tools. Li's and Watson's work (2011) is perhaps the most sophisticated one, since it satisfies most of the necessary criteria (Table 1 ). However, it takes place in a 2D environment and focuses on Java programming language learning. Kolosaka s approach (2011) attempts to support both learning programming approaches, i.e., authoring and game-based, within a 3D environment using the Microsoft Kodu software. Yet, it does so by focusing on 6th year elementary school students. In light of this, the proposed approach aims to go a step further and use a userfriendly tool, aiming to address the needs of first year university students who need to learn C programming language while attending CS1 courses. Kodu in Game-Based Learning The proposed approach provides a game-based learning experience to first year university students of CS1 courses in Greece. The software will be used complementary to the lecture-based instruction of the courses and will offer both the authoring-based and the game-based approaches. It is envisaged that, the students' participation in the game-based learning activities, apart from strengthening their programming skills, can improve their high-order thinking skills (logical thinking, analysis and problem solving) while attempting to achieve specific objectives through the combined application of programming theoretical knowledge. In order to maximize the effectiveness of the game, our approach includes the use of Microsoft Kodu, a visual programming tool, which allows the development of games and virtual worlds by non technical and non expert users for the support of independent exploratory learning (MacLaurin, 2011). Kodu provides a novel real-time 3D gaming environment, where programming is mainly based on the use of graphic icons to create new or edit existing objects and program their behaviour. Moreover, it provides students with the possibility to 91 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

92 create their own 3D worlds and supports modern console games in terms of intuitive user interface (MacLaurin, 2009), operating on Windows OS and on XBOX 360. Based on previous results, Kodu is very effective in motivating students and making learning an entertaining process and it has proven to contribute to the improvement of students' performance in 4 terms of programming (Kolosaka, 2011). The same study shows that, while using Kodu, students tend to be very creative in terms of building their own world with the available graphics, but also with regards to combining and applying their knowledge towards completing a specific task. As a result, it is expected that the innovativeness and the potential of the proposed approach can be further enhanced through Kodu, by tackling majors problems in programming learning, i.e., students' lack of motivation and weak high-order thinking skills. Additionally, we foresee that it can enrich the learning experience by providing a unique possibility for the design of immersive 3D gaming environments by the students themselves. Game-Based Learning Approach: Detailed Description and Pedagogical Framework The Kodu learning environment is mainly used as an exploratory and experiential learning tool, within which students can create and interact with visual objects and plan their behaviour. However, as discussed, the proposed approach is oriented towards problem-based learning. This suggests that it will involve students in carefully designed game tasks, which will be completed only when students manage to successfully implement a set of programming activities. As the Kodu tool provides students with the opportunity to see the result of their programming in a game-based, graphical and immersive context, the proposed approach develops with the use of Kodu during two separate learning activities: Activity 1: The instructor, after having given two introductory lectures on C programming language, presenting its syntax and main characteristics, will ask students to create a game using the Kodu software. The major challenge during this activity is that, students, while developing the foreseen games, will need to include the entire list of C functions with which their instructor will have presented them with earlier. In order to do this, the students will create their 3D worlds, select the heroes of the story and program their behaviour according to the directions given by their instructor. As a result, apart from applying their theoretical knowledge, students will also demonstrate logical thinking and analytical skills towards organizing multiple individual issues and functions into an interesting and engaging story to be presented in the form of a game. Designing and developing a game is a novel and demanding problem for students. Nevertheless, their creativity is strengthened during the construction of the 3D world, which necessitates them to actively combine the given functions in a story so as to complete a specific activity. In short, this activity aims to improve C programming language skills and practices, creativity and problem solving skills of the participating students, all being major challenges within the field of computer programming instruction. Activity 2: Having completed the whole series of lectures, aimed at presenting all C programming language issues, the instructor will invite students to practice their knowledge while playing an educational game in Kodu. In this scenario, the game will be designed by the instructor and will consist of levels of increasing difficulty. Each level will involve achieving a clearly defined task, 92 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

93 delivered in human rather than programming language, aiming to strengthen students' ability of practicing theoretical knowledge in a real-life scenario and have immediate and a graphical representation of their efforts results. The students will need to identify and apply the correct combination of C programming functions towards achieving the given objective in the easiest and cost effective way, in terms of time spent and number of functions used for task completion. During the game, the students will be collecting credit according to their performance and will have the possibility to play as many times as necessary, in order to gain the maximum credit possible (trial and error method). Each level s completion will give students a predefined credit. At the same time, the system will be monitoring the time spent and the number of functions used on each level; instead of using repeatedly a simple C function, students will be encouraged to include a DO WHILE Loop, thus minimizing the number of functions used. This activity provides a meaningful environment for problem-based C programming language learning. The students' score will depict their progress in the game world and, as a result, they will be able to estimate their knowledge level, while realizing how their programming efforts may influence the game s results. This approach is aligned with the experiential gaming model proposed by Kiili (2005), which highlights the importance of linking gameplay with experiential learning, as suggested by Rollings & Adams (2003) while designing educational games for facilitating the flow of experience, producing positive user experience in order to maximize the impact of the game-based educational activities, following the line of thought of Csikszentmihalyi (1975). Similarly, Kolb (1984) has suggested that experiential learning requires the inclusion of four stages: a) an active experimentation, b) a concrete experience, c) a reflective observation of the experiments and d) the abstract conceptualization and hypotheses testing. Table 2 illustrates the alignment of the two game-based activities with the four steps of the experiential learning model. Evaluation and Expected Results The effectiveness of the proposed approach will be evaluated using an experimental research method. Specifically, the learning methodology will be tested with the help of first year students of the Department of Management Science and Technology of the Athens University of Economics and 93 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

94 Business (Greece), within the context of the "Introduction to Information and Communication Systems" course. We will design two different instructional scenarios, both aiming at the same learning goals; the development of objects and variables, the import and export of data using C programming language, the effective use of FOR, OR, AND, WHILE, IF-ELSE, and DO-WHILE functions, the debugging of program errors, the creation and management of arrays using C programming language, the development of a search algorithm using C programming language, the application of basic classification methods using C programming language and the combination of the aforementioned knowledge for the development of a complete program using C language. Scenario A will be supported by traditional laboratory sessions, which introduce students in real programming, using language programming tools, editors and compilers. The assessment of students' performance will be based on the typically followed methodology, i.e., on a) the final exams (70% of the final degree) and b) the completion of an assignment related to the development of a program with clearly described specifications using C programming language (30% of the final degree). Scenario B will include the proposed learning methodology by incorporating the use of the Kodu tool within the learning process. In more detail, in this case, students, instead of attending traditional laboratory courses, will participate in the two game-based activities of the proposed approach. The assessment of the students' performance will be based on a) final exams (70% of the final degree), b) their performance on the game-based activity (Activity 1) (10% of the final degree) and c) their performance in the game play activity (Activity 2) (20% of the final degree). Students attending the course will be randomly split into two groups of equal populations and assigned into the two different instructional scenarios; group A will follow scenario A and group B will follow scenario B. The objective will be to measure the impact of the proposed game-based approach on: a) the students performance (acquisition of skills), b) the students motivation and c) the students attitude towards programming. To this end, the analysis will follow the multigroup comparison analysis approach in order to identify potential differences on the performance of the two groups. Data will be collected through a specially developed research instrument (questionnaire), aiming to collect data across all the aforementioned factors. The research instrument will be based on the literature of both technology adoption and learning theories, examining both utilitarian and hedonic drivers of adoption and use [e.g., TAM3 (Venkatesh & Bala, 2008), extended UTAUT (Venkatesh, Thong, & Xu, 2012)]. It is predicted that students trained with the proposed approach (group B) will perform better compared to students belonging to group A. Moreover, they are expected to show increased motivation in participating and succeeding in the selected CS1 course. Finally, we anticipate that group B will develop a more positive attitude towards computer science and programming courses in general, thus enhancing group B s students interest in following a career or continuing their studies on a postgraduate level in the particular field. 94 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

95 References Ala-Mutka, K. (2004). Problems in Learning and Teaching Programming - A literature Study for Developing Visualizations in the Codewitz-Minerva Project Codewitz Needs Analysis. Bennedsen, J., & Caspersen, M. E. (2007). Failure rates in introductory programming. SIGCSE Bulletin, 39(2), Chang, W.-C., & Chou, Y.-M. (2008). Introductory C Programming Language Learning with Game-Based Digital Learning. Paper presented at the 7th international conference on Advances in Web Based Learning (ICWL 2008), Jinhua, China. Chang, W.-C., Chou, Y.-M., & Chen, K.-C. (2011). Game-based Collaborative Learning System. Journal of Convergence Information Technology, 6(4), Cooper, S. (2010). The Design of Alice. ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), 10(4), Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Davies, S. P. (1993). Models and theories of programming strategy. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39(2), Gomes, A., & Mendes, A. J. (2007). Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEE'07), Coimbra, Portugal. Howell, K. (2003). First computer languages. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, 18(4), Jenkins, T. (2002). On the difficulty of learning to program. Paper presented at the 3rd Annual Conference of the LTSN Centre for Information and Computer Sciences (LTSN-ICS 2002). Kiili, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(1), Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kolosaka, O. (2011). Educational Games using Kodu, a visual programming tool. University of Piraeus, Athens. Li, F. W. B., & Watson, C. (2011). Game-based concept visualization for learning programming. Paper presented at the 3rd International ACM workshop on Multimedia technologies for distance learning (MTDL '11), Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. Lister, R., Adams, E. S., Fitzgerald, S., Fone, W., Hamer, J., Lindholm, M., McCartney, R., Moström, J. E., Sanders, K., & Seppälä, O. (2004). A multi-national study of reading and tracing skills in novice programmers. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 36(4), Loftus, C., Thomas, L., & Zander, C. (2011). Can graduating students design: revisited. Paper presented at the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education (SIGCSE '11), Dallas, TX, USA. 95 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

96 MacLaurin, M. B. (2009). Kodu: end-user programming and design for games. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Foundations of Digital Games (FDG 09), Orlando, Florida. MacLaurin, M. B. (2011). The design of kodu: a tiny visual programming language for children on the Xbox 360. ACM Sigplan Notices, 46(1), Maloney, J., Resnick, M., Rusk, N., Silverman, B., & Eastmond, E. (2010). The Scratch Programming Language and Environment. ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), 10(4). Mayer, R. E. (1992). Thinking, problem solving, cognition (2nd ed.): Worth Publishers. McCracken, M., Almstrum, V., Diaz, D., Guzdial, M., Hagan, D., Kolikant, Y. B.-D., Laxer, C., Thomas, L., Utting, I., & Wilusz, T. (2001). A multi-national, multi-institutional study of assessment of programming skills of firstyear CS students. Paper presented at the Working group reports from ITiCSE on Innovation and technology in computer science education (ITiCSE-WGR '01), Canterbury, UK. Or-Bach, R., & Lavy, I. (2004). Cognitive activities of abstraction in object orientation: an empirical study. SIGCSE Bulletin, 36(2), Paliokas, I., Arapidis, C., & Mpimpitsos, M. (2011, 4-6 May 2011). PlayLOGO 3D: A 3D Interactive Video Game for Early Programming Education: Let LOGO Be a Game. Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES). Prensky, M. (2001). The digital game-based learning revolution. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill. Rajaravivarma, R. (2005). A games-based approach for teaching the introductory programming course. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 37(4), Robins, A., Rountree, J., & Rountree, N. (2003). Learning and teaching programming: A review and discussion. Computer Science Education, 13(2), Rollings, A., & Adams, E. (2003). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design: New Riders Games. Shabalina, O., Vorobkalov, P., Kataev, A., & Tarasenko, A. (2008). Educational Games for Learning Programming Languages. Paper presented at the International Conference "Modern (e) Learning", Varna, Bulgaria. Venkatesh, V., & Bala, H. (2008). Technology Acceptance Model 3 and a Research Agenda on Interventions. Decision Sciences, 39(2), Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. L., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer Acceptance and Use of Information Technology: Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), Wilson, B. C. (2002). A study of factors promoting success in computer science including gender differences. Computer Science Education, 12(1-2), EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

97 COLLABORATION AND MOTIVATION IN AN ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF COLLABORATIVE ACTIVITIES AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS ONLINE LEARNING Abstract Idalina Jorge, Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa; The report about distance learning in higher education in Portugal (2009) states that only a small percentage of HE enrolments are in DL courses, that the demand for the modality is growing, and that the Portuguese research in DL needs development, to support innovation in the modality. This study aimed to identify the collaborative activities that the 122 students enrolled in Masters courses between , in two Portuguese Universities, considered more motivating, their preferred type of assignment, the tools perceived ease of use, the social and cognitive aspects of teamwork, the tutor s influence on teamwork and preferred team organization. The results indicate that the students feel comfortable participating, interacting and debating and that some collaborative activities such as designing projects, simulations, problem-based activities, discussions and written reports are more motivating than others. The results also show that the students have positive attitudes towards online learning, that online trust takes time to develop, that both face-to-face meetings and videoconference increase trust, though time flexibility is a practical advantage of online collaboration and that the way that collaborative assignments are designed can facilitate or hinder adequate collaboration. Keywords: collaboration; higher education; motivation; online learning; Introduction Dialogue and collaboration are essential components of learning since the first educational theories, both in western and eastern cultures. The postindustrial studies in distance learning have recovered this essential principle, since Moore (1992) identified the two didactic clusters in distance education, structure and dialogue, and the essential dialogue modalities in distance learning courses. As Biasutti (2011) has suggested, collaboration among students improves teamwork, communication and social skills. Positive experiences of collaboration in online courses, depending on the used technology (usability interface, access, Malik, 2009), the group size Ryan, 2008), the team activities (Dennen, & Wieland,2008), and the instructor s support properly planned for (Lafifi, Azzouz, Faci & Herkas, 2010), have been reported in the research. The sense of community also varies widely from student to student, as noted by Conrad (2002), and some students in online courses do not even develop it. This was also observed by Brown (2001), which gave some explanations, such as the lack of opportunities for collaboration, the students concerns about the time consuming activities of participation and interaction, the characteristics of 97 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

98 technological support, and the prominence of asynchrony, which tends to generate a feeling of isolation and non-membership. Schaffer & Hannafin s research (1993) reaffirmed the interaction importance in cognitive processes, establishing that greater interaction results in increased motivation, greater information recall and a more positive attitude on the part of students. Another study by Summers referred to by Schaffer and Hannafin (1993), highlighted the importance of interaction, arguing that without it, education "comes down to a passage of its contents as absolute truth," restricting and excluding the cycle of knowledge acquisition, critical processes and evaluation. Similarly, Romiszowski s research (1988) concluded that the interaction could be a critical component of computer- mediated education and Bransford et al. (1999) stated that collaboration between teachers and students helps students empower their personal learning processes. Also Harasim (1989), Moore (1990) and Garrison and Anderson (2003) reported the importance of collaboration in distance learning, mentioning its various forms and its effects on the students motivation and resilience. The Research Goals This research on the designed collaborative and teamwork activities main goal was to enlighten both faculty and tutors course design and implementation. The intended objectives were: 1) to identify the students preferred collaboration tools; 2) their ease of use; 3) the students preferred type of assignment; 4) the social and cognitive aspects of teamwork; 5) the tutor s influence on teamwork and 6) the students preferred team organization. Methodology 1 Participants 122 students enrolled in six online learning courses of two Portuguese universities between years participated in this research. There were no demographical variables included in these surveys, to protect the students anonymity. Both Blackboard and Moodle were used as primary assisted leaning tools, but the students had to arrange, both for team organization and because of the assignment s nature, on meeting online, using both synchronous and asynchronous tools outside the LMS. 2 Instrument and measurement 2.1. The survey After each team assignment, a survey was applied. The survey intended to 1) address the tools that the students used (1 question, nominal scale); 2) to assess the students perceptions about the synchronous and asynchronous tools ease of use (3 questions, a nominal scale and a 5 points Likerttype agreement scale); 3) the team work social and cognitive aspects (10 questions; a 5 points Likert- 98 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

99 type agreement scale); 4) the tutors influence on the team work, when applied ( 3 questions, a 5 points Likert-type agreement scale), and 5) to collect the students opinions on working with the same or with different groups (a 5 points Likert-type agreement scale). The students identities were kept anonymous and protected. All the students answered the survey and there were no missing responses. The survey dimensions are described in table 2. Table 2: Survey dimensions Survey dimensions 1. Preferred collaboration tools 2. Preferred type of assignment 3. Tools and perceived ease of use 4. Team work social aspects 5. Team work cognitive aspects 6. Tutor s influence 7. Team organization Results 1 Preferred online collaboration tools The students preferred synchronous meetings to other asynchronous tools, such as Google docs, forums and wikis, as shown in table 3. 2 Preferred type of assignment Table 3: Preferred online collaboration tools Collaboration tools Mean SD Synchronous meetings ,060 Google docs ,407 Forums ,325 Wikis ,688 The students were assigned to team tasks such as projects, simulations, problem-based activities, online forums and written reports. Their preferences are shown in table 4. Table 4: Preferred online collaborative assignments Preferred online collaborative assignments Mean SD Projects 4,46 0, EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

100 Simulations 4,38 0,624 Problem-based activities 4,24 0,498 Discussions 3,57 0,504 Written reports 3,60 0,626 3 Tools and perceived ease of use Synchronous and asynchronous tools used in the assignments and how the students perceived their ease of use were measured. Synchronous tools were considered easier to use (Mean= 4,34; SD=.773) than asynchronous tools (Mean= 3.80; SD=.884). 4 Social aspects of teamwork The social aspects of teamwork were assessed with 6 items, adapted from the CoI instrument (Arbaugh et al, 2008) with a 5 item Likert-type agreement scale, from totally disagree to totally agree. The results are shown in table 5 and demonstrate that the students dealt well with the social aspects of teamwork. Table 5: Social aspects of team work Social aspects of team work Mean SD I felt comfortable participating in this assignment 4,52 0,574 I felt comfortable communicating through the online media 4,48 0,628 I felt comfortable interacting with the other team members 4,46 0,576 My team properly acknowledged my point of view 4,28 0,882 I had no problem stating my views in front of others 4,28 0,751 This assignment developed my sense of trust with my team 3,41 1,181 5 Cognitive aspects of teamwork The cognitive aspects of teamwork were assessed with 4 items, adapted from the CoI instrument (Arbaugh et al, 2008) with a 5 item Likert-type agreement scale, from totally disagree to totally agree. The results, shown in table 6, indicate that the students value teamwork, mainly for understanding fundamental concepts and the course syllabus. Table 6: Cognitive aspects of teamwork Cognitive aspects of teamwork Mean SD Team work helped me understand fundamental concepts 4, Working with others helped me to build a deeper understanding of the 4, syllabus Team work helped me construct explanations/solutions 3, The assignment increased my interest in course 2, EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

