My Brief Historic Guide about New York

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1 My Brief Historic Guide about New York by Manuel Sánchez Valiente Solo he estado dos veces en Nueva York New York aunque tengo la sensación feeling de haber estado allí toda mi vida. Aun no he logrado saber por que me atrae tanto. Quizá sea por su cosmopolitismo, quizá por la vista de sus rascacielos en el horizonte skyline, quizá por el estilo de vida de sus gentes o quizá por las experiencias que mi abuelo materno contaba de la ciudad en su etapa de emigrante a principios del siglo XX. De la misma forma que uno desconoce los motivos por los que se enamora de alguien, y lo único importante es pasar el resto de su existencia con esa persona; nunca me pregunto I nerver question myself porqué siempre quise vivir allí; por eso volveré a Nueva York siempre que tenga la menor ocasión. Mucha gente prepara su jubilación en lugares tranquilos. Yo, en cambio, sueño con finalizar mis días en la Gran Manzana The Big Apple. Quizá sea una quimera o un amor platónico, no lo sé, pero soñar sigue siendo gratis. Con esta guía quiero transmitirte mis sensaciones sobre Nueva York, a través de sus edificios buildings, de sus barrios neighborhoods/zones, de su corta pero interesante historia, de sus museos museums, de su ambiente atmosphere, de sus espectáculos, de sus tiendas, de sus parques, del pulso vital de sus gentes No alcanzo a ver si con tus 16 ó 17 años tendrás una percepción de Nueva York similar a las de un profesor de secundaria con 49 años a cuestas; de lo que estoy seguro es que Nueva York no te dejará indiferente. Tienes mucha suerte de poder estudiar aquí inglés durante tres semanas, no solo con tus compañeros del IES Julián Marías, sino con gente de todos los rincones del mundo. Espero que la guía te ayude a conocerla mejor; quizá, como nos pasó a muchos, te rindas a su encanto. Puede que algún día te veas trabajando en alguno de sus imponentes rascacielos skyscrapers, o representando alguna obra de teatro en Broadway, o asistiendo a una reunión attending a meeting en la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas, o investigando en alguna de sus prestigiosas universidades; puede que hasta consigas el Premio Nóbel Nobel Prize de Medicina como Severo Ochoa. Dicen que es la ciudad donde todo es posible everything is possible; sólo tienes que desearlo y trabajar duro working hard. En que consiste la vida sino el hacer que nuestros sueños se vuelvan realidad making our dreams come true? Disfrútala! 0. Introducción,,,,,,,,,,,,,,-1-1. Lower Manhattan,,,,,,,,,-2-2. Midtown Manhattan,,,,,,-9-3. Upper Manhattan,,,,,,,, Harlem,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Some more help,,,,,,,,,,-21-

2 0. Introduction New York City (NYC) is one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. It has a significant impact on global commerce, finance, media, culture, art, fashion, research, education and entertainment. NYC is neither the capital of the USA (it is Washington), nor is NYC the capital of the state of New York (it is Albany); however it s considered the Capital of the World for most people. Perhaps because more than 800 different languages are spoken in this melting pot crisol de culturas. Located on a large natural harbor puerto natural on the Atlantic coast of the States, NYC consists of five boroughs: New York s Five Boroughs Borough of Population (2009) Area (Km 2 ) Manhattan 1,629, The Bronx 1,397, Brooklyng 2,567, Queens 2,306, Staten Island 491, NYC City 8,391, State of NY 19,541, ,284 Our visit will focus on the island of Manhattan (14x3 Km) flanked by Hudson River and East River. From Southwest to Northeast Manhattan is divided into four areas: Lower, Midtown, Upper and Harlem. We ll dedicate a chapter to each of them. Sabes por qué a los neoyorquinos de fuera de Manhattan los llaman barbecues (BBQS)?

3 1. Lower Manhattan Manhattan se organiza en 12 avenidas Avenues paralelas que corren de N. (North o Upper) a S. (South o Lower) y se numeran de E. (East) a O. (West). También hay 155 calles Streets perpendiculares a las anteriores que se numeran del S. al N. La 5ª Avenida Fifth Av. la espina dorsal de la isla; desde ella las calles comienzan su numeración hacia el E. (ej. 15E) o hacia el O. (ej. 213W). Sólo una avenida atraviesa Manhattan diagonalmente, es un camino ancho Broadway, antiguamente utilizado por los amerindios para comunicar lo que ellos llamaban en su idioma algonquino Maniata (pequeña isla) con las tierras del norte. El Lower llega hasta la 14 St y es la zona donde comenzó la historia de la ciudad cuando en la primera mitad del s. XVII se establecieron aquí los holandeses una colonia llamada Nueva Ámsterdam. Entre los siglos XVII y XVIII la rivalidad marítima entre holandeses e ingleses acabó con la victoria de éstos últimos, que la rebautizaron como Nueva York, ya que el rey Carlos II de Inglaterra se la donó a su hermano, el Duque de York. Hasta finales del s. XVIII fue escenario de importantes batallas de la Guerra de la Independencia (el 4 de Julio de 1776 se declara la independencia Independence Day) del Imperio Británico protagonizadas por George Washington que sería nombrado el primer presidente 1 st President de los EE.UU. en el balcón del Federal Hall. Nueva york fue la capital de los EE.UU. desde 1785 al En 1797 la capital del estado se trasladó a Albany. En el s. XIX la población de la New York tiene una rápida expansión, debido a la llegada masiva de inmigrantes de todo el mundo atraídos por el dinamismo económico de la ciudad. En 1835 se convierte la ciudad más poblada de los EE.UU. También fue un escenario clave en la Guerra de Secesión Civil War ( ). En la primera mitad del s. XX se convierte en un centro de envergadura internacional a nivel industrial, comercial, de comunicaciones, deportivo y cultural con el alcalde La Guardia. Continúan las oleadas de inmigrantes (entran unos 17 millones por Ellis Island). En 1950 llegó a ser la ciudad más grande del mundo con 12 millones de habitantes. Como consecuencia sufre choques raciales que en los 60 y 70 la convierten en una ciudad de alta criminalidad. A pesar de las graves crisis económicas como la de 1929 y la de 1975, la ciudad se recupera continuamente modificando completamente su skyline con la construcción de multitud de rascacielos skyscrapers (sobre todo en los años 30). En los 80 la bolsa de Nueva York Wall Street renace y la criminalidad disminuye drásticamente en los 90 con el alcalde Giuliani. A comienzos del siglo XXI (el 11 de Septiembre de 2001) se produjo el ataque terrorista de las torres gemelas Twin Towers del Word Trade Center don de murieron casi 3000 personas. Hoy se sigue trabajando en la Zona O Ground Zero en la construcción de la Freedom Tower y en la revitalización de todo el Lower con la fuerza y el optimismo que siempre caracterizo a Nueva York. Las principales rutas a pie son: Statue of Liberty & Ellis Island Financial District & WTC Civic Centre & Brooklyn Bridge Greenwich Village Other areas in Lower

