Swine Influenza and You

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1 Swine Influenza and You What is swine flu? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that causes regular outbreaks in pigs. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from person-to-person, but in the past, this transmission was limited and not sustained beyond three people. Are there human infections with swine flu in the U.S.? In late March and early April 2009, cases of human infection with swine influenza A (HIN 1) viruses were first reported in Southern California and near San Antonio, Texas. Other U.S. states have reported cases of swine flu infection in humans and cases have been reported internationally as well. An updated case count of confirmed swine flu infections in the United States is kept at CDC and local and state health agencies are working together to investigate this situation. Is this swine flu virus contagious? CDC has determined that this swine influenza A (HlNI) virus is contagious and is spreading from human to human. However, at this time, it not known how easily the virus spreads between people. What are the signs and symptoms of swine flu in people? The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. Some people have reported diarrhea and vomiting associated with swine flu. In the past, severe illness (pneumonia and respiratory failure) and deaths have been reported with swine flu infection in people. Like seasonal flu, swine flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic medical conditions. How does swine flu spread? Spread of this swine influenza A (HlN1) virus is thought to be happening in the same way that seasonal flu spreads. Flu viruses are spread mainly from person to person through coughing or sneezing of people with influenza. Sometimes people may become infected by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose. How can someone with the flu infect someone else? Infected people may be able to infect others beginning 1 day before symptoms develop and up to 7 or more days after becoming sick. That means that you may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick. What should I do to keep from getting the flu? First and most important: wash your hands. Try to stay in good general health. Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food. Try not touch surfaces that may be contaminated with the flu virus. Avoid close contact with people who are sick. Are there medicines to treat swine flu? Yes. CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the treatment andlor prevention of infection with these swine influenza viruses. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an inhaler) that fight against the flu by keeping flu viruses from reproducing in your body. If you get sick, antiviral drugs can make your illness milder and make you feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms). How long can an infected person spread swine flu to others? People with swine influenza virus infection should be considered potentially contagious as long as they are

2 symptomatic and possible for up to 7 days following illness onset. Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods. What surfaces are most likely to be sources of contamination? Germs can be spread when a person touches something that is contaminated with germs and then touches his or her eyes, nose, or mouth. Droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person move through the air. Germs can be spread when a person touches respiratory droplets from another person on a surface like a desk and then touches their own eyes, mouth or nose before washing their hands. How long can viruses live outside the body? We know that some viruses and bacteria can live 2 hours or longer on surfaces like cafeteria tables, doorknobs, and desks. Frequent hand washing will help you reduce the chance of getting contamination from these common surfaces. What can I do to protect myself from getting sick? There is no vaccine available right now to protect against swine flu. There are everyday actions that can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza. Take these everyday steps to protect your health: Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way. Try to avoid close contact with sick people. If you get sick with influenza, CDC recommends that you stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them. What is the best way to keep from spreading the virus through coughing or sneezing? If you are sick, limit your contact with other people as much as possible. Do not go to work or school if ill. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. It may prevent those around you from getting sick. Put your used tissue in the waste basket. Cover your cough or sneeze if you do not have a tissue. Then, clean your hands, and do so every time you cough or sneeze. What is the best way to keep from spreading the virus through coughing or sneezing? If you are sick, limit your contact with other people as much as possible. Do not go to work or school if ill. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. It may prevent those around you from getting sick. Put your used tissue in the waste basket. Cover your cough or sneeze if you do not have a tissue. Then, clean your hands, and do so every time you cough or sneeze. What is the best technique for washing my hands to avoid getting the flu? Washing your hands often will help protect you from germs. Wash with soap and water. or clean with alcohol-based hand cleaner. we recommend that when you wash your hands -- with soap and warm water -- that you wash for 15 to 20 seconds. When soap and water are not available, alcohol-based disposable hand wipes or gel sanitizers may be used. You can find them in most supermarkets and drugstores. If using gel, rub your hands until the gel is dry. The gel doesn't need water to work; the alcohol in it kills the germs on your hands. What should I do if I get sick? If you live in areas where swine influenza cases have been identified and become ill with influenza-like symptoms, including fever, body aches, runny nose, sore throat, nausea, or vomiting or diarrhea, you may want to contact their health care provider, particularly if you are worried about your symptoms. Your health care provider will determine whether influenza testing or treatment is needed.