101 6 The tutor s influence on team work The tutor s influence on teamwork for was assessed with a 5 item Likert-type agreement scale, from totally disagree to totally agree, derived from previous research (Jorge, 2011). The results are shown in table 7. Table 7: The tutor s influence on teamwork The tutor s influence on team work Mean SD The tutor helped us develop a sense of trust 4,83 0,490 The tutor s feedback had a positive influence on the assignment s success 4,63 0,547 The tutor helped us keep focused on the assignment 4,30 0,651 7 Team organization The survey s final question, intended to find out if the students preferred to work with different teams for each assignment or to maintain the same team throughout the courses. The item was measured with a 5 item Likert-type agreement scale, from totally disagree to totally agree. The general mean was 2,56, though it varied along the courses. Conclusions Most of the team activities were organized and developed outside the platform, except for on-line forums. Current LMS platforms lack structural flexibility and may hinder the students sense of trust and motivation to collaborate, being Web 2.0 tools, such as google docs, wikis, skype, videoconference, among others, more user friendly and dynamic, both for synchronous and asynchronous team activities, particularly small teams. Multimedia and Web 2.0 technologies are particularly suited to education through dialogue, given the feedback and evaluation they allow for, and which are so important to learning. To sum up, the quality of education can significantly improve with the use of technologies that may include a strong interactive component, both synchronous and asynchronous. References Arbaugh, J.B., Cleveland-Innes, M., Diaz, S.R., Garrison, D.R., Ice, P., Richardson, & Swan, K.P. (2008). Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of the Community of Inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample. The Internet and higher Education, 11(3-4), Biasutti, M. (2011). The student experience of a collaborative e-learning university module. Computers & Education, 57(3), Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L. & Cocking, R. (1999). In J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown e Rodney Cocking. How people learn. Technology to support learning. Retrieved from: 101 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

102 Brown, R. E. (2001). The process of community-building in distance learning classes. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(2) Conrad, D. (2002). Deep in the Hearts of Learners: insights into the nature of online community. Journal of Distance Education. Accessed 28 July 2004 at: Dennen, V., & Wieland, K. (2008). Does Task Type Impact Participation? Interaction Levels and Learner Orientation in Online Discussion Activities. Technology, Instruction, Cognition & Learning, 6(2), Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E Learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice. London: Routledge/Falmer. Harasim, L. (1989).On-line education: A new domain. In R. Mason and A. Kaye (Eds.), Mindweave: Communication, computers and distance education, (pp ). Oxford: Pergamon Press. Jorge, I.; Miranda, G. (2006). As funções da tutoria nos fóruns de discussão assíncrona on-line: contributos para a definição de uma taxonomia. Proceedings of the 1ª Conferência Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação, Volume II, Portugal: Esposende. ISBN Jorge, I. (2011). The influence of the e-tutor on the development of collaborative critical thinking in a students' e-forum: association levels with Cramer s V. Proceedings of the International Joint Conference and Media Day. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro. Lafifi, Y., Azzouz, K., Faci, H., & Herkas, W. (2010). Dynamic management of tutors' roles in an online learning system. International Journal of Learning Technology, 5(2), Malik, M. (2009). Student satisfaction towards e-learning: Influential role of key factors. Proceedings of the 2nd CBRC. Lahore, Pakistan. Moore, M. (1990). Recent Contribution to the Theory of Distance Education. Open Learning, Romiszowski, A. (1988). The selection and use of instructional media. London. Kogan Page. Ryan, P. P. (2008). A Small Experiment in Online Learning. South African Journal of Higher Education, 22(4), Hughes, S., Wickersham, L. Ryan-Jones, D. & Smith, S. (2002). Overcoming social and psychological barriers to effective on-line collaboration. Educational Technology & Society, 5(1), Moore, M. (1992). Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6. Schaffer, L., Hannafin, D. (1993). The effects of progressive interactivity on learning from interactive video. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 34(2) Veerman, A., & Veldhuis-Diermanse, E. (2001). Collaborative learning through computer-mediated communication in academic education. In P. Dillenbourg, A. Eurelings, & K. Hakkarainen (Eds.), European perspectives on computer-supported collaborative learning. Proceedings of the 1st European conference on computer-supported collaborative learning (pp ). Maastricht: Maastricht University. Wathley, J. & Bell, F. (2003). Discussion across borders: benefits for collaborative learning. Education Media International, 40(1/2), EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

103 SIMAULA: A NEEDS-BASED MODEL OF VIRTUAL PRACTICUM FOR FUTURE TEACHERS Roumiana Peytcheva, Blagovesna Yovkova, Asya Asenova (Sofia University) Carles Fernàndez (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya) Panagiotis Petridis (Coventry University) Introduction One of the main goals of the EU growth strategy Europe 2020 is to use actively the opportunities that the modern technologies offer for improving the quality of learning. The active development of software for simulations of social processes provides realistic means for improving teacher education in a way that meets the needs and expectations of the modern society as well as of today s learners. The advantages which the inclusion of virtual reality offers, when considering professional training of educators, are growing with the development of the simulative software packages. A number of researchers point out the positive effect which learning in simulative environments has for increasing learners motivation and individualization of the learning process, as well as for the development of practical and professional skills; in addition, the nature of the simulation software allows for the design of virtual learning environments which provoke students cognitive and emotional activity [1, 2, 3, 4]. In the current paper the authors present an authored project, which aims to construct a model for a virtual simulation practicum for teachers in-training. The project is based on in-depth qualitative research of users needs and on a detailed analysis of the potentials of most recent social simulation technologies to support learning. The development of the presented simulation model involves the efforts of an practicing studentational team of professionals in the field of ICT in education who collaborate in the context of SimAULA Tomorrow s Teachers Training Project. There were three stages in the process of the virtual simulation practicum design and development. During the first stage, an ethnographic study was conducted in order to reveal the views and needs of the stakeholders as well as a literature review. In the second stage, the team focused on the development of the specific technical parameters of the simulative game development. Finally, the third stage of the project involved elaboration of the conceptual framework and pedagogical desgn of the virtual practicum and methodology of its evaluation. Research methodology The in-depth analyses of literature and the outcomes of semi-structured interviews and focus groups were an integral part of the ethnographic study. In the study, there were three different groups of participants: (1) academics faculty members from Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, (2) resource school teachers who mentor practicing students, and (3) students from different faculties of 103 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

104 Sofia University involved in programmes for teacher qualification. The faculty members are closely engaged with the organization and teaching of the practicing studentship courses in the three of the largest faculties involved in future teachers preparation: The Faculty of Education, The Faculty of Biology, and The Faculty of Chemistry. The teachers who host practicing students in the process of their practicing studentship in elementary and middle school. The results of the data analysis supported the understanding of the problems, barriers and challenges related to the overall educational goals of teacher-training programmes. They are evident in the process of planning, organization, and conducting of practicing studentship practice. Based on the comparison of the problems and barriers identified by the three groups of participants, the authors were able to make the following conclusions: there are common problems and barriers identified by all three groups. These barriers are related to the application of the theoretical pedagogical knowledge into practice. The most important ones are: the lack of knowledge and ability to apply approaches for interactive teaching and learning as well as teaching strategies that would promote group work, individualization and differentiation of the learning process. In addition, there is a relationship between the way practicing students work in class environment and the quality of the equipment they have access to during their practicing studentship. Another important problem which was identified is the class discipline; the low class discipline levels can be interpreted as the reason for practicing students to be more likely to use teacher-centred approaches on one hand and on the other inadequate discipline can be a result of the application of such approaches. It can be assumed that these difficulties and problems cause practicing students to experience a higher level of anxiety, lower levels of confidence, and lack of motivation to apply teaching approaches different from the teachercentred ones; thus, teaching approaches that present direct transmission of knowledge become the main approaches used by the students and pupils in their classroom play the role of passive observers. This low involvement of the pupils possibly triggers the discipline problems [5, 6]. As a result of these barriers and challenges, a wide variety of learning objectives assigned to practical preparation of future teachers are not effectively reached. Often the result is that students enter the teaching profession after developing ineffective stereotypical approaches to teaching, which are often based on transmission teaching models. Conceptual Framework of the Virtual Pedagogical Practicum It is viewed that the constructivist paradigm offers a good framework for the effective development and application of serious games for students majoring in the field of pedagogy. A number of researchers acknowledge the role of serious games to support active learning by engaging students and encouraging them to involve in research, experimentation, and collaboration with peers [1, 7, 8, 9]. Wilson [8] claims that modern computer games could be viewed as a constructivist learning environment in which a space for collaborative work and problem solving is provided; this is a space in which learners can support each other, use various tools and informational resources in order to solve specific problems and achieve educational goals. According to Sara de Freitas [1], the digital 104 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

105 games, which are based on the main principles of the constructivist paradigm, have the great potential to support and stimulate the in-depth learning of teachers in training. The technological and pedagogical design of the virtual practicum SimAULA was informed by the three main trends that guided the conducted research: (1) problems and barriers revealed in the analysis of the way the pedagogical practicum is currently conducted, (2) the specific needs for increasing the quality of pedagogical practicum presented by the participants of the three groups that took part in the study, and (3) the pedagogical potentials of serious games. These three trends laid the basis for specifying the educational goals of the virtual teaching practicum SimAULA. These goals were also based on the general understanding and the specific characteristics considered in measuring the acquired knowledge, skills, and models for professional conduct outlined in Dublin descriptors [10]. It was planned that as a result of the training with SimAULA, future teachers will gain specific knowledge, skills, and competencies, which can be grouped in five specific categories: Knowledge and understanding of the nature of various strategies for management of pedagogical activities; the organization of working space and the type of activities which can be conducted in this space; the pedagogical potentials of specific ICT; the various students psychological profiles; the pedagogical suitability of various types of learning activities as they are related to the learning goals, time schedule, available resources, and learning content; the organization of learning activities and assessment; Knowledge application of: an assigned pedagogical strategy and of a pedagogical strategy chosen by the practicing student; a selected technology/s and learning resources for a specific learning content; a specific pedagogical strategy in the interaction with avatar pupils; teaching strategies which would improve pupils motivation; content and theoretical knowledge when choosing learning activities suitable for a specific pedagogical strategy; Making judgements: adequate choice of ICT based on the chosen pedagogical strategy, type of classroom, learning goals, and specifics of subject content; choice of strategies for working with problematic pupils; analysis of the target group, lesson goals, and specific learning situation; development of evaluation and assessment instruments; diagnostics of pupils knowledge, skills, and behavior and choosing the adequate teacher s reaction to them; assessment of the quality of the conducted lessons and self-assessment of the work with the pupils; Communications skills: for effective pedagogical interactions depending on avatar pupils behavior; planning and organization of pedagogical communication as related to a chosen pedagogical strategy, ICT, and learning activity; Learning skills: learning through reflection. 105 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

106 Virtual practicum design The technological and pedagogical design of the virtual practicum SimAULA was guided by the goals outlined above. The model of the virtual practicum at both technological and pedagogical level consists of three key components: the Student Model, the Classroom Model and the Pedagogical Model (Fig. 1). 1 Technological design Fig. 1, The breakdown of the development process Character Model and Animations 3D Assets Scenario, Teaching Strategies Student Model ClassRoom Model Pedagogical Model 3D Game and Virtual World Platform Assessment Report The Student model includes a set of students characters as well as the possibility for the end user to configure the number and composition of the class. The different types of characters were based on the ethographic studies undertaken in the duration of the project. The Educational model (Pegagogical model) includes two main features: the activity script and the tips and hints for the teacher. The classroom model is closely related with the physical organization of the classroom space. The simaula classroom model will first of all include this types of classroom setting to be chosen by the end-user when starting the activity and can be modified during the simulation. For each setting, a short pop up hint will explain the type of the theory behind the setting and when is more suitable for using it. The system is divided into two parts. The first part contains the graphical interface which is based on Unity3D, and contains the student and classroom model and the second part contains the simulation core and it contains the pedagogical model and this part is responsible for driving the simulation. The communication between the two different parts of the system is made through webservices. The 106 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

107 implemented simulation game is available through either as a seperate application, ot it could be embed in a webpage. 2 Pedagogical design Guiding the design of the pedagogical model of SimAULA are the problems and barriers, which the pre-service teachers experience in their traditional pedagogical practice. The data analysis revealed serious shortcomings in the preparation of the practicing students, their lack of organizational skills and low motivation for becoming teachers. All three groups of participants reported that the students most frequently apply teaching strategies associated with models of transmission teaching and almost never turn to strategies guided by the constructivist models and methods. As the main reasons for this limited choice of teaching strategies they point out: (1) the students lack of developed teaching skills and competencies related to these models and to their systematic application in specific pedagogical contexts, (2) lack of classroom time, (3) the limited number of hours devoted to the pedagogical preparation of pre-service teachers, (4) students feelings of insecurity and loss of control over the classroom when student-centered teaching strategies are used, (5) as well as the poorly equipped classrooms in most of the schools where practicing studentship courses are conducted which poses certain limitations in terms of resources and classroom environment organization. In order to overcome the above problems, the virtual practicum includes a variety of constructivist models of learning: collaborative learning, learning through experiment, problem based learning etc. These models can be applied in different types of classrooms, with different ICT and resource availability, and with a different range of learning activities for their realization all these options are part of the software design. This variability of options provides the opportunities for students to practice professional behavior in the safe environment of the virtual classroom; in addition, the virtual classroom adds flexibility to this practice making it independent of the place and time limitations often experienced during the face-to-face practicum. Thus, in the virtual classroom, while working with avatar students, students can choose and experiment with the pre-programmed teaching strategies in order to build their competencies and develop confidence without negatively affecting the learning process of the actual classroom. The pedagogical design comprises eight consecutive steps, on each of these steps the tutor and the practicing student can make a choice depending on learning objectives, their knowledge and needs, namely choice of: pedagogical strategy; type of classroom; technology; study material and resource packages; student-avatars with specific psychological profiles; learning activities; mode of assessment, monitoring, and feedback; self-reflection and self-assessment. In addition to the above, the simulation classroom environment provides instruments for acquiring key skills and competencies related to the organization of group learning, as well as for differentiation and individualization of learning. The difficulty developing exactly these skills appeared, based on our analysis, to be one of the main problems experienced by practicing students. The simulation environment encourages students to assume an active role as teachers and to experiment with a variety of teaching strategies as well as with techniques for guiding the learning 107 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

108 process based on learners needs; the risk to overwhelm the students or to create the sense of failure in the process is minimized. In addition, working in this simulation environment, the students will acquire skills for interacting not only with the most active students but also for involving students who are less active either because they are ahead of the group or lag behind. Another strength of the pedagogical model is its high interactivity. This interactivity supports practicing students active learning of professional knowledge and competencies and their experimentation within the environment while solving various pedagogical problems. We expect that when the preservice teachers are provided with the opportunity to reflect on a specific situation, to pose hypotheses about these situations, to take actions, and after that to research and reflect on the effects of these actions, many of the problems identified in our research might be solved. For example, one of the most prominent difficulties which students experience currently in the traditional practicum is their inability to control the classroom discipline and to deal with disciplinerelated problems. We perceive this problem to be both one of the main reasons for students choosing teacher-fronted strategies and a result of the application of such strategies. In the virtual practicum environment, the students can experiment with different teaching and communicative strategies while working with avatar pupils in order to observe and develop a better understanding of the relation between teaching practices, learning activities, and the learning outcomes. Here it is also important to point out that the virtual practicum offers the opportunity to work with avatar pupils who have different personalities and psychological characteristics; this adds to the realistic features of the classroom simulation. The student model is developed based on the outcomes of the focus groups conducted with teachers in biology/chemistry from the same grade/class we intend to develop the pilot scenarios for (13 years old students which are in 7th grade of lower secondary school). The focus group interview addressed the identification and detailed description of typical students profiles. These profiles include the roles, attitudes, behaviors etc in order to support the development of the student model that could be used for this particular subject at this particular age for this particular scenario. In the basis of this study are used two classifications of behaviors: the first defines the characteristics of the different roles of students in group work [11], the second is related to behaviors of students in the frontal work in the classroom [12]. During the focus group discussions teachers agreed on the following characteristic types of students behaviour: collaborator, competitor, accommodating, hostile, disinterested (passive), coward, confused, idealist. In addition, they specified five types of problematic student behavior: the talkative, the spoilt, the moaner, the skeptic, and the joker. Specific behaviors, reactions, characteristics, and frequently used language were defined for each of these five types. During the game, student avatars, and more specifically their behavior, are the main feedback that SimAULA users will receive to know whether their decisions are appropriate or not. In the classroom students can be grouped in two categories according to their reactions: first, the non-conflictive students that are focused on learning and follow the teacher pedagogical strategy, and secondly, students that develop some kind of disruptive/conflictive behavior under some of the roles 108 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

109 previously defined: skeptic, moaner, joker, etc. As an overall rule, the number of conflictive avatars depend directly on the teacher avatar actions. As it would happen in most of the classrooms, good teaching decisions create a better climate in the classroom. On the other hand, students reactions in a classroom also depend on elements that are beyond a particular classroom situation. For that reason, some of the SimAULA avatars may develop a conflictive behavior non related to teacher actions. The objective of the game, from the user point of view, is to make learners achieve learning objectives through a learning process where conflicts will appear. The variable Student Involvement (S.I.) defines the overall student integration in said learning process, and the objective is to achieve the highest S.I. possible at the end of the game. The percentage of S.I. also determines the presence and the number of conflictive avatars, and it is quantified as the number of students that are engaged and paying attention at a particular moment during the game. As a general rule, classrooms with higher S.I. will be more successful than classrooms with lower S.I. In conclusion, avatars behavior is the main feedback on how the user (practicing student) is performing. Performance depends on the design stage (when scenarios are defined) and teaching stage (when activities are implemented in class). The classroom model deals with the organization of the classroom space. The choice of a classroom type is based on the existing organization of the working space (described as typical). The classroom settings pose different types of limitations or possibilities for the application of various pedagogical strategies and learning activities. The readiness for testing pedagogical models in the different classroom settings and the ability to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a particular setting are important professional skills of a future teacher. The features which SimAULA offers in terms of manipulating and rearranging the learning environment in the process of teaching in the virtual practicum supports overcoming another limitation of the face-to-face practicum which confines practicing students to one type of classroom settings and thus does not allow for the development of these skills. There are three selection options here: 109 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