4 1.1. Statue of Liberty & Ellis Island Desde Grand Central Station tomamos la linea 4 hacia el Sur y nos bajamos en Bowling Green. Bowling Green fue el primer parque que tuvo la ciudad, utilizado como campo de bolos desde En frente está la US Coustom House, edificio de aduanas que hoy se ha convertido en el Museo Nacional de los Indios Americanos Nacional Museum of American Indians. Las 4 esculturas de la entrada, que representan los continentes de Asia, América, Europa y África, fueron creadas por Daniel Chester French, que después diseñaría la enorme escultura del Lincoln Memorial en Washington DC. En la entrada a Battery Park se puede ver una enorme esfera de bronce salvada de entre los escombros de las Torres Gemelas. Este bonito parque fue en principio una fortaleza construida por los holandeses para defenderse de los ataques ingleses. Llegamos hasta el Castle Clinton, al lado del embarcadero donde sacaremos los tiques para navegar hasta Liberty Island y Ellis Island en el New York Harbor The Statue of Liberty was designed by French sculptor Bartholdi, who used his mother s face and his girlfriend s arms as models. It steel skeleton was engineered by Eiffel. The monument was erected in It was a present from France in order to demonstrate its support for American independence. Apart from being a symbol of the city, the colossal figure became a symbol of welcome to millions of immigrants. Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breath free Ellis Island is near Liberty Island. Between 1892 and 1943, 17 million immigrants from all continents arrived to The States. The main causes were: escaping from poverty, political and religious persecution or wars in their native countries. When immigrants arrived to New York harbor, the Statue of Liberty greeted them with her right hand holding a flaming torch, her 7 spiked crown that jets out into the sky (one for each sea and continent) and a tablet in her left hand (upon which is written the date the United States declared its independence, July 4, It represented power, wealth and freedom. After seeing this they had to land in this small island. All Immigrants had to stay in Ellis Island in the River Hudson before they were allowed to enter Manhattan and start a new life. They had all arrived to America looking for a better life, for themselves and their families. But the American dream would have to wait in this small place. Firstly Ellis Island only had a main building where Immigration Committee s staff controlled the immigration in The United States. Later, due to the large waves of immigrants, far more space was needed. Therefore, two artificial isles were built next to the original one. Both were built by earth taken from the subway tunnels and the Grand Central Station excavation. Some of the new buildings included: a hospital, a baggage station, an electric plant, kitchens, a bathhouse, dormitories, etc. Service officers, interpreters, clerks, guards, cooks, maintenance staff, doctors and nurses shaped the Immigration Committee s staff. Sometime raised 800 people and dealt with 1500 immigrants in only one day. Today, the main building has been restored and converted into the American Museum of Immigration in the memory of those people who helped build modern America. However, to the immigrants it was the isle of hope and the isle of tears.

5 - 4 - Some emigrant couldn t afford to pay for tickets because their incomes were very low. Big steamship companies brought immigrants to New York Harbor in three types of accommodations: first class, second class and steerage (lowest fares). The experience in steerage was like a nightmare. The conditions were so crowded, unsanitary and smelly. The voyage was very long and most of them caught illnesses and diseases. Mortality increases 10% in ships. In spite of their miserable conditions, emigrants passed the time playing cards, singing, dancing However, most immigrants were in a state of shock: physically, mentally and emotionally. They had one thing in common: the hope for a new life in the New World: The American Dream. They landed in Staten Island bringing the luggage that was their only possessions and formed lines outside the main building. First and second-class passengers were quickly and courteously inspected on board the ship before being transferred to Manhattan. Only steerage passengers were processed at Ellis Island. Later, they went into the most impressive room in the building: the registry room, which was big and with a vaulted ceiling. There, immigrants had to show legal papers, to pass lots of controls and to answer a lot of questions: race, name, age, sex and nationality, marital status, occupation, ability to read and write, physical and mental health, whether they had ever been in prison, if they were polygamists The majority didn t understand English. Dozens of languages and different dialects were spoken. Interpreters had to work hard. The average number of languages spoken by an interpreter was six. Everybody had to pass physically and psychological examinations. Doctors looked at face, hair, neck and hands. Also oculists looked for symptoms of trachoma, an eye disease that caused blindness and even death (cause of deportation). People who didn t pass the test or weren t healthy have to rest at hospital in Ellis, some times for months until their problems finished. Immigrants felt worried and tired during the long wait. Only children were very happy. They spent their time learning English, playing and watching movies. Adults walked around Ellis Island and looked at Manhattan anxiously. Finally, most of them passed the tests, and when the immigrant official said them: Welcome to America, they become very happy because they were free to go. Their journey was complete. Ellis for them was the isle of hope. Only 2% didn t get pass the test for several reasons: physical or mental illness or criminal backgrounds. They were deported to their original countries. Ellis for them was the isle of tiers. In Manhattan they started a new life in the most powerful and free country in the world. Some of them moved to different States to settle there. Entire families often couldn t afford to leave their original country. Thus, it was very common for the father moved alone to America (to get a job and make some money) before his wife and family got joined with him. that s the case of this man (photograph on the bottom). He had come to New York in After a year working as electrician, he received bad news from Spain: his wife had caught a bad illness and she was at death s door. He came back to Spain and when he got his small village, his wife had just died. He looked after his son and later he got married again. He never went back to The States but he felt homesick from New York until his death in Who was this man? I ll give you a clue: If his first wife hadn t died, I wouldn t have been born.