3 If you are sick, you should stay home and avoid contact with other people as much as possible to keep from spreading your illness to others. If you become ill and experience any of the following warning signs, seek emergency medical care. In children emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include: Fast breathing or trouble breathing Bluish skin color Not drinking enough fluids Not waking up or not interacting Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough Fever with a rash In adults, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include: Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen Sudden dizziness Confusion Severe or persistent vomiting How serious is swine flu infection? Like seasonal flu, swine flu in humans can vary in severity from mild to severe. Between 2005 until January 2009, 12 human cases of swine flu were detected in the U.S. with no deaths occurring. However, swine flu infection can be serious. In September 1988, a previously healthy 32-year-old pregnant woman in Wisconsin was hospitalized for pneumonia after being infected with swine flu and died 8 days later. A swine flu outbreak in Fort Dix, New Jersey occurred in 1976 that caused more than 200 cases with serious illness in several people and one death. Can I get swine influenza from eating or preparing pork? No. Swine influenza viruses are not spread by food. You cannot get swine influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork products is safe.

4 La influenza porcina y usted ~QuC es la influenza porcina? La influenza porcina (gripe porcina) es una enfermedad respiratoria en cerdos causada por 10s virus de la influenza tipo A. Los brotes de infecciones de influenza porcina ocurren con frecuencia en 10s cerdos. Por lo general las personas no se contagian de influenza porcina, per0 pueden ocurrir, y en efecto han ocurrido, infecciones en 10s seres humanos. En su mayoria, 10s casos de influenza porcina en seres humanos ocurren en personas que estan en contacto cercano con cerdos, per0 es posible que 10s virus de la influenza porcina se propaguen tambien de persona a persona. ;Se han presentado casos de infecciones por influenza porcina en seres humanos en 10s Estados Unidos? A finales de marzo y a principios de abril del 2009, se reportaron por primera vez casos de infecciones del virus de la influenza porcina tipo A (HlNl) en seres humanos en el sur de California y cerca de San Antonio, Texas. Los CDC y las agencias de salud estatales y locales estan trabajando conjuntamente en la investigacion de esta situacion. ;Este virus de la influenza porcina es contagioso? Los CDC han determinado que este virus es contagioso y se esta propagando de persona a persona. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, se desconoce la facilidad con que este virus se transmite entre las personas. ;Culles son 10s signos y sintomas de la influenza porcina en las personas? Los sintomas de la influenza porcina en las personas son similares a 10s sintomas de la influenza comun en seres humanos que incluyen fiebre, tos, dolor de garganta, dolores en el cuerpo, dolor de cabeza, escalofiios y fatiga. Algunas personas han reportado sintomas de diarrea y vomito asociados a la influenza porcina. En el pasado se han reportado enfermedades graves (neumonia e insuficiencia respiratoria) y muertes en casos de influenza porcina en las personas. Como ocurre con la influenza estacional, la influenza porcina puede agravar las afecciones cronicas subyacentes. ;Qu6 tan grave es la infeccion por la influenza porcina? A1 igual que ocurre con la influenza estacional, la intensidad de la influenza porcina en 10s seres humanos puede variar de leve a grave. Entre el 2005 y enero del2009, se detectaron 12 casos de influenza porcina en seres humanos en 10s Estados Unidos, sin muertes reportadas. Sin embargo, las infecciones por influenza porcina pueden ser graves. En septiembre de 1988, en Wisconsin una mujer sana de 32 aiios de edad que estaba embarazada h e hospitalizada por pulmonia despues de contraer la influenza porcina y fallecio 8 dias despues. En 1976, en Fort Dix, Nueva Jersey se present0 un brote de influenza porcina que causo mas de 200 casos de enfermedades graves en varias personas y una muerte. se contrae la influenza porcina? La propagaci6n de la influenza porcina puede ocurrir de dos formas: Por el contacto con cerdos infectados o con ambientes contaminados con 10s virus de la influenza porcina. A travcs del contacto con una persona que tenga influenza porcina. Tambien se han documentado casos de transmision del virus de la influenza porcina de persona a persona y se Cree que ocurre de la misma forma en que se transmite la influenza o gripe estacional. La influenza se piensa que se propaga principalmente de persona a persona cuando las personas infectadas tosen o estornudan. ;Hay medicamentos para tratar la influenza porcina? Si. Los CDC recomiendan el uso de oseltamivir o zanamivir para la prevencion o el tratamiento de la infeccion por estos virus de la influenza porcina. Los medicamentos antivirales son medicamentos recetados (comprimidos, en forma liquida o en inhalador) que combaten la influenza a1 evitar que 10s virus de esta enfermedad se reproduzcan en el cuerpo. Si usted se enferma, 10s medicamentos antivirales pueden