110 Classroom Type 1 - the desks are arranged in three rows with students facing the blackboard. The teacher s desk appears in front of the blackboard. There are no much opportunities to rearrange the desks. Fig. 1 Classroom Type 2 - the desks are arranged in several circles which are able to sit six students. The blackboard and teacher s desk are in the middle of the classroom. The desks and chairs can be moved, their size and number allow for a quick and easy restructuring of the workspace. Fig. 2 Classroom Type 3 - the desks are arranged in a U-shape and the blackboard and teacher s desk are in the middle. Again, the desks and chairs allow to be rearranged which provides opportunities for a dynamic workspace. Fig. 3 The evaluation in SimAULA is a complex issue, since it refers to a lot of areas within the implementation. Such complexity requires a multidimensional approach in terms of techniques and indicators. SimAULA experts have identified sets of indicators from several aspects: overall utility, technology, pedagogical aspects, usability, engagement, sense of presence and learning. These indicators will be assessed through qualitative and quantitative instruments such as questionnaires, interviews, focus groups and observation. In order to gather information from different types of users, SimAULA will apply evaluation in different contexts such as Universities, Summer Schools, e- learning conferences, etc. Conclusions Summarizing the presentation of the proposed needs-based model for a virtual practicum for training of pre-service teachers, it could be pointed out that the virtual practicum provides practicing students with the opportunities for the acquisition and development of specific professional knowledge, skills, and competencies; therefore, the practicum is a valuable instrument that could supplement the overall preparation of future teachers. This instrument can support the optimization and modernization of the practicum phase of teacher-training programmes according to the contemporary trends in education and career development. We expect the application of the 110 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

111 simulation environment to help minimizing the difficulties experienced by practicing students when participating in the traditional practicum and to stimulate future teachers creativity in planning, organization, and management of learning process. Bibliography [1] S. De Freitas, Learning in immersive worlds: a review of game-based learning. Bristol, England: JISC, [2] M.Prensky, Digital Game-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill, [3] L.Rieber, Multimedia learning in games, simulations, and microworlds. In The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (Mayer, R.E. ed.), pp , [4] D. Panzoli, C. Peters, I. Dunwell, S. Sanchez, P. Petridis, A. Protopsaltis, V. Scesa, and S. de Freitas, "A [5] Level of Interaction Framework for Exploratory Learning with Characters in Virtual Environments," in Intelligent Computer Graphics vol. 321, D. Plemenos and G. Miaoulis, Eds., ed: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2010, pp [6] Peytcheva-Forsyth,R., S.Yotova & V. Delibaltova, Seriously about serious games and teaching practice in Bulgaria, EDEN Open Classroom 2011 Conference, Ellinogermaniki Agogi, Athens, Greece, October [6] Peytcheva-Forsyth,R., B. Yovkova, Using serious games to improve the preparationof pre-service teachers in Bulgaria, World academy of science, engineering and technology, issue 66,Paris, France, June [7] S. Baden, A practical guide to using second life in higher education. Open University press, [7] B. Wilson, What is a constructivist learning environment? In: B.Wilson, Constructivist Learning Environments: Case Studies in Instructional Design. Englewoods Cliffts, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, [8] M. Younis, C. Loh, Integrating serious games in higher education programs., Retrieved Oct from / pdf/2010_younis_loh.pdf. [9] А Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area, Ministry of Science Technology and [10] Innovation, last visited on [11] J.Pasaniuc, C. Seidler, D. Bosioc and C. Nistor. Methods and techniques used in intercultural youth projects, Oradea, Romania, [11] [12] И.Иванов, Мениджмънт на ученическия клас. Шумен, EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

112 KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE ACROSS BORDERS INTERNATIONALIZATION OF OPEN EDUCATION USING TRUSTED EDUCATIONAL NETWORKS Abstract Jan M. Pawlowski (University of Jyväskylä), Kati I. Clements (University of Jyväskylä) Global educational programs become more and more important in Higher Education and the training sector. One promising solution is to collaborate using open educational resources (OER). However, this opportunity has not been used to a broad extent even though millions of learning objects are freely available across the world. This paper discusses key barriers to the use of OER and gives recommendations how materials can be used in international collaborations. A special focus is the use of trusted educational networks and corresponding recommendation mechanisms to enhance sharing in communities of trusted colleagues. Keywords: open educational resources, quality, trust, re-use, trusted educational network, recommender systems. Introduction The global competition in the education and training market has become more and more competitive. One promising solution is to collaborate across the globe using open educational resources (OER). OER contain all resources for the purpose of learning, education and training which are freely accessible. This includes literature and scientific resources (Open Access for Education), technologies and systems (Open Source for Education) and Open Content (actual learning materials / contents) as well as related artifacts (such as didactical materials or lesson plans). However, the opportunities have not been used to a broad extent, even though millions of learning objects are freely available across the world. In contrast to the Open Source / Free Software movement (Baldi et al., 2002), OER are not yet widely used (Ochoa & Duval, 2009). One key challenge is to overcome initial barriers keeping stakeholders away from the usage. Barriers include skepticism on free materials, the not-invented-here syndrome, insecurities on quality and legal aspects but also a lack of proven business models (cf. Clements & Pawlowski, 2012). The main aspects to make OER re-use a dynamic and successful process seem to be trust and willingness to collaborate. We believe that initiating international, trusted groups will lead to highly dynamic processes and also to sustainable models for OER. However, these collaborations need to be planned, moderated and supported. In this paper, we analyze how international re-use can be improved and eased using trusted educational networks and which services are necessary to implement trusted educational networks? We apply a Design Science Research approach (Hevner et al., 2004) to the problems derived from a literature research. We use a case study approach to illustrate and validate the concept (Yin, 2003). 112 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

113 Open Educational Resources - adaption and internationalization Open Educational Resources (OER) and OER communities are a promising concept as a basis for collaborative teaching scenarios, in schools, Higher Education as well as adult education (Vuorikaari et al. 2004). On a global level, many institutions have formed communities sharing and distributing content (Ochoa & Duval, 2009). Major initiatives are for example OpenScout in the management domain (Kalz et al., 2010), OpenLearn (McAndrew, 2006), Ariadne (Ternier et al., 2009) or MERLOT (Cafolla, 2006). The most important federation of repositories is the GLOBE initiative (Ochoa & Duval, 2009). OER must be re-usable, accessible, and interoperable enable re-use if this condition is met, OER can initiate a community-based, cooperative production process leading to an exponential increase of content (Pawlowski & Zimmermann., 2007) similar success stories can be found in the field of open source software (Baldi et. al, 2002) or open access publishing (Björk, 2004). However, currently none of the aforementioned OER initiatives has achieved a wide acceptance. Up to now, several barriers prevent a broad range of stakeholders from using and providing OER (cf. OECD, 2007) such as lack of critical masses of available content, lack of communities of developers and users and lack of adoption and sharing. However, it is not yet how to overcome these barriers of knowledge sharing, clear how to facilitate international, multi-lingual, multi-cultural groups of developers, teachers and learners. In our previous research, (Clements and Pawlowski, 2012) we identified knowledge sharing and trust to be the main barriers for re-use of OER. The same study showed that 82% of teachers found resources based on recommendations from colleagues, 71% found resources based on recommendations from personal friends and 56% searched for resources well ranked by their peers, 58% of teachers searched for resources that come from an organization with good reputation such as Harvard, MIT or NASA. This leads to the conclusion that most users listen to recommendations, in particular to recommendations from people they trust. Therefore, it can be argued that trust in one of the key factors to improve re-use, adaptation and internationalization. Trust Trust is a key concept in communities and has been analyzed from different perspectives and disciplines, for example for establishing relationships to organization or persons (Cummings & Bromiley, 1996, Morgan & Hunt, 1994). A key aspect of our analysis is interpersonal trust in virtual (global) teams (Järvenpää et al., 2004, Paul & McDaniel, 2004). For our context, we believe that trust influences the collaboration and sharing tasks significantly, in particular (short-term) swift trust (Meyerson et al., 1996, Järvenpää, 1998, Coppola, 2004). In relation to the (work) tasks, however, Järvenpää et al. (2004) could not prove that trust has a moderating effect on outcomes like task quality or attitude. We believe that this will be different in educational settings. This is specifically the case because the task is different than in typical settings: Whereas in global teams the goal and mode of collaboration is usually clear (Cummings & Bromiley, 1996), in social networks tasks ( creating a new slide set for a given topic ) can occur spontaneously and thus the task-building is already influenced by trust itself. 113 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

114 However, trust is not only dependent on the behavior of a person but moreover on the context such as the trustor s perception, the context, and further factors (McKnight, Cummings, Chervany, 1998). Therefore, it is necessary to understand the role of trust and its interconnection to the tasks in our context re-use, collaboration and their quality. The concept of trust can also be seen as a decision instrument to reduce complexity (Paul & McDaniel, 2004). In this sense, also different entities can be valued as trusted, such as organizations (Dirks & Ferrin, 2001), resources (Jøsang et al., 2007), or even countries. For our domain OER trust is important for different entities. The aspect of personal trust in social (educational) networks has been further analyzed in different settings (Klamma et al., 2007, Golbeck et al., 2003). Trust-based mechanisms (Jøsang et al., 2007) such as recommendations seem appropriate for initiating the trust building process. Vuorikari et al (2007) studied social recommendations based on relationships or trust in personal networks. Typical mechanisms are based on trusted relationships and their distance ( friends, friends of friends, etc.). We assume that trust even exists to the second or third degree ( friends of friends, friends of friends of friends ). However, currently it has not been studied how the re-use of OER and the establishment of new personal (trusted) relations are influenced in social educational networks. In our previous work (Clements & Pawlowski, 2012), we identified key aspects for trust of OER sharing to be 1) organizational reputation, 2) personal relations, and 3) frequent use of resources. Therefore, it can be assumed that collaboration across multi-national teams is increased in trusted partnerships. We also believe that trusted networks support the exchange and re-use as well as adaptation of OER. Trusted Educational Networks A Trusted Educational Network (TEN) describes a collaboration of distributed educators where decisions are eased through mutual trust. Typical decisions in such a network are recommendations regarding OER, decisions to collaborate in projects or mutual research support. TEN is based on personal relations which substitute time-consuming processes and base on a simple idea: people trust friends and colleagues and communicate with them intensively in social / professional networks. However, communication of actors is not utilized systematically. In professional networks, actors are organized by simple classifications, e.g., based on business transactions, educational background, personal interests. In social networks, the main classification of relations is done through distinctions of family relationships, educational or professional networks (e.g. school, university, organizations, employers). However, those relations do not help when identifying people we trust when making decisions. In the context of OER, trust may constitute a crucial success factor as an OER may sometimes only be discovered via trusted relationships (e.g. sharing personal slidesets), but not in public repositories. Also, when finding good (open) courses or learning resources to acquire new competences in the career development, the same problem occurs: many learners cannot judge the quality of programs, courses or materials which helps for career development and competence advancement. Recommendations which are in many cases utilized in face-to-face decision processes are not supported by educational markets. We believe that recommendations by trusted networks can ease and improve the decision process for career development. 114 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

115 Trusted networks are built by relations that are not solely based on organizational or personal historical data they are based on: Topic / subject of the collaboration: We do not trust people in general, we trust regarding a certain area of expertise. Context: We do not trust people for all purposes and situations we trust just for certain contexts (e.g. for course recommendations at school, for recommendations in a certain project context) Proximity: We do not trust people when we do not know them personally. We trust people we know and have worked together. We also trust their recommendation on other people. The concept of proximity plays a major role how we trust in complex networks. Proximity is depending on topic and context. The following figure shows the types of relations showing the distance of people and how to identify colleagues we trust. The idea would be to substitute time consuming assessment, quality assurance and search processes with trust based mechanisms. The recommendation process for OER (cf. Manouselis et al., 2009) therefore becomes easier as long validation processes are substituted through recommendations. To implement such a process (e.g., for the user community of a repository or for a social network group), the following services are necessary: 1. Describe trust relationships / find trustees: It is necessary to describe which people are trusted and to identify who could act as trustee (experts, colleagues, recommended colleagues). On the implementation level, this requires a service which lets users specify trust relationships (e.g., which topic, how strong the trust is) and also recommend potential trusted colleagues. 2. Get trusted assessment: In the searching process for OER, we aim at short-cutting the timeconsuming validation process by receiving simple recommendations from trustees (e.g. do they know about good resources from themselves or from colleagues). Therefore, the trusted partner recommends an OER and judges its quality. 3. Update trust profile: whenever good and helpful recommendations were made, trust will increase. This process can also contain incentives (e.g. a reward for a successful 115 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

116 recommendations, improved user status) 4. Recommend trustees / recommend resources: This activity relates to the actual recommendation in which an actor provides a recommendation for a resource or for a trustee. On the implementation level, this requires recommendation services based on trust level which extend the number of trustees which could make recommendations. The same is the case for OER recommendations based on trust and context information. 5. Further trust services: these services allow the above mentioned more complex services, such as description of trust level / context, describe trust level per context (e.g. organization / sector / educational level) and topic / subject / culture (language, habits, etc.), Trust creation, Trusted competence description/taxonomy (EQF), Trusted competence-people-/objectassignment, Trusted quality services (recommending materials / courses), Trusted people services (recommending people / partners / collaborators), Trusted recognition: recognize competences by trust (instead of long assessments) The above services allow the implementation in repositories and social networks. However, the process becomes powerful as soon as the number of trustees increases (e.g. by recommending people who have a trusted relationship to a trusted colleague, similar to friends-of-friendsrecommendations ). In this chapter, we have shown the concept of Trusted Educational Networks and corresponding services. We are currently implementing those in different networks to allow the empirical impact analysis. Case Study: Improving International Partnerships using Trusted Educational Networks When building new courses, the use of OER is a promising alternative we investigate how the process of using OER for course building improves when using Trusted Educational Networks using a case study (Yin, 2003). The case study has been elaborated in the project OpenScout in which adaptation services are in focus (Kalz et al., 2010). The following situation is given: A university teacher in Finland needs to develop a new course, for example in the field of Mobile Business Technologies. The course has to be developed from scratch, thus, the effort is rather high. In a traditional re-use process, the author would search some of the promising repositories (e.g. GLOBE, Slideshare) and validate solutions as well as excluding hundreds of irrelevant or low-quality solutions. In a TEN (e.g. Finnish and Korean professors in the domain), the author would receive recommendation from colleagues who 1) have knowledge on the domain, i.e., mobile technologies, and 2) have mutual trust, i.e., second degree TEN. In this setting, the author has much less efforts to validate and adapt solutions as trustees mutually support each other. Also, the content could be enriched and enhanced in the development process. This means that the same (original and reauthored) materials will be further developed by the collaborators leading to new ideas and generally higher quality. As a result of this process, the author would receive more reliable and highquality materials which are given back to the community, i.e., the TEN. By this, all actors benefit from their involvement as the materials develop dynamically. The following table sketches the process: 116 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

117 As a summary of this case study, we have shown that time-consuming validation processes are eased by mutual support and expert recommendations. The following effects can be stated: Easing current complex processes: The TEN approach will ease search and adaption as well as quality assurance by the means of trust based services Creating new services and added-values for educational networks: We have provided the conceptual base for creating services which are based on our concept of trust. This leads to new commercial opportunities and competitive advantages (portal providers, educational communities, tool providers, training providers and market places) Improving the quality and reliability of services (e.g. recommending training offers, recommending talents) by implementing trust based services substituting unreliable quality mechanisms Improving re-use and access: We overcome the main barriers (mistrust and quality concerns) by adding trusted services and materials. Community building: Our dedicated focus is to find new ways of building communities and creating / describing relationships within those communities beyond too simple mechanisms (such as uncategorized friends ). Building new services across communities for training and education: We enable new ways of finding collaborations across the globe based on trust. This will lead to increased and improved global collaborations. Conclusion and Future Research In this paper, we have outlined the concept of Trusted Educational Networks (TEN) which allows easing, improving and enhancing re-use processes for OER. In our case study, we have outlined the effects in a typical example, i.e., building new courses. The concept has proven successful on a conceptual level and in a case study in the project OpenScout (Kalz et al, 2010). Further research questions concern the quantitative analysis of the effects and impact as well as the analysis how cross-border collaborations develop based on trusted partnerships. 117 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

118 Acknowledgements This work has been partly conducted with co-operation of European Union-funded project OpenScout: Skill-Based Scouting of Open Management Content (http://www.openscout.net), reference no. ECP-2008-EDU and OpenScienceResources: Towards the development of a Shared Digital Repository for Formal and Informal Science Education, reference no. ECP-2008-EDU References Baldi, S., Heier, H., Stanzick, F. (2002): Open Courseware vs. Open Source Software A Critical Comparison, ECIS 2002, Gdansk. Björk, B.-C. (2004): Open access to scientific publications - an analysis of the barriers to change. Information Research, 9(2). Cafolla, R. (2006): Project Merlot: Bringing Peer Review to Web-based Educational Resources. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14 (2), pp Clements, K., Pawlowski, J.M. (2012): User-oriented quality for OER: Understanding teachers' views on re-use, quality and trust, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Coppola, N. (2004): Building Trust in Virtual Teams, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 47 (2), Cummings, L. L., Bromiley, P. (1996): The organizational trust inventory (OTI): Development and validation. R. M. Kramer, T. R. Tyler (Eds.): Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Re- search. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA., pp Dirks, K.T., Ferrin, D.L. (2001): The Role of Trust in Organizational Settings, Organization Science, 12 (4), pp Downes, S. (2007): Models for sustainable open educational resources. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 3. Retrieved 01/03/2010 from: 7 Golbeck,J., Parsia, B., Hendler, J. (2003): Trust Networks on the Semantic Web, Proceedings of Cooperative Intelligent Agents 2003, Helsinki, Finland. Hevner, A., March, S., Park, J., and Ram, S. (2004): Design Science in Information Systems Research, MIS Quarterly, 28 (1), pp Järvenpää, S.L., Knoll, K., Leidner, D.E. (1998): Is anybody out there? Antecedents of trust in global virtual teams, Journal of Management Information Systems, 14 (4), pp Järvenpää, S.L., Shaw, T.R., Staples, D.S. (2004): The Role of Trust in Global Virtual Teams, Information Systems Research, 15(3), pp EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