6 1.2. Financial District & WTC En este entramado de callejas comenzó la historia de esta ciudad hace 400 años. Ya he contado que los holandeses fundaron aquí Nueva Ámsterdam. Para los norteamericanos este distrito es como para nosotros los el centro de cualquiera de nuestras antiguas ciudades europeas (claro que con bastante menos antigüedad). George Washington, el primer presidente de los EE.UU., rezó en las iglesias de este distrito (St. Paul s Chapel) y comió en sus tabernas (Fraunces Tavern). Aunque más que por su historia, este barrio es conocido, desde mediados del s XIX, como el centro financiero y comercial más poderoso del planeta. In other words: The symbol of money Wall Street gets its name from a wooden wall built there by the Dutch in 1653 as protection against attacks by English colonies to the north. The name become famous after 1865 when the New York Stock Exchange La Bolsa de NY established its permanent home at the intersection of Wall and Broad Streets. At that intersection, on September 16, 1920, a horse-drawn cart exploded in the middle of a crowd. The blast killed 40 people and wounded hundreds more; it was thought to be the act of anarchists. A battalion of sweepers and repairmen worked through the night, so the next day, Wall Street workers, many with bandages, returned to business as usual. The statue of George Washington, erected on the spot where he was appointed as the 1 st U.S. president in 1789, weathered the bombing without a scratch and still presides over the hub of American capitalism. The building behind the statue is Federal Hall, a magnificent Greek Revival edifice built in It is an important historical site and has had many uses over the years: City Hall, U.S. Government ( ), Custom House and Federal Reserve Bank. Trinity Church was built at the head of Wall Street in 1697 as a colonial outpost of the English Anglican Church. When Trinity's first tower was erected, it was the tallest structure in Manhattan. It was burned down in 1776, in a fire most likely started by American rebels during the British occupation of New York City in the Revolutionary War. It was rebuilt in English Gothic style. The front door is in Broadway Av. Robert Fulton ( ), the American engineer who invented the steamboat and designed the Nautilus which was the first practical submarine submarino in history, barco de vapor is buried in its cemetery. Stock Exchange building has 6 monumental Corinthian columns almost always covered by a huge U.S. flag. The NYSE (New York Stock Exchange) is the largest stock market in the world and the first number of signatory companies. Its share volume was exceeded by that of NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation la bolsa de valores electrónica más grande de los EE.UU.) which has its headquarters in Times Square. There are lost of impressive skyscrapers in this area. My favourite is the formally named The Bank of Manhattan Trust Building (today Trump Building). It contains 70 floors and was built in only 11 months in It was part of a race to be the tallest building in the world. It surpassed the nearby Woolworth, built in 1913 and which had been the tallest until But soon, it was surpassed by the Chrysler in the same year which was also surpassed by the Empire State Building in Other important sky skyscrapers in this zone are: Downtown or old Morgan Bank with 42 stories (now luxury condos). The Bank of New York (1 st bank on Wall Street) One Liberty Plaza is a black 54 floor skyscraper built in 1973 located in the beautiful demolished Singer Building, next to the Ground Zero. Before visiting it, you can t miss The Charging Bull located in Bowling Green in Broadway Av. It s a big bronze sculpture, symbol of aggressive financial optimism and prosperity. It s a Wall Street icon. The Word Trade Centre (WTC) Centro Mundial de Comercio was sponsored by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. There stood the Twin Towers from 1972 until the September 11, 2001, both disappeared after the attacks by the terrorist organization Al Qaeda, led by Osama Bin Laden. About 3000 innocent people died horrifically in this attack. It was an architectural feat, very windresistant, smart open offices, equipped with innovative safety systems, with almost half a Kilometre high and 110 stories each; with more than 50 thousand workers and 100 thousand visitors daily. In spite of the tragedy, New Yorkers have recovered powerfully as they ve always done: They returned to their usual work the day after the Wall Street bombing in 1920, they built the highest skyscrapers after the 1929 recession, and after September 11 th tragedy Lower regained its glory and they re currently finishing a New WTC with a new landmark: Freedom Tower. Sabes cómo se titula una película muy relacionada con esta zona y en la que Michael Douglas ganó un Oscar al mejor actor principal?

7 1.3. Civic Centre & Brooklyn Bridge Después de haber visto la parte del WTC a orillas del Hudson, con el Winter Garden de cara al pequeño puerto deportivo, visitamos St. Paul s Chapel, construida en 1766 y que conserva el asiento usado por G. Washington el 30 de Abril de 1789, día en que tomó posesión de su cargo como primer presidente de los EE.UU. Esta iglesia, enfrente de la Zona 0 sirvió de refugio a todos los que trabajaron en la dura labor de desescombro del atentado a las Torres Gemelas. Cruzando Fulton Street llegamos a otro importante conjunto de edificios gubernamentales y de justicia (Civic Centre) con salida peatonal al impresionante Puente de Brooklyn (Brookyn Bridge). Woolworth Building had been the tallest structure in the world for 17 years. It was built in 1913 above Broadway Av. and City Hall Park. It was created by F. W. Woolworth, the founder of the five-anddime chain cadena de tiendas de 5 y 10 centavos (algo como nuestras todo a 100 ). Called the Cathedral of Commerce, it has Gothic pointed arches and a pinnacle crown. The more I look at its 60 stories the more I like its Gothic facade. City Hall Ayuntamiento is a small classical building in the middle of the Park. It was built in 1811 and it was saved of demolition in one of the city s earliest historic preservation campaigns; the elegant building is still the centre of government, where New York City s Mayor and city council conduct their daily business as they have done for two centuries. Michael R. Bloomberg is the current Mayor of New York City since 2002, after the former R. Giuliani. The budget of NYC is 50 billion dollars/year, the highest in the U.S., even higher than counties like Switzerland or Israel. The city employs 250,000 people and dedicates about 15 billon dollars to education of 1.1 million children. Old Courthouse antiguo Palacio de Justicia is another old building behind City Hall in Chamber Street. It s more commonly known as the Tweed Courthouse, built in the American Victorian style in 1872 with funds obtained by the infamous William M. Boss Tweed who was the king of kickbacks. This corrupt man wore a large diamond in his shirtfront. He died in prison. Nowadays the building has been refurbished for the Department of Education and City Hall Academy as a school offering programs for students and teachers. Municipal Building rises 183 m. above the Civic Centre. It s crowned by a golden statue called Civic Fame. It was also the first building in NYC to be built with a subway station inside. New York County State Supreme Courthouse Palacio de Justicia del Condado de Nueva York and U.S. Federal Courthouse Palacio Federal de Justicia de los EE.UU. are two emblematic buildings located in Foley Square. The first one, with its 10 pillars of justice and its steps, has been the stage of countless films. From the Civic Centre you can easily get to: Brooklyn Bridge opened in May It was designed by the German-born engineer J. Augustus Roebling; his son Washington Roebling had to finish the work after his father who died in an accident along with other 20 workers; also injured, the younger Roebling became invalid and, with his wife s help, supervised the project from his bedside window across the river in Brooklyn. It took 14 years to complete and cost $16 million (3 times the original estimate). Its cables were spun from steel (a material still new in the mid-nineteenth century). During 19th century New Yorkers crossed the bridge on horse-drawn carts, cable cars and electric trains. In 1953, the deck was strengthened to bear the weight of increased motor traffic. The powerful cables and stone arches frame fascinating views of the city. South Street Seaport was the heart of the Port of NYC for most of the 19th century. The East River waterfront was full of tall-masted sailing ships. It was a crowded, rowdy neighbourhood of maritime shops, boarding houses, saloons and hotels. Since the 1890s larger vessels were moving to new docks and deeper water on the Hudson River. Today, a small fleet of historic ships preserves a sense of the old port. The Peking is one of these historic ships. You can t miss the atmosphere at the Pier 17 where I recommend for have a good dinner and taking nocturnal photos with the Brooklyn Bridge background. South Street Ferry Terminal: Before and even after the bridges were built, dozens of ferry lines connected Manhattan and other NY boroughs. Except for the Staten Island Ferry, all lines stopped running after the World War II. Nowadays, the service is free and 24 hours a day. Many Wall Street office workers enjoy a refreshing boat ride to go work and go back. You must have your camera ready to take wonderful photos of night-time Manhattan when we come back from Staten Island. Es escena común en la película de 1988 Working Girl protagonizada por Melanie Griffith y Harrison Ford. Sabrías cuál es el título de esta película en español?