5 hacer que su enfermedad sea mas leve y que usted se sienta mejor en forma mas rapida. Tambien pueden prevenir las complicaciones graves de la influenza. Si se usan para el tratamiento, 10s medicamentos antivirales funcionan mejor si se administran poco despues de haber empezado la enfermedad (a 10s 2 dias a partir de que aparecen 10s sintomas). ipor cuanto tiempo puede una persona infectada propagar la influenza a otras? Se debe considerar que las personas infectadas por el virus de la influenza porcina son potencialmente contagiosas mientras manifiesten sintomas y posiblemente hasta 7 dias despues de que aparezcan 10s mismos. Los niiios, especialmente 10s m h pequeiios, pueden ser mas contagiosos durante periodos mas largos. ~QuC puedo hacer para evitar enfermarme? En el momento no hay disponible una vacuna contra la influenza porcina. Hay medidas que usted puede tomar diariamente para ayudar a prevenir la propagacion de germenes que causan enfermedades respiratorias como la influenza. Siga estos pasos todos 10s dias para proteger su salud: Cubrase la boca y la nariz con un paiiuelo desechable a1 toser o estornudar. Bote el paiiuelo a la basura despues de usarlo. Lavese las manos a menudo con agua y jabh, especialmente despues de toser o estornudar. Los desinfectantes para manos a base de alcohol tambien son eficaces. Trate de evitar el contacto cercano con personas enferrnas. Si se enferma de influenza, 10s CDC recomiendan que se quede en casa, que no vaya a1 trabajo o a la escuela y que limite el contacto con otras personas para evitar infectarlas. Trate de no tocarse 10s ojos, la nariz ni la boca. Esta es la manera en que se propagan 10s gtrmenes. ~QuC deb0 hacer si me enfermo? Si usted vive en el condado San Diego o Imperial en California o en el de Guadalupe en Texas y se enferma manifestando sintomas parecidos a la de influenza, que incluyan fiebre, dolores en el cuerpo, secreciones nasales, dolor de garganta, nauseas, vomito o diarrea, puede contactar a su proveedor de atencion mtdica, en especial si le preocupan sus sintomas. Su personal de cuidados medicos determinara si es necesario hacerle pruebas de detection de la influenza o darle tratamiento. Si esd enfermo, se debe quedar en casa y evitar el contacto con otras personas tanto como sea posible para evitar propagar su enfermedad a otros. Si se enferma y presenta alguno de 10s siguientes signos de advertencia, busque atencion mtdica de inmediato. En 10s niiios, 10s principales signos de emergencia que requieren atencion medica inmediata son: Respiracion rapida o dificultad para respirar. Color azulado en la piel. Poco consumo de liquidos. No se levanta ni interachia con otras personas. Irritabilidad extrema que hace que el niiio estd tan molesto que no quiere que lo carguen. Sintomas parecidos a 10s de la influenza que se mejoran per0 que reaparecen con fiebre y tos mis grave. Fiebre con sarpullido.

6 En 10s adultos, 10s principales signos de emergencia que requieren atencion medica inmediata son: Dificultad para respirar o falta de aliento. Dolor o presion en el pecho o abdomen. Mareo repentino. Confusion. Vomitos fuertes o persistentes. ime puede dar influenza porcina por comer o preparar carne de cerdo? No. Los virus de la influenza porcina no se transmiten por 10s alimentos. Usted no puede contraer influenza porcina por comer came de cerdo o sus productos derivados. No hay riesgos si se come came de cerdo y sus derivados que han sido manipulados y cocinados de manera adecuada. Se puede obtener mhs information sobre la influenza porcina en \\ \\ \\.cdc go\ flu >\\ Ine, o llamando a CDC-INFO.

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