119 Jøsang, A., Ismail, R., Boyd, C. (2007): A survey of trust and reputation systems for online service provision, Decision Support Systems, 43 (2), pp Kalz, M., Specht, M., Nadolski, R., Bastiaens, Y., Leirs, N., & Pawlowski, J.M. (2010): OpenScout: Competence based management education with community-improved open educational resources. In Halley et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference. Crossing Borders in Education and work-based learning (pp ). Maastricht, The Netherlands: FEBA ERD Press. Klamma, R., Chatti, M. A., Duval, E., Hummel, H., Hvannberg, E. H., Kravcik, M., Law, E., Naeve, A., & Scott, P. (2007): Social Software for Life-long Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (3), pp Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Vuorikari, R., Hummel, H., Koper, R. (2009): Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning", in Kantor P., Ricci F., Rokach L., Shapira, B. (Eds.), Recommender Systems Handbook: A Complete Guide for Research Scientists & Practitioners, Springer. McAndrew, P. (2006): Motivations for OpenLearn: the Open University s Open Content Initiative, OECD experts meeting on Open Educational Resources, Barcelona, Spain. McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L.L., Chervany, N.L. (1998): Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. The Acad.Management Rev., 23(3) pp Meyerson, D., Weick, K., Kramer, R. (1996): Swift trust and temporary groups. In R. M. Kramer & T. R. Tyler (Eds.), Trust in organizations: Frontiers of theory and research, pp , Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Morgan, R.M., Hunt, S.D. (1994): The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing, The Journal of Marketing, 58 (3), pp Ochoa, X., Duval, E. (2009): Quantitative Analysis of Learning Object Repositories, IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 2 (3), pp OECD (2007): Giving Knowledge For Free: The Emergence of OER, OECD, Paris. Paul, D.L., McDaniel, R.R. (2004): Effect of Interpersonal Trust on VCR Performance, MIS Quarterly, 28 (2), pp Pawlowski, J.M., Zimmermann, V. (2007): Open Content: A Concept for the Future of E-Learning and Knowledge Management? Proc. of Knowtech, Frankfurt, Nov Ternier, S., Verbert, K., Parra, G., Vandeputte, B., Klerkx, J., Duval, E., Ordonez, V., and Ochoa, X. (2009): The Ariadne Infrastructure for Managing and Storing Metadata. IEEE Internet Computing, 13 (4), pp Vuorikari R., Manouselis N., Duval E., (2007): Using Metadata for Storing, Sharing, and Reusing Evaluations in Social Recommendation: the Case of Learning Resources", in Go D.H. & Foo S. (Eds.): Social Information Retrieval Systems: Emerging Technologies and Applications for Searching the Web Effectively, Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. Yin, R. K. (2003): Case Study Research - Design and Methods, 5th ed., Vol. 45. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. 119 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

120 120 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

121 Papers in Spanish

122 OPENAPP: EXPERIENCIAS Y HERRAMIENTAS DOCENTES Y DE GESTIÓN EN ABIERTO Ferran-Ferrer N. (Profesora de los Estudios de Información y Comunicación, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, UOC), Garreta, M. (Departamento de Servicios para el Aprendizaje, UOC) y Santanach, F. (Área de Tecnología Educativa, UOC) Resumen La Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) es una universidad en línea que realiza un uso intensivo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para proporcionar una educación y aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida. Des de sus inicios la universidad ha desarrollado y testeado metodologías y tecnologías con el objetivo de proporcionar soluciones a los retos de aprendizaje y docentes ofrecidos por la comunidad de estudiantes, académicos y personal de gestión. Fundamentado en este saber hacer, nace la plataforma OpenApps con la finalidad principal de poner a disposición de la comunidad la experiencia acumulada en la UOC durante más de 15 años en docencia, aprendizaje y gestión para que pueda ser aplicado, adaptado o evolucionado por terceros. En este artículo se presentan las características esenciales para que una innovación pueda formar parte de esta plataforma institucional, las especificaciones y usuarios de la plataforma, la finalidad del servicio y las futuras líneas de trabajo. Keywords: código abierto, acceso abierto, experiencias de aprendizaje, learning experiences La UOC es una universidad en línea que realiza un uso intensivo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para proporcionar una educación y un aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida. El modelo educativo de la UOC es el principal rasgo distintivo de esta universidad desde sus inicios. Nace con la voluntad de responder de forma adecuada a las necesidades educativas de la educación virtual y de aprovechar al máximo el potencial que ofrece la red para llevar a cabo una actividad educativa. En el centro del modelo educativo se sitúa la actividad de aprendizaje. Para llevarla a cabo, los estudiantes cuentan con tres elementos principales: los recursos, la colaboración y el acompañamiento1. Los recursos comprenden los contenidos, los espacios y las herramientas necesarios para desarrollar las actividades de aprendizaje y su evaluación. La colaboración se entiende como el conjunto de dinámicas comunicativas y participativas que favorecen la construcción conjunta del conocimiento entre compañeros del aula y profesores, a 1 El modelo educativo de la UOC: Evolución y perspectivas EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

123 través del trabajo en equipo en situaciones de resolución de problemas, de desarrollo de proyectos y de creación compartida. Y el acompañamiento es el conjunto de acciones que llevan a cabo los docentes para hacer el seguimiento de los estudiantes y apoyarles en la planificación de su trabajo, en la resolución de actividades, en la evaluación y en la toma de decisiones. A la vez, es a través del acompañamiento de los profesores que el estudiante recibe un trato personalizado, disfruta de una orientación permanente a lo largo de su recorrido académico y establece vínculos de relación y de proximidad con la comunidad educativa. Estos tres elementos han impulsado que en el seno de la UOC se desarrollen un conjunto de experiencias educativas innovadoras que han resuelto con éxito problemas planteados en el marco de la educación en línea. La innovación es un elemento identitario transversal presente en todas las actividades y procesos académicos y de gestión. La innovación docente y de gestión Las iniciativas de innovación docente e innovación de gestión en la UOC, y también en la mayoría de instituciones, se pueden dar potencialmente en cualquier punto de la institución. No son exclusivas de un departamento o colectivo, sino que pueden producirse en cualquier lugar. Por ello, en la UOC los mecanismos de innovación se enfocan a potenciar a dar facilidades para que esta innovación pueda darse y convertirse en una realidad. Por un lado existen las convocatorias anuales para fomentar proyectos de innovación docente y de gestión des del Vicerrectorado de Investigación e Innovación. Des de 2007 hasta ahora 135 proyectos han podido desarrollarse de las 273 propuestas presentadas provenientes de alguno de los 725 trabajadores de la UOC, sean profesores o personal de gestión. Por otro lado, existe el Programa de Innovación, creado con el objetivo de identificar y acelerar estos procesos de innovación. El programa, orientado específicamente a conseguir los objetivos marcados por el Vicerrectorado de Investigación e Innovación y la Comisión de Innovación formada por los vicerectores y gerencia, dispone anualmente de presupuesto para invertir en aquellos proyectos e ideas que puedan resultar más disruptivos. Por último, y dada la importancia de la innovación docente para la universidad, la UOC cuenta con el Área de Tecnología Educativa que ofrece soporte a los profesores en: 1) el diseño y elaboración de recursos educativos para generar entornos virtuales de aprendizaje más ricos; 2) en los aspectos básicos del modelo de aprendizaje (recursos, la colaboración y el acompañamiento), aprovechando el amplio abanico de posibilidades que se encuentran disponibles en la red. Esencialmente, desde esta área se recogen las necesidades de los estudiantes y profesores, se definen los requerimientos funcionales de cada necesidad docente y de aprendizaje y se integran las herramientas disponibles en Internet que puedan satisfacerlas. Las TIC son básicas para realizar la docencia en la UOC pero también para ofrecer todos los servicios académicos y para cubrir todos los procesos de gestión implicados. Por esto motivo en la universidad 123 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

124 anualmente se invierte en ejecutar mejoras en las aplicaciones de gestión. Esta necesidad es también vital para muchas otras universidades y no es nada exclusiva de las universidades plenamente virtuales como la UOC. El volumen y actividad del Moodle Plugins Directory2 que recoge módulos y plugins para plataformas educativas así como aplicaciones para la gestión y la integración de sistemas empresariales en la plataforma Moodle, es un buen indicador de lo expuesto. Este tipo de iniciativas, en el ámbito de la docencia y la gestión, podrán considerarse innovación cuando su adecuación y mejora sobre los procesos y metodologías precedentes es demostrada. Para ello, el tiempo necesario para poderlas tener implementadas (time to market) y la posibilidad de probarlas en un entorno controlado que permita monitorizar los resultados y evaluar su eficacia son esenciales. En la UOC, durante el semestre pasado ( ), aproximadamente unas doscientas aulas virtuales con estudiantes y profesores reales contenían algún tipo de experiencia piloto. Una vez demostrada la eficacia de una iniciativa y descartadas las que no, deberá ser estudiado el alcance. El entorno controlado sobre el que ha sido puesta a prueba la innovación podría no ser representativo o simplemente insuficiente para determinar el impacto real. En muchas ocasiones, determinar el alcance puede suponer mucho más esfuerzo que la innovación inicial. En todo caso la mayoría de las innovaciones se considerarán como innovación incremental3. Pero el impacto y el efecto incentivador del cambio que puede tener una innovación debería potenciarse. La colaboración, el intercambio de opiniones, el contraste de experiencias, la difusión, sumar adeptos y considerar la innovación como algo transversal no exclusivo, suelen ser buenos potenciadores del cambio. Una innovación incremental en ocasiones puede, por esta vía de la apertura, llegar a generar cambios hasta provocar una innovación disruptiva4. Con este fin, potenciar la apertura de la innovación, nace la plataforma OpenApp5 compuesta de aplicaciones, experiencias y metodologías de la UOC que recogidas a modo de directorio o inventario, estimulan su uso interno en la universidad y a su vez se abren al exterior, de manera que cualquier entidad educativa, profesor, estudiante o personal de IT pueda acceder, conocer, descargarse la aplicación, replicar las prácticas educativas allí descritas, probar, opinar y colaborar Samuel Hollander, The Sources of Increased Efficiency: A Study of Du PontRayon Plants, Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 1965, p Bower, Joseph L., and Clayton M. Christensen. "Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave." In Seeing Differently: Insights on Innovation, edited by John Seely Brown. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, OpenApps: 124 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

125 La plataforma OpenApp El portal OpenApp tienen por objetivo poner al alcance de la comunidad educativa tanto la experiencia (en docencia, aprendizaje y gestión) acumulada por la UOC durante los más de 15 años de formación en línea, como las últimas innovaciones en tecnología educativa que se han puesto en práctica en las aulas del Campus Virtual de la UOC. OpenApp es un servicio más de la universidad que comparte la filosofía del acceso abierto con otras iniciativas de la UOC como son O26, el repositorio institucional que da acceso y preserva la producción científica de la universidad, o la sede OpenCourseWare7 de la UOC que ofrece los materiales educativos gratuitamente. Así OpenApp es una plataforma que muestra de forma abierta las experiencias de uso real de la tecnología para la formación a lo largo de la vida y para la gestión relacionada con la formación en línea. Este portal es un espacio donde los profesores, instituciones educativas y profesionales del sector pueden encontrar fácilmente estas herramientas, reflexionar sobre su uso, compartir experiencias y aplicarlas en su propio entorno de formación en Internet. Es, en resumen, una biblioteca de recursos en abierto en la red para la educación y su gestión. 1 Apps como aplicaciones y experiencias El contenido de OpenApp debe entenderse en sentido amplio y por tanto, no está restringido al ámbito del software como aplicación, si no que se refiere al sistema de distribución y al formato de presentación en lugar de a la naturaleza del objeto. Al mismo tiempo, el formato del portal se asemeja en su funcionamiento a los market y stores de apps más populares hoy en día, así los usuarios están familiarizados con el funcionamiento de la interfaz y con el concepto de estas plataformas. Los usuarios acceden a las openapps mediante un sistema de búsqueda al mismo tiempo que se está informado sobre las novedades y aplicaciones destacadas. Para cada app el usuario puede acceder a usos y recursos asociadas a ella y seleccionar un conjunto de servicios relacionados con la app. El habitual botón de descarga de la mayoría de App Stores o Markets se convierte en esta plataforma en el botón Me interesa, así se explicita si se quiere descargar, probar, recibir soporte técnico para su instalación o contactar con el docente para colaborar y/o compartir experiencias, recursos educativos, etc. Tecnológicamente el portal se basa en el framework Joomla y algunos de sus plug-ins como FLEXIcontent. En la plataforma destaca la funcionalidad de búsqueda avanzada que permite buscar por competencias (sigue la clasificación acordada en el marco del proyecto Tuning8), por áreas de 6 7 O2: UOC OpenCourseWare: 8 Proyecto Tuning, financiado por el programa Sócrates y Tempus de la Dirección de Educación y Cultura de la Comisión Europea: EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

126 conocimiento o por finalidades docentes (herramienta de evaluación, elaboración de contenido, metodología, actividad de aprendizaje, etc. clasificación generada en el marco de este proyecto). Estos metadatos que describen las openapps están basados también en el estándar LOM y Dublin Core. En la plataforma OpenApp, tanto las aplicaciones como experiencias deben de cumplir con los siguientes requisitos: Ser innovadoras. Tienen que comportar una novedad significativa y una mejora en el ámbito de aplicación respecto de otras soluciones convencionales, o aportar elementos y conexiones que no existían con anterioridad. Pueden ser servicios o productos o también métodos y experiencias nuevas. Ser interoperables. No pueden estas basadas en soluciones tecnológicas o metodológicas endémicas que funcionen sólo en un contexto restringido. Tienen que ser aplicables o adaptables fácilmente en múltiples contextos y poder ser complementarias con otras soluciones. Ser abiertas. Tienen que estar reguladas por licencias abiertas copyleft (como Creative Commons, GPL o GNU) que permitan la libre utilización y su modificación para ser evolucionados por terceros. Haver sido utilizadas con anterioridad. Tienen que haber sido aplicadas en su contexto inicial con éxito razonable y existir experiencias previas que puedan avalar los resultados o que aporten conocimiento sobre su aplicación. Actualmente OpenApp dispone de siete innovaciones y se está trabajando ya en veinte aplicaciones y experiencias más para que estén disponibles en Septiembre. Entre estas aplicaciones y experiencias se encuentra una aplicación de gestión GestióIP que permite gestionar de forma automatizada redes y direcciones IP. Como experiencias docentes destaca la experiencia de los profesores de matemáticas con LiveScribe, un bolígrafo inteligente que registra lo que se escribe y lo que se dice (Mathcasting). Como herramienta que aprovecha tecnologías más populares, destaca Microblog, utilizada en las aulas de Informática y Derecho a modo de twitter educativo. Es una solución basada en la herramienta Status Net de código abierto que favorece la comunicación entre estudiantes y profesores, siendo posible la interacción a través del móvil. es una aplicación y experiencia docente basada en Wordpress que permite subir y visualizar vídeos de las actividades de los estudiantes de forma ágil. La novedad principal que conlleva es que permite crear discusiones sobre los vídeos a modo de foro. Tanto los estudiantes como los profesores, establecen diálogos con finalidades diversas. Se ha aplicado para la presentación de trabajos final de grados. Des del ámbito de la Escuela de Lenguas de la UOC se ha aportado tres innovaciones, el Asistente de EscrituraJaponesa para aprender a realizar los trazos de los caracteres (kanjis) japoneses, la aplicación Tandem que permite a dos estudiantes establecer diálogos orales sincrónicos guiados por 126 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

127 unos contenidos que permiten crear actividades como la búsqueda de diferencias en una fotografía, similitudes entre objetos, situaciones similares, etc. y Langblog, una aplicación tipo blog adaptada con funcionalidades para la creación de audios y vídeos que permite, de forma asíncrona, el aprendizaje de habilidades de producción oral. Esta última aplicación se ha utilizado en el ámbito de lenguas pero también en el derecho para simular ciertas tareas de comunicación oral de los abogados. 2 Finalidad y usuarios de OpenAppOpenApp La finalidad principal de OpenApp es poner a disposición de la comunidad el know how de la UOC para que otras instituciones educativas o personas individuales puedan aplicar, adaptar o evolucionar este saber hacer. Otra finalidad de OpenApp es facilitar el establecimiento de vínculos de colaboración entre usuarios y organizaciones, más allá de su aplicación o aprovechamiento. Así una openapp puede ser objeto de evoluciones y desarrollos por terceros y de punto de encuentro para poder establecer acuerdos de colaboración entre usuarios y organizaciones. En este sentido, los usuarios potenciales de la plataforma OpenApp y las finalidades específicas establecidas des del inicio del proyecto son: Docentes: los docentes, ya sea en el ámbito de la formación presencial o a distancia, pueden encontrar en OpenApp experiencias de uso de tecnología y herramientas para la gestión de la formación que les pueden despertar reflexiones, aportar nuevas ideas, ser aplicables de modo directo en su docencia, o ser aplicadas de manera diferente, para otro propósito o uso. OpenApp ofrece también la posibilidad de que estos docentes intercambien información con otros docentes que ya han utilizado estas herramientas. Así pues, se fomenta el intercambio y la transferencia de conocimientos y experiencias entre los miembros de las diferentes comunidades educativas. Proveedores de formación: Las instituciones proveedoras de servicios de formación virtual o semipresencial, podrán encontrar en OpenApp la manera de aprovecharse de las nuevas posibilidades que los ofrecen las aplicaciones y experiencias de la UOC, por lo tanto podrán satisfacer las demandas de los sus estudiantes y profesores ofreciendo más herramientas específicamente pensadas para la formación y aprendizaje virtual en cada contexto. Además podrán especializarse y personalizar mucho más su oferta ya que la diversidad de herramientas disponibles a medio y largo plazo les permitirá ofrecer cursos más a medida. Proveedores y desarrolladores de herramientas o servicios en Internet: Para instituciones que desarrollan herramientas para el aprendizaje, OpenApp les aporta una nueva perspectiva en cuanto a las tecnologías para la educación, centrada en la propia aplicación frente a los modelos actuales que se centran en el entorno de aprendizaje. En OpenApp el foco es la aplicación y no la plataforma educativa que se quiere utilizar. El planteamiento OpenApp es que cada docente pueda utilizar las herramientas más indicadas para su docencia, con independencia de la plataforma educativa que utilice. Así pues, muchas otras instituciones, que no tienen su foco de negocio en la educación, encontrarían en OpenApp un buen ejemplo para poder ampliar su negocio en el sector educativo. 127 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