8 1.4. Greenwich Village Jefferson Market Desde la parada de metro 4th Street (blue&orange lines) comenzamos la visita a este barrio cultural y bohemio. The Village, como lo conoce todo el mundo, debe su nombre a los primeros colonos ingleses que aquí se establecieron a finales del s. XVII. Este barrio pierde la cuadrícula de NY, por lo que el plano de la figura nos ayudará a recorrerlo a pie. Durante el s XIX fue un barrio residencial de la alta sociedad, que, poco a poco se fue mudando a la 5Th Av. Entonces se empezaron a llegar intelectuales, de forma que a finales del s XIX y principios del s. XX se convirtió en un barrio bohemio. Escritores, NY University revolucionarios y creadores de todo tipo como: T.S. Eliot (Premio Nobel de Literatura), John Reed (periodista y dirigente obrero y fundador del Partido Laborista ), E. O Naial (Premio Nobel de Literatura, interpretado por Jack Nicholson en la película Los RoJos sobre la vida de J. Reed con cuya mujer mantuvo un romance), Washington Irving que vivió en el 11 Commerce St. (el autor de The Legend of Sleepy Hollow ambientada en Tarrytown; fue embajador en España entre y escribió también Cuentos de la Alambra, Historia de la Conquista de Granada y Biografía de Colón )... Todos ellos hicieron famosas las calles y tabernas de este barrio y lo vincularon a la cultura literaria Norteamericana. En 1969 nació en la Christopher St. El Movimiento de Liberación Gay. La plaza principal del Village, Washington Square, ha sido un lugar de protestas y manifestaciones de los más radicales. Así, enn 1917 un grupo del Club Liberal proclamó desde el Memorial Arch la República Independiente del Village con el fin de hacer de esta zona un lugar para el socialismo, la poesía, la conversación y el sexo. Al sur de Washington Square se encuentran los edificios de la mayor universidad privada de los EE.UU., la NY University. En la Facultad de Medicina de esta prestigiosa universidad trabajó desde 1941 hasta 1974 el bioquímico asturiano Severo Ochoa; fue el Director del Departamento de Farmacología ( ) y de Bioquímica ( ) y obtuvo el Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1959 por sus trabajos sobre la síntesis del ADN. El matrimonio Ochoa fue muy feliz en NY, de forma que adquirieron la doble nacionalidad española y estadounidense desde Efectivamente, de NY procede todo trabajo científico. En 1974 se trasladó como investigador distinguido al Instituto Roche de Biología Molecular en New Jersey. Murió en 1993 y está enterrado en su pueblo natal del Luarca (Asturias). Sin embargo, antes de su muerte, tuve la suerte de saludarle en persona. El 10 de marzo de 1988 llegó a Valladolid invitado por D. José Mª Recio Pascual, mi director de tesis de licenciatura, con motivo de ser nombrado Doctor Honoris Causa por la Universidad de Valladolid al día siguiente. Entró en el laboratorio donde estábamos trabajando, era muy alto, jamás olvidaré su mirada inteligente, su saludo firme, sus buenos consejos y sobre todo su gran humildad a pesar de ser un Premio Nobel. El Doctor Ochoa hablaba así de NY: Nueva York es la ciudad más estimulante del mundo porque lo ofrece todo, absolutamente todo, hasta lo que se puede soñar; y no solo para el científico, sino para el intelectual, Nueva York es el centro del mundo también, en cuanto a exhibiciones de arte, de buen teatro, ópera, música sinfónica y de cámara, Las condiciones que tengo en Nueva York no las tendría en ninguna parte.

9 1.5. Other areas in Lower No podemos abandonar el Lower sin conocer otras de sus interesantes zonas. Aquí, como en el Village, no hay rascacielos o edificios demasiado especiales, sin embargo, pasear por ellas te ayudará a comprender mejor el multiculturalismo de NY. Las revisaremos por orden de interés: Chinatown: Easily accessible from the Civic Center through Columbus Park (3 green) arriving at Chatham Square (3 orange) to the Manhattan Bridge s Gate in Confucius Plaza (1 orange), where there is a Buddhist Temple (1 blue). Almost half a million Chinese people live in this district which has 150 restaurants, 300 cloth factories, 12 Buddhist temples, 11 newspapers in Chinese, banks, theater companies, doctors and lawyers Chinese people working from morning to night in tiny spaces. The only holiday in the year is the Chinese New Year, celebrated on the first day of full moon after January 19 th. Chinatown has the lowest prices, the lowest crime rate and the lowest unemployment rate in NY. You'll see it's almost like being in Hong Kong. Its main streets are Canal Street, Grand Street and Mott Street. Little Italy: has been almost absorbed by Chinatown, but still retains the memory of the mafia in the streets. In one of its restaurants, the capo Joe Gallo was murdered in Grand Street and Mulberry Street are the most famous streets. An espresso with a cake cost as much as a big meal at the nearby Chinatown. Italians celebrate the Feast of San Genaro in September in this zone. TriBeCa: Acronym for Triangle Below Canal Street. It s an expensive neighborhood, full of smart people, most of them from Wall Street. The restaurants, dedicated to the nouvelle cuisine are the most expensive in NY. At 375 Greenwich St. corner Franklin St. is TriBeCa Film Center, where Robert de Niro, Steven Spielerg and Quincy Jones have their offices; TriBeCa Grill is a restaurant owned by Robert de NiroThe. J F. Kenedy Jr lived in this neighborhood until his death and Naomi Campbell had a house in this zone. Soho: Acronym for South Houdson St. Canal St. marks the border to the South, Lafayette St. to the East and Avenue of Americas (Six Av.) to the West. Greene St. is the center of the neighborhood with the most emblematic buildings of iron 19 th century, like Haughwout Building (corner of Broome St./Broadway). You can t miss Prada Store at 575 Broadway, where the Guggenheim once stood. Here there are many lofts, where artists installed their studios. Today there are luxury homes (more than $ 5000 monthly rent) Lower East Side: It was always a marginal neighborhood. Poor Jews came from Ellis Island in the 19 th century. Puerto Ricans, blacks, Chinese... came in the 20 th century. Their inhabitants call it Loisaida in spanglish. Today it is a nightlife district. You can also eat the best 'deli' around Manhattan in the Jewish restaurants here.

10 2. Midtown Manhattan El centro de Manhattan Midtown es el corazón de la ciudad de NY. Es casi un perfecto tablero de ajedrez: Abarca todas las áreas entre las calles 14 St y la 59 St cruzadas perpendicularmente por las Avenues, que desde el este E (East River) al oeste W (Hudson River) se llaman: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Drive, First Av, Second Av, Third Av, Lexinton Av, Park Av (la única con dos sentidos), Madison Av, Fifth Av (la espina dorsal de Manhattan, pasa por el extremo este de Central Park), Sixth Av, Seventh Av, Eighth Av, Ninth Av, Tenth Av, Eleventh Av, Twelfth Av y Broadway que cruza diagonalmente 4 avenidas en el Midtown (de la 4ª a la 8ª). En esta amplia zona de 12 Km 2 están los rascacielos más característicos de NY: la Plancha, el Chysler, el Empire (el más alto de NY) State, el Rockefeler Center, la Trup Tower Los mejores hoteles: el Plaza, el Waldorf Astoria Tres de las 4 más importantes cadenas de TV de los EE.UU. Grandes almacenes como los Macy s o los Bloomingdale s. También encontrarás en esta zona el cuartel general de la ONU, St. Patrick s Cathedral, el Madison Square Garden (el estadio más famoso de NY),la Biblioteca Pública de NY, el MOMA (el museo de arte moderno más importante del mundo), el portaviones Intrepid y un avión Concorde, las grandes estaciones de ferrocarril: Pensilvania Station y la Grand Central Station (tu punto de entrada y salida de Manhattan al venir de o volver a Tarrytown). Aparte de las elegantes zonas comerciales de la Quinta Avenida, donde están instaladas las grandes firmas, lo que sin duda caracteriza, no solo al Midtown, sino a todo NY es la intersección de Broadway con la Séptima Avenida: Times Square; hay quien lo considera el centro del mundo, otros dicen que es el cielo y el infierno juntos. Yo no tengo suficientes palabras para describírtelo, por eso prefiero que lo compruebes tu mismo Te diría que es como como Picadilly Circus de Londres o la Puerta el Sol de Madrid, pero a lo grande. Por si fuera poco, en este corazón del mundo se encuentra también el Theater District, el epicentro del teatro mundial. El Midtown, más que visitarse se disfruta. Aquí podrás ver un musical, subir de día y de noche a lo alto de gigantescos rascacielos, ver tiendas exclusivas, museos sorprendentes, podrás tomar un crucero alrededor de todo Manhattan, ver como se ruedan películas o programas de televisión en la calle, andar entre delegados internacionales de las Naciones Unidas o simplemente entre millones de turistas de todo el mundo. Por su gran extensión, haremos una visita por sectores acorde con su expansión en el S XIX; es decir, de sur a norte: From 14 th St to 23 rd St From 23 rd St to 34 th St From 34th St to 47 th St From 47 th St to 59 th St Do you know why I jumped Fourth Avenue in the description at the beginning of this chapter?

11 2.1. From 14 th Street to 23 rd Street Union Square: It was known for its workers rallies and mass political protests. But its name actually derives from its location at the union of Broadway and Fourth Av. The equestrian statue of G. Washington was erected in 1856, in the middle of 14 th Street and Fourth Av. that joins Bowery (in South) to Park Av. (goes to North to Harlem). During late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, it was an elegant area, where shops and theatres were set up. Macy s original department store and Tiffany s jewellery store were here before they both moved to uptown. The theatre district was here too. Then it became the meeting place of trade unions and some politicians (statues of Washington, Lincoln and Gandhi). In late 1986 it began to decline and the square was filled with drug dealers and criminals. Nowadays, it is back in vogue because an organic food market is set up here on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays. Flatiron Building La Plancha: Like the prow of a great ship, it was the first skyscraper in NY (20 stories tall like Duque de Lerma in Valladolid), and was built in 1903 on a triangular plot of land on 23 rd Street between Fifth Av and Broadway. It was officially called the Fuller Building, but soon become identified by its flatiron shape. On the right, it was the Fifth Avenue Hotel (demolished in 1908 and replace by an office building), the fist one in The States with elevators, at that time called vertical railway cars. Opened in 1858, the hotel had an elegant dining room where powerful politicians like where Theodore Roosevelt (26 th President ) held court. Gramercy Park: Between East 20 and 21 Streets. It was built in 1831 with Victorian buildings (which are imitations of residences from London). Today is the oldest private park in NY. Pete s Tavern (129 E 18 th Street) is nearby. It opened its doors in 1864 and it s the longest continuously operating bar and restaurant in NY. It even stayed open during Prohibition, disguised as a flower shop. The famous writer O. Henry wrote the classic Gift of The Magi here at his favorite booth at the front doors, in Madison Square Park: It bears no evidence of its historic connection either to the Statue of Liberty or Madison Square Garden (now on West 34 th Street). Named after President James Madison in 1987, the park was spruced up with many different statues of famous Americans. Today it is a pleasant urban oasis and a popular lunchtime spot for local office workers. But in the past it was the fist Madison Square Garden. Between 1876 and 1886 the Statue of Liberty s hand and torch was placed there in order to raise funds needed to build the pedestal. Arch of Freedom was built in 1919 to welcome soldiers home from World War I.