128 Por ejemplo, una empresa especializada en un software de diseño de circuitos integrados o una empresa de juegos por ordenador, podrían pensar en los usos educativos de su herramienta con independencia de la plataforma en que debería integrarse. En este sentido, OpenApp es también un entorno para el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones y experiencias. Los estudiantes de proyectos finales de carrera de los estudios de informática de la UOC desarrollan sus proyectos finales de carrera pensando en que después puedan ser aplicaciones de OpenApp. Cloud Computing para la educación: OpenApp abre las puertas a un nuevo tipo de servicio en Internet, basado en la contratación de la infraestructura para la formación virtual sin necesidad de disponer de infraestructura propia. Este servicio podría ser totalmente personalizado, permitiendo al consumidor del servicio elegir qué herramientas va a utilizar para la docencia, a cuantos estudiantes y profesores quiere dar soporte, en qué períodos y con qué concurrencia. Las herramientas de OpenApp podrían ser instaladas en infraestructura cloud para hacer llegar el concepto de "Cloud Computing" a la educación y abrir así la posibilidad de que se creen empresas especializadas en ofrecer servicios de este tipo. 3 Futuras líneas de trabajo El lanzamiento de la plataforma se realizó en julio de 2012 y el proyecto pasa a ser un servicio estable en la universidad a partir de noviembre de En ese momento la plataforma tendrá accesibles unas treinta openapps. Entre estas próximas openapps se espera contar con alguna aplicación desarrollada por estudiantes de Informática de la universidad. En estos mismos estudios a partir del curso existe la posibilidad de realizar el trabajo de fin de grado en el marco OpenApp para facilitar que las aplicaciones puedan, por ejemplo, ser accesibles des de móvil. La evolución de la plataforma está en manos de la comunidad UOC y de la comunidad de usuarios OpenApps. Así los estudiantes, docentes, desarrolladores, etc. de la UOC son los que acabarán determinando el número y tipología de openapps disponibles en la plataforma. Así mismo, a partir del análisis de los datos de uso y feedback de la plataforma, ésta puede evolucionar hacia un espacio más social, más de consulta y hacia un conjunto de servicios acordes con las necesidades de la comunidad educativa. 128 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

129 MEDIOS SOCIALES COMO ESTRATEGIA DE COMUNICACIÓN. CASO PRÁCTICO DEL CENTRO DE ENSEÑANZAS VIRTUALES DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA. Pedro Gil y Rui Raposo Universidad de Aveiro, Portugal Palabras-clave: medios sociales, comunicación institucional, estrategias de comunicación, unidades de investigación y formación, web 2.0. Resumen El presente artículo tiene como objetivo exponer los resultados de un trabajo de investigación como parte de una tesis en curso, cuyo objetivo es estudiar y comprender el papel que los medios sociales pueden desempeñar como instrumento de comunicación de las actividades de un centro de investigación y formación. El estudio tiene como objetivo diseñar, aplicar y evaluar una estrategia de comunicación de las actividades del Centro de Enseñanzas Virtuales de la Universidad de Granada (CEVUG), apoyada en los medios sociales. Lo mismo resulta de una la colaboración entre la Universidad de Aveiro y el Centro de Enseñanzas Virtuales de la Universidad de Granada (CEVUG), con soporte del programa Erasmus. Esta reflexión sobre el diseño de una estrategia de comunicación, apoyada en los media sociales, adecua para el CEVUG conduce necesariamente a un análisis y ajuste de esta estrategia tanto a la institución, como a las personas que forman y determinan su dinámica. No sólo con esta visión holística se puede proponer algo que tenga sentido en actual escenario de la web 2.0., si no también se puede monitorear y analizar el impacto de la estrategia de comunicación adoptada. Metodológicamente el estudio que aquí se presenta, se caracteriza por la investigación acción y las observaciones finales hechas sobre los resultados obtenidos nos permiten entender algunas de las fuerzas, y también algunas debilidades identificadas en el estudio y que sugieren todavía trabajos eventuales de investigación para promover en el futuro. Introducción Los medios sociales han revolucionado la forma en la que las personas se comunican y comparten información entre ellas. Con una adhesión cada vez más expresiva, los medios sociales son hoy un codiciado canal de comunicación para muchas organizaciones. Los nuevos medios de comunicación se enmarcan en un contexto de interacción social, tomando ventaja de las características que cada vez más, son mediadas por los medios digitales. Este cambio ha supuesto enormes desafíos que se traducen en grandes oportunidades pero también en riesgos y amenazas que hacen más visibles las vulnerabilidades: algunas coyunturales, otras 129 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

130 resultado de cambios realizados a un ritmo más rápido que la capacidad de las generaciones para poder entenderlas. Los usuarios de Internet, a ritmo diario, generan una gran cantidad de contenidos, denominado User Generated Content (Carvalho, 2011). A esto se le une el hecho de que las empresas y las instituciones empiezan a intentar entender cómo aprovechar la asociación que pueda existir entre sus marcas y estos contenidos ampliamente compartidos a través de los medios sociales. Este tipo de medidas pueden ser consideradas más dinámicas, activas y promotoras de una tendencia creciente para explorar y compartir. No se limita en el tiempo o espacio y, desde el simple comentario sobre el tema hasta la edición del mismo a la manipulación de los contenidos, los usuarios pueden utilizar lo que más les convenga, interviniendo activamente en la creación de nuevos contenidos. (Carvalho, 2011). Los avances tecnológicos, ancho de banda mayor, el incremento de los niveles de compresión, la velocidad y la capacidad de las redes han convertido la información multimedia en una realidad ubicua. No obstante, siguen existiendo dificultades en la recuperación de la información, ya que hay falta de tratamiento a causa de las enormes cantidades de información que existen, haciendo que sea por momentos confusa y difícil de encontrar en un proceso de búsqueda. Junto a estos avances también son constantes los desafíos relacionados con la comunicación y las relaciones sociales debido a la importancia de los contenidos audiovisuales producidos y compartidos. (Damasio, 2008). En este caso la lectura es multisensorial, visual y auditiva, el contenido es icónico y prevalece sobre lo verbal. Los social media son, de hecho, medios fructíferos en compartir estos tipos de recursos, cuyo alcance e impacto en la sociedad de hoy son innegables y registrables en las leyes de consumo de contenidos de una abrumadora mayoría de la sociedad online. Si por un lado, los sistemas de comunicación multimedia con su diferentes arquitecturas de compartir, reutilización y distribución de la información caracterizan una parte importante en la evolución del saber del usuario, por otro lado, los sistemas de comunicación también constituyen elementos esenciales en la participación y el modelado de la experiencia del sujeto. Un reto importante para los productores de la Web social es la concepción de contenidos que adopten un perfil de consumo que valora el sujeto como el centro de toda la experiencia personalizable. El uso de medios sociales, como una estrategia de comunicación, potencia los procesos de optimización y gestión de contenidos que nos encamina para una era de mayor transparencia y compromiso en las relaciones entre el individuo / persona, individuo / organización y la organización / individuo. Por su parte, las redes sociales aumentan los niveles de la libertad de comunicación, como también la voz activa que pasa a ser más influyente. En relación real con la gente, es relevante filtrar lo que es importante, percibir quien está realmente interesado en mantener una relación con nosotros y si reacciona a nuestra presencia y actuación. (Correia, 2011). Javier Leiva (2009) admite que la gente tiene una capacidad de atención limitada y que en el futuro se van a imponer las redes sociales verticales en el eje horizontal. Las redes sociales horizontales son 130 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

131 las redes generalistas y a su vez, las verticales son aquellas que están especializadas en un tema en particular; unir a la gente en torno a un interés específico. Leiva (2009) está convencido de que puede haber una fragmentación de las redes sociales que conducen a la coexistencia de muchas plataformas independientes y ultra-especializados. Sugiere que, tal vez, los previsibles sistemas de identificación individual sean los mecanismos necesarios para que la distribución de contenidos pueda existir sin la necesidad de las redes generales. Asimismo, considera que la supervivencia de las redes horizontales puede pasar por la configuración de espacios de interés y asegurar las zonas fronterizas para evitar fugas. Sin embargo cree que no tiene ningún valor añadido. Por lo tanto, las organizaciones en función de su estructura tendrán que determinar las mejores maneras de relacionarse con el mercado. El objetivo es crear una estrecha relación con los principios éticos debido a que el proyecto será la interfaz de comunicación de la organización en 'asuntos públicos', como hacer frente a los organismos públicos, las áreas gubernamentales y no gubernamentales, en el papel de las relaciones externas. Esta preocupación merece una atención especial por parte de las organizaciones en el mundo que operan en un contexto socioeconómico. Para eso es necesario responder con correcta y digna atención a la comunidad. (França, 2008). En este contexto se a desarrollado un proyecto de disertación, del master en Comunicación Multimedia de la Universidad de Aveiro, de Portugal, en conjunto con la Universidad de Granada, mas precisamente con el Centro de Enseñanzas Virtuales de la Universidad de Granada, con el objetivo de estudiar una posible estrategia a adoptar por el centro en el uso de medios de medios sociales, como herramienta de comunicación de sus actividades a los posibles interesados. La comunicación organizacional del CEVUG, ha asumido el papel como centro de apoyo de la estrategia, basada en las redes sociales, que promoviesen los diferentes cursos, talleres, seminarios, conferencias, entre otros servicios, como también estimular la sinergia en cada sector y sus subsectores, para que la eficacia de las acciones estratégicas pudiesen lograrse. Lo estudio que aquí se presenta, como punto de partida, se centró en la respuesta a la siguiente pregunta: que directrices y buenas prácticas se pueden adoptar en la integración de los medios sociales en las estrategias de comunicación institucional del Centro de Enseñanzas Virtuales de la Universidad de Granada? El CEVUG está compuesto por un equipo multidisciplinar, especialistas en distintas áreas de conocimiento: Ingeniería Informática, Diseño Gráfico y Documentación, que se encargan de asesorar y prestar el apoyo técnico necesario para la creación, puesta en marcha y mantenimiento de cursos online. El Centro gestiona las iniciativas de formación a través de Internet de la Universidad de Granada. Se desarrolla la formación online desde diferentes perspectivas: i) preparar al profesorado de la Universidad de Granada para la generación de contenidos virtuales destinados a asignaturas o cursos online. ii) formar a los profesores para desempeñar la labor de "tutores virtuales". iii) adaptar las asignaturas y materias de la Universidad de Granada para su impartición online. iv) ofertar cursos, expertos y máster de calidad destinados tanto a alumnos de la Universidad como a interesados de 131 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

132 otras universidades o países. v) realizar cursos a medida para empresas y cualquier otro tipo de colectivo interesado en la formación a través de Internet. vi) desarrollar proyectos e iniciativas que permitan el desarrollo de un campus virtual europeo común. Para el estudio fueron investigadas las siguientes hipótesis: i) la aplicación de una estrategia de comunicación, apoyada en los medios sociales, impulsa el desarrollo de las actitudes cognitivas, compartibles y de colaboración entre la organización (CEVUG) y la comunidad asociada. ii) los resultados de una estrategia de comunicación, en el CEVUG, se pueden mejorar con recurso a una metodología global de implementación de medios sociales transversal en todas las unidades de investigación y formación. Metodología Como metodología, el estudio se llevó a cabo mediante el método de investigación-acción, que se caracteriza por la participación del investigador y se convirtió en una espiral de planificación, acción, observación y reflexión. La revisión de la literatura hecha, aclara lo que distingue y se acerca a la investigación de las corrientes actuales. Se centra en la dimensión del tema y toma conocimiento de lo que ha sido escrito acerca de la comunicación institucional, las unidades de investigación y formación, web y medios de comunicación social y los nuevos medios en las unidades de investigación y formación (estudios comparativos). La mayoría de los documentos utilizados se recogieron en Internet (repositorios institucionales, bases de datos de información científica, las revistas y los organismos públicos que trabajan en el área). Hemos hecho un diagnóstico de la comunicación del CEVUG, así como guías para las entrevistas y el análisis estadístico de los medios sociales utilizados actualmente. El contenido compartido por el CEVUG son en su mayoría de divulgación científica (Informática, Comunicaciones. Multimedia y E-Learning). Para identificar el perfil de los miembros de la comunidad, asi como también para analizar los hábitos y motivaciones de la conducta, se hizo una guía de entrevista para los trabajadores del CEVUG (muestra de 11 personas) y otro de carácter abierto para toda la comunidad de la Universidad de Granada (muestra 106 personas). Se recogieron los datos a través de un formulario de Google Docs y el tratamiento de los datos se realizó con la ayuda de una herramienta, de la misma aplicación, que analiza los resultados gráficamente. Las respuestas de naturaleza abierta fueron tratadas por orden de importancia para el estudio en cuestión. En el muestreo se identifican como esenciales los profesores universitarios, estudiantes, profesionales de diferentes áreas y grupos de interés. Es lo que la comunicación social considera como público de interferencia. Estos colectivos son un elemento potenciador de la difusión de los servicios institucionales. 132 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

133 Estrategia propuesta Los siguientes párrafos describen, en términos generales, algunas de las medidas estructurales de la estrategia de comunicación en medias sociales propuesta para el CEVUG. i) Divulgación de cursos y talleres. Facebook: se recomienda la producción y compartir vídeos para ilustrar la presentación de cursos y talleres que muestran los objetivos, las normas de aplicación, programas de estudios y testimonios de antiguos alumnos. Otra práctica es tener un espacio reservado para los eventos (cursos, actividades y proyectos) y promoverlos de forma gradual hasta su finalización, en el muro y en el espacio de eventos. Es un buen medio para compartir fotos y videos, como para dar rotación a la foto de portada del CEVUG. Además, es una posibilidad para desafiar a la comunidad a diseñar servicios y productos. Se recomienda también compartir las preguntas más frecuentes (FAQ s) y respuestas para las mismas dudas. Twitter: repetir si es necesario (con nuevas actualizaciones) tweets para consolidar el contenido importante de cursos y talleres. Sirva también para la divulgación de los cursos, el cuadro de estado que representa un sentido estratégico. Linkedin: crear un grupo del CEVUG y acceder a él para compartir lo que se produce y lo que esta en desarrollo en ese grupo. Después de participar activamente en grupos de discusión. En un momento de selección ayuda a conocer personas o grupos en la misma área de actuación. Para eso es importante adherirse a grupos, participar en discusiones, divulgar cursos, talleres, seminarios, conferencias, empleos y becas. Para ampliar las relaciones con los colaboradores de los proyectos internacionales lo mejor es elaborar el mismo perfil en varios idiomas. ii) Divulgación de seminarios y conferencias. Facebook: una actitud es considerar la promoción a su cumplimiento. En el día de su realización, la transmisión de los mismos eventos se puede hacer en livestream, pues agiliza su autopromoción, la capacidad de respuesta (en tiempo real), y su expresividad. Twitter: se recomienda tweets o actualizaciones, siempre que se justifique, desde la promoción hasta la elaboración y evolución del evento. Linkedin: la adopción de las mismas prácticas referenciadas en la promoción de cursos y talleres, que pasan por la participación activa en grupos de discusión. 133 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

134 iii) Recomendaciones generales (las prácticas más pertinentes). Facebook: Es importante analizar los usuarios que más colaboraran en la página del CEVUG, con más me gusta, comentarios, compartir y luego hacer una lista de los resultados analizando dos o tres usuarios al día, y para cada uno: conocer su perfil, hacer intercambio de comentarios, aprobar sus compartir con me gusta, así como hacer sugerencias. Es una tarea que dura unos 30 minutos y quien la realiza debe ser aquellos que hacen la gestión de las redes sociales de la institución; deberá también demostrar reciprocidad en la interacción con los usuarios, o sea, no es necesario comentar todo, sólo mostrar que ellos son importantes para la imagen del CEVUG haciendo, por ejemplo, mención (compartir) de otros trabajos o proyectos. Linkedin: para una gestión eficiente del grupo es necesario que cada elemento interno del CEVUG crear una cuenta en esta red social para que pueda proporcionar información acerca de sus habilidades o áreas de trabajo, para fomentar una participación profesional entre el público interno y externo. Es importante que el CEVUG desarrolle su dimensión social y por lo tanto conozca a las personas que están asociadas entre sí. Esta misma recomendación, para su aprobación, necesita de formación para explicar lo que es, cómo se utiliza y cómo funciona Linkedin. iv) Directrices para apoyar la enseñanza del profesorado. Para analizar el impacto en concepto de buenas prácticas con el uso de medios sociales en la dinámica de comunicación del CEVUG, el estudio ha determinado directrices de apoyo al profesorado. De esta manera, y con un conocimiento adquirido de los seminarios hechos por la Universidad de Granada, se determinó que en el apoyo a la enseñanza, el profesor tiene que entender la clasificación de las redes sociales y adaptarlas a sus necesidades o requerimientos. Es importante tener en cuenta las redes sociales de las que el estudiante disfruta. Los medios sociales han cambiado los patrones de trabajo y enseñanza, funcionan como una extensión de las clases. Si embargo, no hay necesidad de querer controlar o crear políticas en torno a las redes, ya que los contenidos son compartidos a través de un entorno social y promueven la discusión, creación, recreación y el desarrollo del trabajo en equipo. El estudiante en esas ocasiones es quien tiene un papel de búsqueda, consultivo y de compartir, a su vez, el profesor tendrá un carácter menos intervencionista y más de moderación. Consideraciones finales El estudio presentado aquí en conjunto con el Centro de Enseñanzas Virtuales de la Universidad de Granada, a tenido como objetivo estudiar una posible estrategia a adoptar por el centro en el uso de los medios sociales, como herramienta de comunicación de sus actividades a los posibles interesados, aunque no ha sido validada a través de su aplicación y evaluación se considera que ha sido capaz de producir resultados interesantes. Del grado de cumplimiento de estos resultados se han obtenido las pautas para rediseñar la interfaz de la nueva página web del CEVUG, incluyendo los medios sociales de comunicación para la promoción social de las relaciones internas y externas de la misma organización. El estudio también 134 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