12 2.2. From 23 rd Street to 34 th Street Metropolitan Life Tower: A landmark skyscraper located at Madison Square. Built in 1909, the tower was modelled after the Campanile in Venice. It served as the world headquarters of the company until It was the world's tallest building for three years until 1913 when it was surpassed by the Woolworth Building N.Y. Life Insurance Building: Also located at Madison Square is the headquarters of the NY Life Insurance Company. Designed in 1926 and inspired in Salisbury Cathedral. The NY Life Insurance Company still maintains its headquarters here Penn Station: This monumental, two-block long classical temple was built in 1910, a time when railroad stations become as expansive as their operations throughout the nation. To build its first station in NYC, the Pennsylvania Railroad cut a tunnel under the Hudson River in 1904, connecting the island of Manhattan to the rest of the country. Like Grand Central, the city s other great train station in construction at this time, Pennsylvania Station was an engineering and architectural marvel. But the station was demolished in 1963 as a victim to changing times and new property values: automobiles outpaced train service. To those who remember the original Penn Station, the modern building is a sorry reminder of the loss of magnificent space. Although the station still operates beneath the ground, the monumental building and its vast waiting room are only a memory. Their loss led to a public outcry and the creation of the city s fist landmark protection law in Madison Square Garden: With maximum capacity of 19,522 people, it is built upon the remnants of Penn Station. Now in its fourth location designed by Charles Luckman, this entertainment complex also includes a theatre for 5,600 people, with two restaurants. You can get tickets for sporting events, concerts or plays in Empire State Building: It s a 102-story (443.2 mtall) landmark Art Deco skyscraper at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and W 34 th Street. Its name is derived from the nickname for NY: The Empire State. It stood as the world s tallest building for more than 40 years, from its completion in 1931 until the construction of the WTC s North Tower was completed in Following 11 th September in 2001, it became the tallest building in NYC again. It s currently the 3 rd tallest skyscraper in America (after Willis Tower and Trump Tower both in Chicago), and the 15 th tallest in the world. It s one of the Seven Wonders of Modern World. It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986 and in 2007, it was ranked number one on the List of America s favourites Architecture. The building is owned and managed by W&H Properties. It s currently undergoing a $550 million renovation, with $120 million used in an effort to transform the building into a more energy efficient and eco-friendly structure. The project involved 3,400 workers, mostly immigrants from Europe, along with hundreds of Mohawk iron workers, many from a reserve near Montreal. It has 6,500 windows and 73 elevators. Approximately 21 thousand employees work in it each day. It s heated by lowpressure. The lobby is 3-stories high and features an aluminium relief of the skyscraper. The exterior was built using Indiana limestone panels. It cost $41 billion to build. In 1964, floodlights were added to illuminate the top of the building, in colours chosen to match seasonal and other events, such as St. Patrick s Day, Christmas or Independence Day (July 4 th ); for example, on July 12 th, 2010, the floodlights were red, yellow and red, to celebrate Spain s victory at the FIFA Word Cup. The building s distinctive Art Deco spire was originally designed to be a mooring mast and depot for blimps. The 102 nd floor was originally a landing platform with a blimp gangplank. A large broadcast tower was added to the top of the spire in In 1945 a plane crashed between the 79 th and 80 th floors. Over the years, more than 30 people have committed suicide from the top of the building. Perhaps the most famous popular culture representation of the building is in 1933 film King Kong. It has one of the most popular observatories in the world. The 102 nd floor observation deck offers impressive 360º views of the city that you will be able to enjoy at night time. Macy s: Rowland Hussey Macy had opened the store in 1858 on Union Square, but he died before its full glory in 1905, when it was moved to the corner of Broadway, Sixth Av and 34th Street. Today, the company s red star logo covers the corner building. R.H. Macy, the founder, former whaler, had a red star tattooed on his hand. The rise of Bloomingdale s on the Upper East Side has attracted the city s wealthier clientele. But Macy s, still the best-known name in NY department stores. If I were you, I d have a look inside to find jeans and shirts at a good price.

13 2.3. From 34 th Street to 47 th Street NY Public Library & Bryant Park: It was built as a classical temple of books on a reservoir of 20 millions gallons of clean drinking water in The project was conceived in the late 19 th century, at time when municipal libraries were a civic luxury. Private donors pooled their resources in the 1980s and 1990s to restore the building s interior to its original splendour. Its 6 million books are housed outside of the building in multiple layers of stacks extending for miles under the adjacent Bryant Park; at where you can have a lunch while you read a book among yuppies, students, officers In the movie The day after tomorrow one of the main characters (actor Jake Gyllenhaal) has to protect inside the New York Public Library. Why? Grand Central Terminal: It ll be your gateway to between Manhattan and Tarrytown. It s situated between 42 nd and 46 th Streets in the middle of Park Avenue. When the first Grand Central Depot was built in 1871, the area was at the northern outskirts of the city, so critics complained that it was neither grand nor central. You can see the former building in the photo on the left. The new Grand Central Station was completed in 1913 as the crowning glory of Cornelius Vanderbilt s New York Central Railroad. C. Vanderbilt was an entrepreneur who made his fortune in shipping and railroads and is the founder of the renowned Vanderbilt family. He was born in Staten Island in a family of modest means. His ancestors, before immigrating to NY, were farmers in the village of Bilt (Holland); this name was added to the Dutch van der (of the). As a young boy, Cornelius worked on ferries in NYC, quitting school at the age of 11. By the age of 16, he was operating his own business, ferrying freight and passengers. He and his wife had 13 children. In the early 1860s, Vanderbilt started withdrawing capital from steamships and investing in railroads. He owned the New York Central and Harlem railroads. By 1873, he had connected Chicago to New York City. At the time of his death, in 1877, C. Vanderbilt's fortune was estimated at more than $100,000,000. Central Station, or shortened to simply Grand Central is the largest train station in the world by number of platforms: 44, with 67 tracks along them. They are on two levels, both below ground, with 41 tracks on the upper level and 26 on the lower, though the total number of tracks along platforms and in rail yards exceeds 100. The ter minal covers an area of 19 hectares. It serves commuters travelling on the Metro-North Railroad to Westchester, Putnam, and Dutchess counties in New York State, and Fairfield and New Haven counties in Connecticut. It is used by a half million people daily. The nicest area is the lobby of 1400 m long and 600 m wide with a barrel vault in which the constellations are painted. MetLife Building: Formerly known as the Panam Building it is one of the most notable Midtown skyscrapers due to its elongated octagonal shape. The building is directly attached to Grand Central Terminal, which provides an easy commute to those who work in it. Until the 1970s, the roof was used as a helipad, but was closed due to a helicopter accident which resulted in five deaths. Today, the MetLife Building takes its place as one of the most popular NYC skyline landmarks. Chrysler Building: Chrysler Building: Completed in 1930, the Chrysler Building was once the tallest building in the world - until it was surpassed by the Empire State Building a year later. With 1319 m high, it is without a doubt one of the most famous landmarks in the city. The building boasts 77 floors, 32 elevators. It is a good example of Art Deco architectural style. The distinctive ornate nature of the tower is based on the hubcaps then used in Chrysler cars. In each corner of floor 61 there is a gargoyle in the shape of an eagle. At the corners of the floor 31 there are replicas of the caps on the radiators of Chrysler cars. Originally built by the Chrysler Corporation, the building is presently co-owned by TMW Real Estate (75%) and Tishman Speyer Properties (25%). In my opinion is nicer than the Empire State. We can visit the lobby which is also elegant.

14 United Nations Headquarters: La Sede Principal de la ONU es un complejo de edificios situados de la 1ª Aenida hacia el East River y entre las calles 42 y 48. Se considera un territorio internacional aunque esté dentro de NYC. Sus lenguas oficiales son 6: árabe, chino, español, francés, inglés y ruso. El complejo fue construido en 1950 en los terrenos cedidos por la familia Rockefeller. El complejo comprende varios edificios: la más alta y característica es una torre acristalada en forma de caja de cerillas: la Torre de la Secretaría The Secretariat Tower, la cúpula de la Asamblea General, la librería Hammarskjöd, así como el centro de Conferencias y Visitantes que se sitúa entre el edificio de la Asamblea General y el rascacielos de la Secretaría. (Llegaremos andando desde la Grand Central; el horario de visitas guiadas (en español) de 9:15 a 16:45 los días laborables). Dentro de la valla perimetral del complejo están todas las banderas de los 192 estados miembros ordenadas alfabéticamente por su nombre en inglés. La ONU es una organización de estados soberanos que se afilian voluntariamente para colaborar en la paz mundial, promover la amistad entre todas las naciones y apoyar el progreso económico y social. Se crea el 24 de octubre de 1945, al término de la 2ª Guerra Mundial con 51 países. El término Naciones Unidas fue acuñado por el Presidente de los EE.UU. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Hoy en día son estados miembros prácticamente todos los países del mundo. En realidad no se trata de un parlamento de naciones ya que no es una entidad por encima de los estados, ni un gobierno de gobiernos. No cuenta con ejército propio y no recauda impuestos. La ONU está sujeta a la voluntad política de sus miembros para la aplicación de las decisiones y depende de sus aportaciones para la ejecución de sus actividades. Abarca 6 órganos principales: 1. Asamblea General 2. Consejo de Seguridad 3. Consejo Económico y Social 4. Consejo de Administración Fiduciaria 5. Corte Internacional de Justicia 6. Secretaría También se encuentran dentro del Sistema de las Naciones Unidas varios programas, fondos y agencias especializadas. Para mantener las actividades de este Sistema se cuenta con un presupuesto que se establece cada dos años, aprobado por la Asamblea General. La figura principal de la ONU es el Secretario General. El actual es Ban Ki-moon de Corea del Sur, que asumió el puesto el 1 de enero de 2007, reemplazando a Kofi Annan de Ganha. La sede europea, y segunda sede mundial, se encuentra en Ginebra (Suiza). Las Naciones Unidas desempeñan un papel central en varios asuntos de interés general tales como: PRINCIPALES CONTRIBUYENTES EE.UU. JAPÓN ALEMANIA R. UNIDO FRANCIA ITALIA CANADÁ ESPAÑA CHINA MEXICO COREA S. P. BAJOS AUSTRALIA BRASIL SUIZA Reducir las tensiones internacionales Prevenir conflictos Poner fin a las hostilidades que ya se hayan producido Legislar sobre el medio ambiente, el espacio ultraterrestre y los fondos marinos Erradicar enfermedades Incrementar la producción de alimentos Atender y proteger a los refugiados Luchar contra el analfabetismo Reaccionar rápidamente en situaciones de desastres naturales Establecer normas mundiales en materia de derechos humanos Proteger y promover los derechos de todas las personas Por esta labor y los grandes logros de la Organización y sus agencias especializadas, así como diversos personajes relacionados con la ONU, se les ha reconocido con el Premio Nobel de la Paz. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights United Nations General Assembly adopted 'UDHR in 1948 after Second World War. What is the meaning of this acronym?