135 determinó tanto las directrices, basadas en medios sociales, para la difusión de cursos, talleres, seminarios, conferencias, como indicaciones para apoyar la formación del profesorado. Del mismo modo, se sacaron las recomendaciones pertinentes para el uso diario de estos nuevos medios. Para evaluar el desarrollo e impacto de la nueva estrategia de comunicación, el estudio concluyó que se necesita más tiempo para evaluar los principales cambios en la dinámica de comunicación. En este sentido, propongo un guión de entrevista para pasarla tres meses después de la implementación de la estrategia, y comprobar el grado de éxito o relevancia de dichos cambios. Por otro lado también recomiendo que se haga un análisis estadístico de estos medios sociales en los que se han implementado la estrategia, para demostrar el impacto y las eventuales necesidades. Se espera que estos resultados sean capaces de promover la interdisciplinariedad entre los medios sociales y el CEVUG, también se espera que serán capaces de encontrar su expresión en un futuro proyecto de investigación, como complemento del trabajo realizado. Los resultados apuntan que los medios sociales impulsan el desarrollo de actitudes proactivas hacia el conocimiento, compartidas y colaboración entre CEVUG y comunidad asociada. En el estudio es visible que el CEVUG siente la necesidad de una estrategia que promueva los diversos cursos, talleres, seminarios, conferencias, como también la comprensión de directrices de apoyo a la enseñanza. Se destaca el hecho de que la investigación sugiere que cada organización, ya que tiene diferentes objetivos y estructura orgánica, la estrategia de comunicación de adopción debe ser capaz de entender y de ajustarse a si misma. La misma deberá ser todavía capaz de identificar la necesidad de formación teórico-metodológica de los miembros de las organizaciones, en relación a el uso de los medios sociales. El estudio apunta también, dada la dinámica de la zona de los medios sociales, que se debe desarrollar ejercicios de revisión y reflexión sobre las prácticas en curso, la comparación de prácticas con otras unidades de investigación y de formación, o de otra índole para que se puede sacar actuaciones de referencia y también la formación periódica de los miembros de la institución con el objetivo de mantenerlos al tanto de los avances en los medios sociales y de sus contextos de uso. Referencias Carvalho, Joana. (2011). A adopção de social media por museus como uma ferramenta de comunicação. Universidade de Aveiro 1 vol. Projecto de Tese de Doutaramento. Damásio, Manuel (2008). Modelos de Personalização de conteúdos em Audiovisual; novas formas de aceder a velhos conteúdos. Retrieved from: Correia, Pedro (2011). Os Media Sociais. Uma ferramenta marcante a custo zero. Retrieved from: França. (2008). Relações públicas: atividade estratégica de relacionamento e comunicação das organizações com as partes interessadas Retrieved from: https://www.metodista.br/revistas/revistasims/index.php/aum/article/viewfile/1016/ EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

136 Leiva, Javier (2009). Redes Sociales. Situación y tendencias en relación a la Información y la Documentación. Retrieved from: Safko, L., & Brake, D. (2009). The social media bible: tactics, tools, and strategies for business success: Wiley. Quivy, R., & Van Campenhoudt, L. (2008). Manual de Investiga o em Ci ncias Sociais (5a ed.). Lisboa: Gradiva- Publica es. 136 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

137 GAMIFICACIÓN Y E-LEARNING: UN EJEMPLO CON EL JUEGO DEL PASAPALABRA Elías Melchor Ferrer (Universidad de Granada) En la enseñanza de conceptos especializados, uno de los retos a que debemos hacer frente los docentes es explicar los mismos de forma ágil y atractiva. Para ayudar a lograrlo creemos que sería interesante disponer de aplicaciones didácticas que interactúen con el alumno, le motiven y pongan a prueba sus conocimientos. En concreto, creemos que la utilización de mecánicas de juego en entornos no lúdicos (gamificación) puede ser una opción interesante. Aunque son muchas las plataformas que se pueden utilizar para desarrollar aplicaciones con ese fin, creemos que Neobook combina versatilidad y facilidad de programación. Como prueba de ello se ha desarrollado una aplicación para jugar al pasapalabra tanto con diferentes grupos de trabajo en el aula, como de forma individual, y con incentivos para los mejores resultados (que se visualizan de forma inmediata), lo que podría ser una forma diferente y atractiva de estimular el estudio de dichos conceptos. La gamificación: concepto y su utilización en la docencia Gamificación9 es un anglicismo que proviene de gamification y se podría definir como la utilización de mecánicas de juego10 en contextos no lúdicos para promover el desarrollo de ciertas habilidades (Lee & Hammer, 2011). Este concepto apareció por primera vez en 2008 en el sector de los medios digitales, pero fue en la segunda mitad de 2010 cuando se adoptó de forma generalizada, sin embargo, por su juventud es aún un concepto discutido, como lo demostraría el hecho de que el propio sector donde surgió esté tratando de marcar distancias denominando su trabajo como gameful design. Dado que la idea fundamental es inducir al usuario a adquirir una serie de comportamientos y/o habilidades, el campo de uso de la gamificación es muy variado e iría desde el marketing hasta la salud, pasando por la política y, por supuesto, en la docencia. La revolución tecnológica de las últimas décadas (con la consiguiente generalización de dispositivos móviles) ha hecho que los alumnos de secundaria y superiores sean muy diferentes de los que había en el pasado, lo que requiere abordar los procesos educativos desde otra perspectiva. Fundamentalmente nos estamos refiriendo a desarrollar la participación del alumno en el proceso de aprendizaje, de modo que pase a desempeñar un papel activo en lugar de ser un mero receptor de conocimientos. Ello exige al docente el dominio de unas habilidades tecnológicas11, de entre las que 9 Véase al respecto la revisión que sobre el tema hace Xu (2011). 10 Vendrían a ser el conjunto de reglas que determinan la realización de un juego por medio del cual se obtiene un resultado, y que no hay que confundir con las dinámicas de juego, que serían las inquietudes que motivan a las personas (por ejemplo el éxito y su reconocimiento público). 11 En Educational Technology and Mobile Learning - 21st-century.html se mencionan 33 habilidades exigibles al docente del siglo XXI. Es cierto que el dominio individual de todas ellas convertiría al docente en un auténtico experto en la gestión del e-learning, de ahí la importancia de crear redes de docentes que permitan crear un ambiente colaborativo que permita el desarrollo de sinergias. 137 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

138 destacaríamos por su incidencia en procesos de gamificación el utilizar juegos de ordenador con fines pedagógicos, y el proporcionar a los estudiantes herramientas de gestión para organizar su trabajo y planificar su aprendizaje. El desarrollo combinado de ambas habilidades reforzará la modificación de comportamientos pretendida al visualizar varios elementos: i) objetivos a corto plazo para alcanzar la meta final; ii) estructura en niveles; iii) sistema de puntos y recompensas (en particular para hitos extra); y iv) ranking (tanto generales como específicos) y posicionamiento frente a otros usuarios según su progreso en el curso. Pero para implementar correctamente una estrategia de gamificación es preciso establecer objetivos claros, fijar reglas de participación, un mecanismo de reconocimiento instantáneo de logros y que la participación sea voluntaria. Lógicamente, es muy importante que los juegos aplicados cumplan una serie de condiciones: i) sean suficientemente atractivos (Benjamin, 2010), ii) proporcionen un nivel de recompensas como para implicar al alumnado en ese proceso, y iii) tengan la flexibilidad suficiente como para poder utilizarse tanto de forma individual como colectiva en el ámbito del aula. Dicho juego habrá de permitir la conexión con una base de datos accesible no sólo mediante una página web dinámica para grabar la información de los resultados obtenidos y dar soporte al sistema de puntos, recompensas, logros y posicionamiento, sino también al resto de actividades docentes, desde información sobre el desarrollo de la asignatura, materiales, actividades en grupo, autoevaluación y, por último, una zona de consultas donde cada usuario puede observar las puntuaciones obtenidas en cada actividad que realice, incluyendo las referidas estrictamente a juegos. De todas formas, la aplicación de los elementos de gamificación antes mencionados no tiene por qué realizarse únicamente sobre juegos, la realización de actividades (ejercicios, trabajos, etc.) tanto individuales como en grupo, o la colaboración entre alumnos permiten introducir el sistema de logros y recompensas. A pesar de que también se podría establecer este sistema para la asistencia, más que establecer recompensas por la mera asistencia (que podría generar efectos indeseables al primar más la asistencia a clase que su propio aprovechamiento) somos más partidarios de condicionarlas a la realización de algún tipo de actividad (comentario de videos, artículos, ejercicios, etc.). Por tanto, la introducción de juegos como herramienta de aprendizaje ha de entenderse como una pieza más dentro de un engranaje más amplio. Dado que en ocasiones los docentes no disponen (o presentan problemas de compatibilidad) de plataformas web como la descrita en las que integrar nuevas aplicaciones, es conveniente que éstas sean lo suficientemente flexibles como para permitir su utilización en diferentes situaciones y para distintas materias. Es cierto que existen plataformas de gamificación12, sin embargo están orientadas en la mayoría de los casos a la consecución de determinados objetivos comerciales y ligados al empleo de redes sociales. Por ello, planteamos el desarrollo de aplicaciones divertidas, fáciles de utilizar y flexibles que introduzcan algunos de los principales elementos de gamificación pero sin tener que depender de estructuras tecnológicas más complejas. En todo este proceso habrá que tener siempre en mente tres premisas (Smith-Robbins, 2011): i) establecer objetivos claros e 12 Entre ellas destacan Bagdeville (http://www.badgeville.com/), Bunchball (http://www.bunchball.com/), BigDoor (http://www.bigdoor.com/), Gigya (http://www.gigya.com/gamification/), Stopped.at (http://stopped.at/), Kiip (http://www.kiip.me/) y Gamify (http://gamify.com/). 138 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

139 indicar a los alumnos como alcanzarlos, ii) el progreso ha de ser transparente para cada alumno y iii) reflexionar sobre efectos y posibles mejoras del juego. Diseño de aplicaciones con Neobook Para el desarrollo de aplicaciones que permitan poner en marcha procesos de gamificación existe una amplísima variedad de posibilidades (tanto libres como comerciales): aplicaciones ofimáticas (véanse varios ejemplos para excel en Benjamin, 2010), programación en flash, en C, páginas web dinámicas, o plataformas para dispositivos móviles, entre otras. En cualquiera de los casos es necesario un mínimo de conocimientos sobre conceptos de programación, lo que puede representar un serio obstáculo al desarrollo de la gamificación, si además se le añade la incompatibilidad existente entre las programaciones para distintos sistemas operativos (Android, Linux, Apple o Microsoft) el reto de diseñar aplicaciones multiplataforma escapa a las habilidades normales de los docentes. Descartada, por tanto, esta opción nos hemos planteado qué herramientas de desarrollo multimedia combinan comodidad para el usuario con capacidad interactiva. Los programas más conocidos son Director, Authorware, Toolbook, Scala Multimedia y Neobook, si bien nos hemos decantado por este último debido a: i) su difusión en el ámbito docente, ii) su facilidad de manejo (sobre todo en comparación con Director o Toolbook) permite desarrollar aplicaciones muy completas, y iii) dispone de una potente lista de órdenes de programación que le permiten adaptarse a casi todas las necesidades del docente. El siguiente paso es decidir qué juego va a incluir la aplicación, como se ha dicho anteriormente, ha de permitir tanto su uso individual como colectivo, ser competitivo, permitir visualizar los resultados y ser lo suficientemente conocido como para que su implementación en el aula sea inmediata. Nos hemos decantado por el juego del pasapalabra ya que obliga a manejar con agilidad un conjunto de conceptos cuyo estudio de forma mecánica, repetitiva (por tanto, tediosa) y sin alicientes puede hacer que el alumno directamente renuncie total o parcialmente a su estudio. Además, la formación de grupos para participar en el juego permite dinamizar la clase implicando a todos sus miembros en el objetivo de lograr la recompensa. La conexión con bases de datos tiene que ser un aspecto esencial de la aplicación, no ya sólo porque podría permitir un control por parte del profesor de los intentos realizados (pudiendo poner un límite a los mismos) en el caso de uso individual y a modo de actividad, sino porque posibilitaría utilizar los resultados obtenidos en sistemas de evaluación continua y, por tanto, permitiría alimentar el sistema de puntos y recompensas. Por otro lado, y dada la enorme variedad de campos en que puede aplicarse este juego, es recomendable que el tesauro de conceptos y definiciones pueda modificarse por parte del docente accediendo directamente a la base de datos, lo que ampliaría su ámbito de utilización. Además, ello permitiría una constante actualización de preguntas y respuestas adecuándolas al nivel educativo en que nos encontremos. Introduciendo elementos de gamificación a través del juego del Pasapalabra A partir de ese conjunto de premisas se ha diseñado una aplicación que se articula en torno a tres bloques (véase el Esquema 1): i) aspectos iniciales, ii) desarrollo del juego, y iii) resultados. Dicha 139 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

140 estructura se mantiene con ligeras variaciones para cada una de las modalidades disponibles: individual y colectiva, habiendo de seleccionarse una de ellas al inicio del juego. Dado que dicha elección supone incorporar unos parámetros predeterminados para cambiar de modalidad hay que salirse de la aplicación y volver a ejecutarla. En función de cuál vaya a ser el uso por parte del docente se pueden entender ambas como complementarias ya que, por ejemplo, haciendo uso de la modalidad individual el alumno se habitúa al manejo del juego (ver instrucciones, familiarizarse con el entorno, etc.) y practica con el mismo para que pueda tener una medida de su nivel de conocimientos sobre la materia, de modo que en caso de ser insuficientes o mejorables pueda prepararse mejor, bien para que cuente en el sistema de evaluación del docente o como preparación para la competición en grupos. Con carácter previo, el docente ha de configurar la base de datos que alimenta el juego, no nos referimos sólo al tesauro de definiciones, sino del resto de parámetros que determinan la modalidad individual (ya que para grupos en el aula el propio docente puede hacerlo al iniciar la aplicación). En concreto, nos estamos refiriendo al tiempo disponible (que debe cambiar a medida que los alumnos van adquiriendo destreza en el manejo de los conocimientos o en función de la complejidad de los conceptos), o si las definiciones mal contestadas cuentan negativamente (y en qué proporción). De ese modo, el alumno ya estaría en disposición de iniciar el juego y tan sólo tendría que pasar a la pantalla de instrucciones en la que también se le solicita indique si los resultados van a ser enviados al profesor. En el caso de que la contestación sea afirmativa aparecerá un formulario que ha de rellenar el alumno con sus datos y será fundamental para enviar la nota (bien mediante correo electrónico o mediante acceso a una plataforma web, aunque también podría hacer una captura de pantalla para enviarla al docente). Como es obvio este formulario no aparecerá en la opción de juego colectivo, donde sólo habrá de indicarse el número de grupos participantes, el tiempo (en minutos) asignado a cada uno, y si las definiciones mal restan y en qué proporción. Cumplimentados los aspectos iniciales se pasaría directamente al juego, cuya mecánica es conocida por lo que no insistiremos en ello, y que presenta alguna variante en función de la modalidad seleccionada. Básicamente las diferencias son dos (al margen de que, evidentemente en la opción de uso colectivo hay diferentes pantallas para cada grupo): i) en la opción de uso individual el alumno ha de seleccionar una de las posibles respuestas en un menú desplegable y confirmar para validar el acierto o fallo, mientras que para grupos en el aula es el propio docente el que ha conocer el concepto y marcar el fallo o acierto (lo cual también le obliga a dominar los conceptos) fundamentalmente para darle agilidad al juego; y ii) en la opción de uso colectivo ante un fallo o pasapalabra el cronómetro de ese grupo se para y se pasa al siguiente grupo, mientras que en la opción individual el tiempo no se detiene. En cualquiera de los casos, ante un fallo o pasapalabra aparecerá un icono que permite ir (si se desea) a una pantalla de resultados para comprobar el número de aciertos hasta ese momento y la puntuación provisional obtenida. Igualmente, en la opción de uso colectivo si se produce esa eventualidad aparecerán botones para poder desplazarse a las pantallas del resto de grupos. Por otro lado, y en función de la configuración que haya hecho el docente en la base de datos, en los casos en que se falle la definición podría activarse un icono de ayuda para buscar en mapas, cuadros o documentación anexa información necesaria para encontrar la respuesta correcta. 140 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

141 Esquema 1. Estructura de la aplicación Aspectos iniciales Mecánica del juego (instrucciones) Cómo se graban los resultados? No se envían Captura de pantalla Envío por Introducir datos Directamente en plataforma web Modo individual 1º Inicio Definición 2º Selección menú desplegable Acierto nueva definición Clic nueva def. Ver resultados Desarrollo del juego 3º Comprobar resultados Fallo Ayuda Pasapalabra Clic nueva def. Ver resultados Nº letras (bien, mal y regular) Tiempo empleado Presentación Información de resultados Nota obtenida del juego Resultados Identificación del alumno Gestión de logros Captura de pantalla Envío e correo electrónico Plataforma web Modo colectivo Mecánica del juego (instrucciones) Nº de grupos (max. 5) Aspectos iniciales Configuración Restan las def. mal? Cuánto? Tiempo disponible Iconos utilizados 1º Inicio Definición Bien Definición siguiente Desarrollo del juego 2º Responde grupo y valida profesor Mal Grupo siguiente Pasapalabra Grupo siguiente Ranking de grupos Nº letras (bien, mal y regular) Resultados Información de resultados Tiempo empleado, Nota obtenida 141 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

142 Una vez finaliza el tiempo asignado para el desarrollo de la actividad o cuando todas las letras han sido cumplimentadas la aplicación activa la pantalla de resultados, que para cualquiera de las modalidades de uso (individual o colectivo) contiene información sobre aciertos, fallos, definiciones sin responder, tiempo empleado y puntos asignados, para el alumno o cada uno de los grupos, respectivamente. La única diferencia reside en el hecho de que en la modalidad individual y en función de la selección que se hiciese al inicio del juego, se activará o no un botón para mandar los resultados obtenidos al docente, bien por correo electrónico (directamente o por medio de la captura de pantalla que será adjuntada por el alumno utilizando su propio servidor de correo), o mediante la conexión directa de la aplicación con la base de datos SQLITE que da soporte a la plataforma web del alumno. Además, en este último caso, el alumno podría acceder a la página web de su asignatura para comprobar la correcta inserción de la nota obtenida y los puntos que se añaden a la nota final. Un ejemplo aplicado al estudio de la geografía política en secundaria La aplicación desarrollada es válida para cualquier asignatura o materia, desde las ciencias de la salud en ámbitos universitarios (por ejemplo, en farmacología, véase Grass y otros, 2011) hasta las ciencias sociales, concretamente es en este campo y muy en particular en economía donde el autor realizó una versión prelimitar aplicada al estudio de las Cuentas Nacionales13. Sin embargo, es en el ámbito de la educación secundaria donde este tipo de juegos se pueden explotar más, tanto por el tipo de alumnado como por la diversidad de materias en que pueden aplicarse (idiomas, lengua, ciencias sociales o naturales). Además, dada la importancia de atraer la atención del alumnado, la aplicación desarrollada ha de permitir aprovechar todo el potencial multimedia de los ordenadores, permitiendo integrar videos, imágenes, etc. Evidentemente, en este caso, sería necesario que el usuario dispusiese del código fuente, el programa compilador, y unas indicaciones sobre cómo introducir dicha información. Para visualizar cómo funcionaría la aplicación se ha hecho una adaptación específica para el aprendizaje de países y capitales del mundo en cursos de secundaria. En este caso el alumno ha de acertar la capital del país o el país cuya capital se indique, por ejemplo, Con la F, país cuya capital es Francia, o Con la P, capital de Francia. A pesar de la estabilidad de estos datos, periódicamente surge un país nuevo o cambia el nombre de alguna capital, en ese caso el docente habría de modificar la base de datos. En este ejemplo, a la estructura general del programa se han añadido dos elementos: i) se visualiza la bandera del país cuyo nombre o capital hay que acertar (pudiendo el docente decidir si aparece o no esa ayuda) y ii) cuando se falla una cuestión se puede consultar un mapa de ayuda para localizar la respuesta correcta. Aunque para entender realmente el posible interés en una aplicación como la desarrollada sería conveniente jugar con la misma, a modo de ejemplo se han añadido en el anexo final varias capturas de pantalla. Dada la reciente finalización de la aplicación, unido al hecho de que el autor es profesor universitario, no ha sido posible analizar su efecto sobre el aprendizaje en el aula, de todas formas, será puesta a disposición de varios centros 13 Véase Melchor y Davia (2012). La aplicación desarrollada que se presentó en las VIII Jornadas de Docencia en Economía Aplicada se encuentra disponible en la forja de RedIRIS 142 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

143 de educación secundaria al objeto de que la valoren. En el próximo curso académico el autor hará uso de la aplicación pero orientada al estudio de los conceptos de la Contabilidad Nacional de España en una asignatura de segundo curso del Grado en Economía, lo que permitirá detectar posibles mejoras y constatar de primera mano su impacto en los procesos de aprendizaje. Conclusiones La elaboración de aplicaciones específicas para la docencia virtual y/o gamificada se plantea cada vez en mayor medida como una necesidad para el docente. La complejidad y variedad tanto de plataformas como de programas para la construcción de las mismas obliga a centrarse en alguna de ellas. A pesar de ello, la constante adaptación a los retos y exigencias de la docencia en el aula obligan a establecer puentes de colaboración entre docentes al objeto de crear equipos interdisciplinares, que abran la posibilidad de compartir esfuerzos y crear sinergias al poder aplicar desarrollos metodológicos a distintos campos docentes. En coherencia con esa filosofía, la aplicación desarrollada junto con su base de datos serán en un primer paso colgados en la forja de rediris al objeto de que se vaya conformando un grupo de usuarios interesados para que, en un segundo momento, sean éstos mismos los que contribuyan a la mejora de la aplicación, o desarrollen otras similares aplicadas a distintos juegos. En este campo las posibilidades son prácticamente ilimitadas. Igualmente son muy variados los ámbitos educativos susceptibles de beneficiarse de este tipo de aplicaciones, desde secundaria (o últimos cursos de primaria) hasta superiores, pero siempre introduciendo mecanismos de juego atractivos y un sistema de recompensas que permita alcanzar tres objetivos: fomentar el trabajo en equipo, introducir metodologías activas en el aula y proporcionar herramientas de autoaprendizaje y autoevaluación. Referencias bibliográficas Benjamin, T. (2010): egames: Is imagination the forgotten ingredient?, Computers in Human Behavior, 26, pp Educational Technology and Mobile Learning - Gras, E. y otros (2011): Farmacología, juegos y b-learning en el campus virtual, VI Jornada Campus Virtual UCM. Lee, J. J. & Hammer, J. (2011): Gamification in Education: What, How, Why Bother, Academic Exchange Waterly, 15 (2). Melchor, E. y Davia, M.A. (2012): Aplicaciones didácticas con Neobook para el aprendizaje de las cuentas nacionales. un ejemplo con el juego del pasapalabra, VIII Jornadas de Docencia en Economía Aplicada, Asociación Libre de Economía. Smith-Robbins, S. (2011): This Game Sucks : How to Improve the Gamification of Education, Educause Review, January-February. 143 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

144 Xu, Y. (2011): Literature Review on Web Application Gamification and Analytics, CSDL Technical Report Anexo. Capturas de pantalla de la aplicación Fig. 1. Portada Fig. 2. Instrucciones ejercicio colectivo Fig. 3. Instrucciones ejercicio colectivo Fig. 4. Instrucciones ejercicio individual 144 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

145 ENTORNO VIRTUAL PARA EL APRENDIZAJE DE NEURO-ANATOMIA BAJO EL PARADIGMA DE LA WEB 2.0 Laybet Colmenares Zamora1, Julio Barroso Osuna2, Carlos Pinzón3, Iván Jara4, Hyxia Villegas5, Antonio Bosnjak6 1,3,4,5,6 Universidad de Carabobo. Facultad de Ingeniería. Centro de Procesamiento de Imágenes. Venezuela 2 Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Didáctica y Organización Escolar. España 3 Universidad de Carabobo. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Escuela de Medicina. Venezuela Resumen El uso de los espacios de las redes sociales en internet favorece el aprendizaje informal, que puede ser aprovechado por las instituciones de enseñanza formal reglada, como es el caso de las universidades, para enriquecer el proceso educativo. En respuesta masificación de estudiantes, falta de materiales didácticos para enseñanza y poca disposición de cadáveres para las prácticas, se desarrolló un entorno virtual para el aprendizaje de Neuro-Anatomía, como complemento a las clases presenciales, según las necesidades planteadas por profesores y estudiantes de Anatomía en la carrera de Medicina en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Carabobo en Venezuela. El entorno pone a disposición de los estudiantes una serie de objetos de aprendizaje creados en función de características específicas de los contenidos, las técnicas de enseñanza desarrollada por los profesores y la dinámica de los estudiantes en la web 2.0. Para el desarrollo se aplicó una metodología Centrada en el Usuario, nutrida con un esquema de desarrollo de interfaces de materiales educativos, involucrando a profesores y estudiantes en la creación y evaluación cíclica de objetos de aprendizaje por separado y luego integrados con el entorno virtual. El resultado de la investigación es un entorno en formato web, bajo la filosofía de la web 2.0 que combina material interactivo, videos imágenes de RM, TAC y estructuras tridimensionales, desarrolladas en base al modelo mental del usuario y su esquema de comunicación, garantizando de esta manera una alta usabilidad y las condiciones adecuadas para el aprendizaje, que se ponen a disposición en dos ambientes, uno completamente público alojado en la nube y complementado con un espacio formal en Moodle dentro del aula virtual de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. La implementación del proyecto nos permiten tener una comunidad entusiasta y creciente de participantes que se comunican dentro de las redes sociales, sobre la temática de neuro-anatomía, comparten materiales en repositorios públicos y son activos dentro del aula de Moodle, logrando con todo esto mejorar la motivación, el acceso a los materiales y la promoción de la autonomía en el aprendizaje. Palabras Claves: Entornos Virtuales de Aprendizaje, Uso de la web 2.0 en educación formal, Aprendizaje de Anatomía asistida por Computador. 145 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

146 Introducción El espacio que tiene el uso de las tecnologías en la educación obliga a revisar constantemente su uso y las estrategias de enseñanza-aprendizaje soportados por tecnología, tal es el caso de Internet y su uso en los espacios formales de aprendizaje como las universidades, que implica una flexibilización que incluye la combinación de espacios formales, como las aulas virtuales institucionales, con espacios no-formales como las redes sociales, repositorios y aplicaciones públicas alojadas en la web, dentro de la nube. [1]. Hay que considerar que la incorporación de la red en la educación formal no garantiza mejora en el aprendizaje, hay que facilitar institucionalmente el acceso a la información en abierto, creando redes de conocimiento [2] y aprovechando que los estudiantes son consumidores asiduos de tecnología y de medios de comunicación [3]. Logrando un aprendizaje ubicuo y permanente. La web 2.0 puede entenderse a través de tres visiones: la técnica, a partir de las herramientas que ponen a disposición de aplicaciones, repositorios y herramientas de comunicación; la humana reflejada en el uso creciente y entusiasta de los usuarios a usar estos espacios virtuales para su comunicación y por último la visión filosófica, que implica las tendencias en el comportamiento entre las que queremos destacar los usuarios son consumidores-productores, que se implican en espacios de trabajos de creación colaborativa y que comentan, comparten y opinan, combinando gustos personales y relaciones sociales con sus espacios profesionales [4]. Estas condiciones pueden ser aprovechadas en las universidades para combinar el aprendizaje formal con el no-formal, enriqueciendo la educación. Este proyecto se desarrolló en la Universidad de Carabobo (UC), ubicada en Valencia-Venezuela, dentro de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud (FCS), en la Escuela de Medicina, concretamente en la cátedra de Anatomía, asignatura del primer año de la carrera. En una evaluación preliminar se constató que la carrera de medicina es la que presenta mayor demanda por parte de los aspirantes de nuevo ingreso, tiene un elevado número de estudiantes por aula, con secciones que tienen entre sesenta (60) y ochenta (80) alumnos atendidas por un solo profesor, con una masificación del proceso educativo, y recursos didácticos, tal como equipos y materiales insuficientes [4]. La estrategia de enseñanza empleada de forma tradicional, consiste en dos etapas: inicialmente se presentan las estructuras anatómicas a un nivel teórico, con imágenes esquemáticas y simplificadas en dos dimensiones, posteriormente los estudiantes hacen prácticas, que consiste en la manipulación de huesos, modelos o cadáveres preparados para tal fin [5]. Y aunque no está comtemplado dentro del programa, los docentes han manifestado que es importante la iniciación a la lectura de los estudios imagenológicos como Resonancia Magnética (RM), Tomografía Axial Computarizada (TAC) y Radiografías [4]. En el caso especial de Neuroanatomía, contenido específico de la asignatura estudiada, las competencias están ligadas al reconocimiento, diferenciación y relación de los elementos macroscópicos del Sistema Nervioso Central [6]. En base a la estrategia de enseñanza teóricopráctica, los cadáveres que se utilizan para las prácticas no ayudan en gran medida, ya que los 146 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

147 mismos tienen mucho tiempo en el laboratorio y se han venido deteriorando progresivamente como consecuencia del uso por parte de docentes y estudiantes [4], según relatan informantes clave, los cadáveres tienen un tiempo de uso en la asignatura de cinco años, cuando no deberían sobrepasar los tres años, esto dificulta el trabajo y los experimentos que allí puedan hacerse [5]. Esta investigación se desarrolla como la creación y evaluación de un entorno virtual para apoyar el aprendizaje, con diversidad de materiales elaborados específicamente para el grupo, siguiendo un enfoque formal por los docentes, administradores de las estrategias de enseñanza, edicionando espacios de intercambio con el enfoque de la web 2.0. Así estudiantes y docentes pueden compartir tanto el material desarrollado para la asignatura, como el que ambos actores (docentes y estudiantes) consideran valioso para reforzar los contenidos dados en clase. Este enfoque se genera a partir de la consideración del proceso de aprendizaje como un acontecimiento personal, centrado en el mismo estudiante [2]. Metodología Este fue un estudio de caso, donde se implementó una metodología de investigación-acción, a través de un periodo de tres años (2009, 2010, 2011), teniendo la participación de tres cohortes de estudiantes. Para el desarrollo de objetos de aprendizaje se aplicó el esquema de desarrollo para materiales educativos basados en el uso del computador de Colmenares y Villegas [7], el cual se basa en una visión de Diseño Centrado en el Usuario [8], [9] y en las Heurísticas de Usabilidad de Nielsen & Molich,(1990) [10]. En los objetos de Aprendizaje se emplearon herramientas de diseño gráfico como PhotoShop, CorelDraw y Herramientas de creación y edición de Videos. El entorno virtual se hizo con Dreamweaber CS4, incorporando XML 3D, y Moodle para el aula virtual. Se adicionaron sitios y repositorios públicos y gratuitos de la nube. El esquema de trabajo Centrado en el Usuario, Ciclico y Evolutivo implicó desarrollar todo el proceso en dos estapas, primero el desarrollo y evaluación de los objetos de aprendizaje por separado y una segunda la integración dentro de los dos entornos, el entorno formal bajo el aula virtual de la FCS-UC en Moodle y el informal integrando los servicio de google site, repositorios de flickr, youtube y slideshare con el espacio de comunicación en facebook. El proceso lo podemos apreciar en la figura EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

148 Para llevar a cabo la investigación se desarrollaron las siguientes fases: 1. Diagnóstico de las necesidades de enseñanza-aprendizaje en los temas de neuroanatomía susceptibles de abordar en el entorno virtual. 2. Definición del perfil de los usuarios 3. Levantamiento de los requerimientos del entorno virtual, en función del perfil del usuario y las necesidades encontradas. 4. Diseño de los objetos de aprendizaje. 5. Evaluación de los objetos de aprendizaje por tres tipos de perfiles: usuario (estudiante), experto en contenido (docente), y experto en usabilidad. 6. Adaptación para la web Desarrollo del entorno virtual, con espacios formales y no-formales con la integración de los objetos de aprendizaje. Figura 1 Estrategia de Desarrollo de Materiales Educativos con Enfoque Centrado en el Usuario e incorporación de herramientas de la Web 2.0. Laybet Colmenares 2010 Resultados Al levantar el perfil del usuario, en la fase de análisis, nos encontramos con un grupo de estudiantes con altas destrezas en tecnología, con buenas condiciones de acceso en sus espacios habituales de trabajo y una actitud favorable para el aprendizaje usando estas tecnologías, sin embargo con una escasa autonomía para dirigir su propio aprendizaje y sin conciencia de sus propios Entornos personales de aprendizaje (PLE). Esto implica un trabajo de dirección de los docentes de anatomía y del grupo de apoyo para promover el buen uso de la tecnología para el desempeño académico. En función de las necesidades detectadas se desarrollaron una variedad de objetos de aprendizaje, con contenidos y estrategias en función de las recomendaciones de los docentes y diseñados tomando en cuenta las preferencias de estudiantes derivadas de un estudio de etnografía rápida, de allí se generaron los materiales descritos en la tabla 1. Tabla 1. Resumen de Objetos de Aprendizaje desarrollados para el Entorno Tipo de Material Contenido Específico Objetivo Instruccional /Contenido Presentaciones Multimedia Interactivas Anatomía del Cráneo Identificar los principales huesos del neurocraneo, a través de sus diferentes vistas e identificar los diferentes detalles Sistema Óptico Consciente para su correlación y orientación espacial. Sistema del Gusto Comprender la dinámica de las vías aferentes especiales. Sistema Auditivo Introducción al reconocimiento de estructuras anatómicas en estudios imagenólogicos. Sistema Olfatorio Video Instruccional Disección del Encéfalo. Caso 1 Conocer la técnica de disección. Galería de Fotografías Disección del Encéfalo. Caso 2 Estudiar los detalles anatómicos observables en la disección del encéfalo Software Educativo 3D Laboratorio Virtual de Conocer la correlación espacial tridimensional de las Neuroanatomía estructuras anatómicas del cerebro, 148 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

149 Estos objetos se evaluaron con instrumentos desarrollados para este proyecto [11], [12] que recogen datos de estudiantes, expertos y docentes por separado y en función de los resultados se fueron corrigieron de una manera cíclica-evolutiva, hasta lograr una alta aceptación. Con respecto a la actividad en la web 2.0, actualmente se tiene un grupo en Facebook con 78 participantes activos, que pertenecen al grupo de estudiantes de nuevo ingreso de la cohorte 2012, que comparten actividad con un grupo de apoyo conformado por los desarrolladores de la Facultad de Ingeniería y un equipo de seguimiento de la FCS-UC. El otro servicio de comunicación puesto a servicio fue twitter, pero aquí la participación ha sido muy escasa por parte de los estudiantes. Se implementó un entorno virtual que pone a disposición estos objetos de aprendizaje, combinando diferentes servicios y materiales desarrollados para la web. Es importante resaltar que se combinaron espacios formales y no formales y el uso de estos se condensa en la tabla 2 Tabla 2. Espacios incluidos en el Entorno Virtual de Aprendizaje Neuronatomía Tipo de Espacio Educación Formal / No Formal Servicio seleccionado Espacios Formales Moodle Aula Virtual: Repositorio de Contenidos bajo la estructura formal del proyecto de aulas virtuales de la UC. Subida de Trabajos. Foros: Preguntas/respuestas. Consultas. Autoevaluación Página web en Página web en formato HTML alojada en el servidor de UC servidor de Facultad de Ingeniería Espacios No Formales SlideShare Repositorio de Contenido, etiquetado, específicamente: Presentaciones de PowerPoint Youtube flickr Facebook Grupo Neuroanatomía 2.0 Twitter #neuroanatomia 2.0 Google site Neuroanatomía 2.0 Uso Repositorio de Contenido, etiquetado, específicamente: Videos Intruccionales Repositorio de Contenido, etiquetado, específicamente: Colecciones de Fotografías de Estructuras de Neuroanatomía Integración de espacio de comunicación, noticias, compartir material multimedia puntual Integración de espacio de comunicación dinámico, noticias, novedades. Principalmente Motivación Integración de toda la galería de materiales de los diferentes repositorios con espacios de comunicación. Integración dinámica a través de GadGets. Acceso a la información de modo estable y continuo Acción de apoyo a la presencialidad Apoyo a la presencialidad de educación formal (APEF) APEF (Ídem anterior) Apoyo a Educación No formal ordenado por folcsonomia. Promoción Comunidad de Aprendizaje Apoyo a Educación No formal ordenado por folcsonomias. Promoción Comunidad de Aprendizaje Apoyo a Educación No formal ordenado por folcsonomias. Promoción Comunidad de Aprendizaje Interacción social para el aprendizaje. Apoyo a la presencialidad a partir de aprendizaje Ubicuo Interacción social para el aprendizaje. Apoyo a la presencialidad a partir de aprendizaje Ubicuo Apoyo a la presencialidad en espacios no formales, favoreciendo: aprendizaje Ubicuo, Educación No Formal 149 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

150 Conclusiones El Entorno Virtual de Neuroanatomía se ha diseñado bajo los criterios de calidad de los materiales multimedia para fines educativos, conservando los principios de usabilidad y diseño centrado en el usuario. Este entorno permite la integración de diversos objetos de aprendizaje creados espacialmente para los usuarios, adaptados a los espacios no-formales, favoreciendo así el aprendizaje y apoyando las clases presenciales. Si tomamos en cuenta las tres visiones de la web 2.0: técnica, humana y filosófica en el caso presentado en el proyecto. Las sólidas destrezas de los estudiantes en el uso de las tecnologías y su condición de prosumers, constituyen una oportunidad que se debe aprovechar por las universidades, en cuanto al factor humano, tenemos unos estudiantes que ya están integrados en las redes sociales, poseen identidad y perfiles en varios servicios y demostraron una actitud favorable a la interacción con docentes y grupo de apoyo a través de estas redes, implicándose, colaborando, comentando y compartiendo, está es la principal contribución de este proyecto el uso de los espacios no-formales para seguir promoviendo el aprendizaje no solo fuera de las aulas, sino fuera de los espacios virtuales formales de la universidad, combinando de manera productiva los LMS con los PLE de los estudiantes. Referencias [1] C. Cobo Rimani y J. W. Moravec, Aprendizaje Invisible. Hacia una nueva ecología de la educación. Col lección Transmedia XXI., Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, [2] J. M. Duart, «La Red en los procesos de enseñanza de la Universidad,» Comunicar, vol. XIX, nº 37, pp , Octubre [3] J. Salinas Ibañez, «`I uploaded video` Una nueva perspectiva de la televisión educativa?,» edmetic. Revista de Educación Mediatica y TIC, pp. 7-28, [4] L. Colmenares, «Desarrollo de un Entorno Virtual para el aprendizaje de Neuroanatomía. Caso Estudio: Escuela de Medicina Uc,» Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia, [5] L. Colmenares, «Diseño de la Interfaz del Laboratorio Virtual de Neuroanatomía,» de Memorias del III Congreso de Educación EDUTIC, Buenos Aires, [6] Departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas, «Programa de la Asignatura Anatomía Humana,» Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia, [7] L. Colmenares y H. Villegas, «Metodología para el desarrollo de interfaces de materiales educativos,» de TECNONEET, Murcia, [8] A. Floría Cortés, «Recopilación de Métodos de Usabilidad,» [En línea]. Available: [9] T. Granollers, «MPIu+a. Una metodología que integra la ingeniería del software, la interacción personaordenador y la accesibilidad en el contexto de equipos de desarrollo multidisciplinares,» [10] J. Nielsen y R. Molich, «Heuristic evaluation of user interfaces,» de ACM CHI 90, Seattle, [11] L. Castillo y L. Colmenares, «Diseño y validación de un modelo educativo de evaluación multifactorial sistémico fundamentado en normas ISO 9126 e ISO a través de los usuarios de materiales educativos badasos en web, dirigido a usuarios de educación Superior,» Valencia, [12] A. Táriba y L. Colmenares, «Instrumento multidimensional para la evaluación por expertos de materiales 150 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

151 educativos basados en web,» Valencia, [13] T. Granollers, «Modelo de Proceso de la Ingeniería de la usabilidad y de la accesibilidad. MPIu+a,» [En línea]. Available: [Último acceso: 2011]. 151 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

152 DESARROLLO DE UN APLICATIVO DE GESTIÓN DE ENTORNOS PERSONALES DE APRENDIZAJE PARA LA REALIZACIÓN DE ACTIVIDADES DE APRENDIZAJE EN RED NO SOPORTADAS POR PLATAFORMAS PARA GESTIÓN DEL APRENDIZAJE Agudo, Ana (Consorcio Fernando de los Ríos), Álvarez, David (Consorcio Fernando de los Ríos), Corpas, Alberto (Consorcio Fernando de los Ríos), Delgado, Juan Francisco (Consorcio Fernando de los Ríos) Fernández, Jesús (Consorcio Fernando de los Ríos) Keywords: social learning, networked learning, personal learning environment, personal learning network, mooc, social innovation, telecentres, content curation, educational technology La justificacion del proyecto El concepto de Personal Learning Environments (o PLE) incluye no sólo al conjunto de herramientas, servicios y conexiones que cada uno de nosotros empleamos para aprender de forma autónoma, sino también a las estrategias, habilidades y actitudes que implican esa gestión autónoma del aprendizaje. Desde su Entorno Personal de Aprendizaje cada persona tiene acceso a toda la información disponible en Internet así como a las herramientas y servicios para gestionar esa abundancia de información. También puede gestionar, conversar y compartir con sus comunidades y redes virtuales. Mas allá del valor a nivel personal que tiene el concepto de PLE, esta perspectiva se alinea con las necesidades de las organizaciones de establecer estructuras formales y no formales que favorezcan el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, como un valor de la Sociedad del Conocimiento y una demanda emergente en un contexto social y económico que precisa tanto del emprendimiento social como de organizaciones inteligentes que sean capaces de gestionar el conocimiento abriendo espacios de colaboración y aprendizaje en red. Los PLE suponen, por tanto, un enfoque del aprendizaje que ofrece estrategias y recursos para que los individuos puedan gestionar sus propios aprendizajes en red. Trabajar el concepto de PLE en una organizacion permite avanzar en varias de las competencias clave para el Aprendizaje Permanente tal y como las recoge el Parlamento Europeo y el Consejo en 2006 [1], especialmente en la competencia digital y en la competencia 'aprender a aprender'. La ausencia de desarrollos específicos de software para gestionar Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje posiciona estratégicamente al Consorcio Fernando de los Ríos [2] y al Proyecto Guadalinfo [3] ante la posibilidad de ofrecer una herramienta propia que a través de una licencia libre permita, en torno a las iniciativas de Guadalinfo, constituir una comunidad de desarrollo y reflexión sobre los PLE y el aprendizaje en red. 152 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

153 De un problema tecnologico a una oportunidad de aprendizaje Desde sus inicios en 2002, con la apertura del primer centro en la localidad jienénse de Puerta de Segura, el proyecto Guadalinfo ha desarrollado una labor fundamental para ofrecer oportunidades de desarrollo y equiparación en recursos tecnológicos a la ciudadanía andaluza, dedicando gran parte de sus recursos a la alfabetización digital de aquellas zonas (y con aquellos colectivos) especialmente sensibles a las causas y efectos de la brecha digital. Esta actividad formativa ha estado limitada, salvo contadas excepciones, al ámbito de la presencialidad, con el personal dinamizador de la red de centros programando y desarrollando actividades formativas con los usuarios y usuarias de sus centros. Las actividades de formación en Guadalinfo, en cuanto a su planificación y seguimiento por parte de los agentes del proyecto, cuentan con una herramienta específica denominada S.I.G.A. (Sistema Integral de Gestión de Actividades) y con un espacio virtual de convocatoria y publicidad del programa de actividades a través del portal Guadalinfo. Sin embargo, la naturaleza presencial de las actividades no ha llegado a plantear la necesidad de la implementación de herramientas o entornos de aprendizaje específicos para los usuarios y usuarias, mas allá de las herramientas instaladas en los equipos de los centros (las propias de Guadalinex Guadalinfo). El análisis de la viabilidad y sostenibilidad de un programa de actividades de aprendizaje en entornos virtuales ha planteado siempre el alto coste en recursos para el desarrollo de actividades bajo un planteamiento formal, tanto en lo que se refiere a la dedicación de personal para el desarrollo de contenidos, tutorización de acciones formativas, expertos,... como por lo que se refiere a las necesidades tecnológicas, teniendo en cuenta que la Red Guadalinfo cuenta con más de usuarios y un ritmo creciente de nuevos usuarios que se acercan a Guadalinfo a desarrollar sus proyectos de innovación social. La opción convencional sería la adopción de un LMS que, como única opción, plantea varios inconvenientes a distintos niveles: 1. Usabilidad: La solución a implementar debe estar basada en Software Libre, por la propia filosofía del Proyecto Guadalinfo. En ese caso la selección natural sería Moodle, sin embargo se trata de un entorno poco 'amigable', mas aún pensando en determinados colectivos muy familiarizados con los entornos propios de los servicios de redes sociales pero poco con sistemas gestores de aprendizaje como Moodle. Esta apreciación es extensible a la mayoría de plataformas del mercado, diseñadas pensando en entornos propios de la educación formal. 2. Finalidad: Los LMS están diseñados para actividades de formación de tipo formal, donde es muy importante el control sobre el alumnado. Sin embargo, la estrategia y necesidades del Proyecto Guadalinfo requieren potenciar los aprendizajes no formal e informal. 3. Pedagogía: El uso que la mayoría de las organizaciones hace de los LMS no favorecen 153 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

154 especialmente el aprendizaje colaborativo, de hecho, en el caso de la formación continua del personal dinamizador de la red Guadalinfo, hemos implementado un sistema de e-portfolios, compatible con Moodle así como el uso de las redes sociales para trabajar este aspecto. 4. Sostenibilidad: El tamaño de nuestra red hace inviable un modelo de teleformación tradicional con contenidos y tutorizaciones mediante una plataforma, ya que el coste que supondría para poder alcanzar un porcentaje significativo de población es imposible de asumir aún con recursos propios como delegando la tutorización a los dinamizadores. Desarrollo de un gestor de entornos personales de aprendizaje Este era el estado de la cuestión cuando buscando soluciones tecno-pedagógicas encontramos el concepto de Entorno Personal de Aprendizaje, un concepto que aparece por primera vez en una de las sesiones de la JISC/CETIS Conference de 2004 [4]. El concepto aparece ligado tanto a la necesidad de replantear los entornos educativos para ceder al usuario el liderazgo de las acciones, tanto en el planteamiento como en el desarrollo de las mismas, como a la de socializar el aprendizaje mediante la integración en las actividades de los recursos y medios de la web 2.0. En cualquier caso el concepto de Entorno Personal de Aprendizaje es muy reciente y no hay demasiadas experiencias de aplicación del mismo en organizaciones. Dede el punto de vista pedagógico lo más cercano son los Cursos Abiertos Masivos Online (MOOC, Massive Open Online Courses) [5], un formato popularizado por Stephen Downes y George Siemens, especialmente a partir de 2008 con el curso 'Connectivism and Connective Knowledge" [6]. Por lo que respecta a las soluciones tecnológicas que ayuden al usuario a desarrollar todo el potencial bajo el concepto de Entorno Personal de Aprendizaje hay varias líneas fundamentales: 1- Desarrollos específicos (PLEX [7], PLEF [8],...), son los menos y bastante anticuados. 2- Servicios web de escritorios virtuales modulares en algunos casos con la posibilidad de gestionar feeds (igoogle, Netvibes, Pageflakes, Protopage,...) o bien asimilación de sistemas de portfolios como PLEs (Mahara, Elgg,...) 3- Utilización servicios y herramientas de la web 2.0 de forma más o menos integrada o coordinada a través de navegadores libres enriquecidos con extensiones y complementos como Google Chrome o Mozilla Firefox [9], o incluso mediante navegadores sociales como RockMelt. Por su parte el Plan Estratégico Guadalinfo [10] recoge numerosas ideas que alinean el desarrollo de un Gestor de Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje con las necesidades y líneas de trabajo de la Red Guadalinfo. En primer lugar es conveniente destacar dos de los objetivos del Plan Estratégico Guadalinfo: 1. Ampliar el entorno favorecedor de los procesos de innovación promoviendo la 154 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

155 participación de los/as usuarios/as fuera del Centro. 2. Promoción de otros elementos tecnológicos que contribuyan al desarrollo. Pero no son solamente estos dos objetivos los que se alinean con la idea de los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje, hay muchos otros objetivos, principios y directivas en el Plan Estratégico Guadalinfo que lo hacen. Nacidos de la web social, de la irrupción de las tecnologías como facilitadoras del desarrollo personal y profesional de los ciudadanos, los PLE consistirían en una evolución lógica (sistematización) de muchas de las fuentes y usos que ya se vienen haciendo en Guadalinfo. Concretamente el objetivo 10 del Plan Estratégico Guadalinfo reconoce la adopción de nuevos mecanismos de innovación como factor fundamental para el crecimiento de la productividad, la competitividad y el desarrollo sostenible: Se establecerá una estrategia de observancia y prospectiva de procesos de innovación que se puedan pilotar y desarrollar de acuerdo con la estrategia del Proyecto, con el fin de identificar aquellos cuya implantación pueda resultar beneficiosa para la ciudadanía. En este contexto y coliderado por las Áreas de Proyectos y de Gestión del Talento del Consorcio Fernando de los Ríos se configura un equipo de trabajo que tiene como objetivo el desarrollo y la implementación de un Gestor de Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje [11]. El desarrollo se realiza con el apoyo técnico de isoco [12], una consultora especializada en soluciones tecnológicas basadas en web semántica, que resulta adjudicataria del contrato de desarrollo del aplicativo mencionado. La propuesta de la adjudicataria sobre la que se desarrolla el prototipo está integramente basada en soluciones open source, tal y como pedía el pliego de prescripciones técnicas del proyecto: Los componentes básicos propuestos para dar cobertura a las necesidades del proyecto han incluído: Entorno personal / escritorio virtual: Liferay Portal v.5.2.3/6.0 Clasificación automática: Mahout Funciones semánticas: Gate 6.1 / Freeling Buscador: SOLR 3.3 El software base sobre el que se implementa la plataforma comprende: Sistema operativo: Linux Base de datos: MySQL Servlet Container: Apache Tomcat v.6 Servidor web: Apache v.2.3 La arquitectura del sistema implementado responde al siguiente gráfico: 155 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

156 Los desarrollos y testeos del prototipo, iniciados tras la adjudicación del contrato en 2011, se han desarrollado en paralelo al diseño de la acción formativa bajo la cual se iba a implementar el aplicativo de gestión de PLE de Guadalinfo. La red como estructura metodologica: del ple al mooc Las nuevas tecnologías y en particular la red nos ofrecen la oportunidad de entender el aprendizaje de una forma global, como un espacio de conexiones y conversaciones que nos permiten acceder a la información que necesitamos en cada momento y desde cualquier sitio, gracias a las cada vez mayores opciones de conexión a Internet, en un proceso de aprendizaje permanente e invisible [13]. Los PLE nos plantean el aprendizaje como un proceso autónomo, en cuanto a objetivos, recursos y procesos, pero desarrollado inmersos en una comunidad (nuestra Red Personal de Aprendizaje). El formato de los MOOC permite a las organizaciones sacar partido a esta forma de entender el aprendizaje, diseñando acciones abiertas, apoyadas en las redes y en los espacios de conversación naturales y muy orientadas a la generación de contenidos y al aprendizaje haciendo y reflexionando sobre el proceso. A este respecto Siemens [14] recoge el potencial de los MOOC para las organizaciones: la contribución más importante es el potencial de los MOOC para cambiar la relación entre alumnado y profesorado, y entre la academia y la comunidad en general mediante la posibilidad de ofrecer un foro muy amplio y diverso, un lugar de encuentro para las ideas. Quien se matricule en un MOOC es probable que descubra el aprendizaje en su forma más 156 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

157 abierta sobre una plataforma que invita a todo el mundo, no sólo para ver y escuchar, sino también de participar y colaborar. Mi proyecto en la red: el mooc de guadalinfo En Guadalinfo, la red andaluza de centros de innovación social, el gestor de Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje (que hemos llamado PLEg), responde principalmente a la necesidad de diseñar e implementar acciones formativas dirigidas a emprendedores y personas en búsqueda activa de empleo, bajo modelos didácticos inspirados en iniciativas de aprendizaje en red, buscando el desarrollar competencias ligadas al aprendizaje permanente y autónomo. El objetivo de estas acciones formativas es facilitar a los participantes las herramientas, los recursos y las actitudes necesarias para que puedan iniciar un proceso de aprendizaje que se extienda más allá del final de cada curso, de manera que sean capaces de adquirir en cada momento las competencias necesarias para desarrollar de forma óptima los proyectos o actividades que llevan a cabo, tanto a nivel personal como a nivel profesional. Estas acciones formativas tienen como foco el aprendiz en lugar del contenido, buscando desarrollar competencias (de aprendizaje y digitales) antes que centrarse en la adquisición de conocimientos y estimulando la participación en redes de aprendizaje más amplias que las que delimitan el total de participantes en la acción formal. La primera experiencia totalmente on-line que hemos desarrollado bajo este planteamiento, y con el apoyo de la herramienta PLEg, está actualmente en periodo de evaluación y lleva por título Mi Proyecto en la Red. Se trata de un curso que ofrece la Red Guadalinfo para ayudar a los usuarios a sacar el máximo partido de las TECNOLOGÍAS DE LA INFORMACIÓN Y LA COMUNICACIÓN para convertir tu idea en un proyecto y llevarlo a la red. Han participado en la actividad usuarios con identidad digital y que buscaban profundizar en cuestiones como marketing digital, el posicionamiento web o los social media para mejorar la dimensión digital de su proyecto. En lugar de una plataforma hemos utilizado una wiki [15] como espacio central de encuentro, donde de forma forma semanal se le ha propuesto a los participantes varias lecturas y una serie de cuestiones sobre las que profundizar, orientadas a mejorar sus proyectos, invitándoles a buscar sus propias respuestas y, finalmente, a que sean ellos mismos quienes evaluen el aprendizaje adquirido a lo largo del curso. Paralelamente al desarrollo del curso, los participantes han tenido la oportunidad de construir sus Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje y ponerlos en práctica para aprender, formando parte de una comunidad, para lo cual han contado con la herramienta PLEg [16] como elemento vertebrador de su actividad en la red a lo largo del curso. 157 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

158 Entornos personales de aprendizaje: conectando talentos para la innovacion social La Innovación Social como motor de cambio para una sociedad que necesita más emprendedores y más comunidades dispuestas a desarrollar sus proyectos, ya tengan estos un fin estrictamente lucrativo o bien simplemente busquen el impacto social en su entorno (mejorando la vida de quienes se encuentren bajo su radio de acción), precisa de nuevas formas de entender el valor de compartir la información, como se entiende y gestiona el Conocimiento en la Sociedad Red y como se desarrollan los aprendizajes abiertos, orgánicos, invisibles, expandidos y orientados a la resolución de problemas. Sin duda los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje son un concepto que ha de tener cada vez mayor presencia en los distintos entornos educativos, formales y no formales. Ya el pasado año 2011 aparecían en la edición K12 del Horizon Report 2011 [17] como una de las TECNOLOGÍAS EDUCATIVAS de impacto para los próximos 4/5 años, y que las apuestas de las organizaciones [18] van a ser cada vez más decididas por este tipo de enfoques del aprendizaje, muy ligados al desarrollo de actividades de aprendizaje en red como los MOOC. Invertir en que las personas y las organizaciones desarrollen sus Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje es la versión digital del proverbio chino dame un pez y cenaré esta noche, ENSÉÑAME A PESCAR y cenaré siempre. Trabajar sobre la COMPETENCIA DIGITAL [19] y la competencia APRENDER A APRENDER será mucho más efectivo en términos globales, para los individuos, las organizaciones y la sociedad, que seguir invirtiendo en acciones formativas específicas bajo formatos convencionales, ya sean presenciales, virtuales o mixtos, y centrados en los contenidos. 158 EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2012 Proceedings

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