15 Times Square and the Theatre District: You can reach the area by subway (1, 2, 3, 7, N, Q, R, W to 42 nd St. Times Square stop) or walking from Grand Central. The area called Times Square covers the space between Broadway and 7th Av. and 42nd and 46th Streets. It never sleeps and it s the heart of NYC and the centre of the world for many people. It was originated from the fact that the prestigious newspaper New York Times founded its headquarters here. There are one fifth of the hotels in the city are standing close to this location. Times Square is also the centre of the Theatre District where hosts the famous Broadway Theatres. Here, in the heart of Manhattan, you will find many of the most popular attractions in NYC, including ABC's Times Square Studios, where TV breaking news: Good Morning America is filmed and the famous NASDAQ sign. A popular tourist attraction for over 100 years, Times Square NYC is always packed with people. Because of the thick crowds, it's easy to get lost or separated from your group. That's why we recommend studying our map of Times Square, below. V-J (Victory over Japan) Day in Times Square, a photograph by Alfred Eisenstaedt, was published in Life in The atmosphere in the area has been always charged with vice and corruption especially since the Great Depression era of the 1930's. But things really started to decline from the 1960's up until the 1980's. It was in the 80's that thing started to turn around for the better. A commercial building boom was underway in the area which set the stage for a concerted 'clean up' effort spearheaded a few years later by then mayor Rudolph Giuliani. Since that point Times Square has become much more tourist friendly, safer and cleaner. Sometimes known as the "Crossroads of the World," it has become a focal point for tourists from all over the world and is renowned for its spectacular digital advertisements that line the main corridors along Broadway and Seventh Avenue. The former New York Times headquarters, now known as One Times Square, at 42nd St. and Broadway, is the staging area for the annual New Year's Eve ball drop. It is a tradition that began in 1908 and is visited every year by hundreds of thousands of spectators. You can enjoy Madame Tussauds Wax Museum or Hard Rock Café in the area. Vas a estar en NYC el 4 de Julio y es muy probable que haya grandes celebraciones en TS. Aquí tienes la Web oficial para consultarlo: En caso de querer enterarte y/o reservar alguna entrada para cualquier teatro de Broadway, este es el mejor enlace:

16 2.4. From 47 th Street to 59 th Street The Intrepid & Circle Line: Desde la parada de metro 50 St de la línea 1 ó 9 en la Eighth Av. podemos caminar hacia el West por la 50 th Street hasta el Hudson River por lo que se llama Hell s Kitchen; que fue una de las zonas más deprimidas y violentas de Manhattan, así como la más poblada hasta finales del XIX; fue un lugar dejado de la mano de Dios, con piaras de cerdos por las calles donde llegaban los emigrantes más poblres (irlandeses, griegos, italianos e hispanos). Salimos justo a la B Passenger Ship Terminal y recorremos la Tuelfth Av. hacia el South. Encontraremos The Intrepid en el muelle 86 (un portaaviones que ha participado en batallas navales y aereas tanto en el sur del Pacífico, en la 2ª Guerra Mundial y más tarde en Vietnam) que actualmente es un museo flotante de historia y tecnología; también puedes ver un submarino y un avión Concorde (avión supersónico que dejo de prestar servicio en noviembre de 2003). El museo está abierto de miércoles a domingo de 10 a 16 horas. En el muelle 83, a la altura de la 42nd St llegamos a la Circle Line Terminal, donde lo más recomendable es tomar un crucero semicircular de 2 horas de duración por $21 que te permitirá pasar por los puentes más importantes: Brooklyn, Manhattan, Williamsburg and Queens bridges. Waldorf-Astoria Hotel: It s a known worldwide, especially for its art exhibitions. It s an Art Deco skyscraper of 47 floors (191 meters). It s located on Park Avenue - 50 th Street. Plaza Hotel: When it opened in 1907, it became the best hotel in NY. It hired the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel s architect: Henry Hardenbergh, who made the Plaza his masterpiece. It s like a giant château in front of Central Park. Rockefeller Centre: This vast undertaking in the heart of Midtown covers as much ground as 13 Chrysler Buildings and it provides as much office space as 2 Empire State Buildings. It was advanced by two of the most powerful businessmen in the country in the 1920s, John D. Rpckefeller Jr., who had inherited his father's Standard Oil fortune, and Owen Young, the chairman of General Electric. The project was conceived as a grand home for a new metropolitan opera house, but its immense commercial nature overwhelmed the opera's backers and they pulled out, giving GE and its radio networks, RCA and NBC, the starring roles. Now, Midtown's showcase, Rockefeller Centre includes 19 buildings between Fifth and Sixth Avenues and 41st and 48th Streets: office towers, theatres, TV studios, and restaurants, all connected to an underground shopping concourse and famous plaza. An observation deck offering spectacular views from the 70th floor; it is called the Top on the Rock, from where you will see a wonderful Manhattan panoramic view. I hope you enjoy it. St. Patrick s Cathedral: This grand cathedral was begun in 1858, on Fifth Av, and 50th Street. At that time, the Irish were the largest immigrant group in NYC. A generation would pass before it was completed. The work was interrupted by Civil War and didn't resume until Now, St. Patrick s is surrounded of glass-walled skyscrapers and luxury apartments. The cathedral has hosted many of the city's most solemn and festive occasions, from the funeral of Robert F. Kennedy in 1968 to the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade on Fifth Av. Antes de terminar la visita al Midtown no nos perderemos: El MOMA (El mejor Museo de Arte Moderno del mundo en 11W, 53 St.) la Trump Tower (domicilio habitual del archi millonario Donal Trump), El Diamod District (donde los judios venden joyas como churros), Columbus Cicle (maravillosa palza en la esquina suroeste del Central Park con el edificio de dos torres acristalado más caro de América), El Apple Store (lo pasarás genial) y la FAO-Schuarz ( Que pedazo tienda de juguetes!), ambas en la esquina sureste de Central Park.

17 Upper Manhattan El Manhattan superior Upper Manhattan se extiende hacia el norte de la calle 59. Se trata de la zona más moderna de la ciudad y tiene tres zonas bien diferenciadas de este a oeste: Upper East Side: El símbolo de la elegancia por excelencia. Donde viven los ricos de siempre, la alta sociedad de Nueva York y quienes conservan los valores más tradicionales. Pero, como pasa casi siempre en Manhattan, esta zona no es tampoco homogénea. Hay también vecinos algo más modestos. Es lo que se conoce como Yorkville, la que fue barriada de alemanes, situada más al noroeste. La riqueza étnica en esta zona es mayor; hay una población joven que se mezcla con la antigua y existen tiendas y restaurantes más asequibles. Central Park: Entre las avenidas 5ª y 8ª (880 m de ancho) y entre las calles 59 y 110 (4,1 Km de largo); o sea, 3,6 Km 2 de superficie. Es el pulmón de la ciudad y divide al Upper en el East Side al este y el West Side al oeste. Se inauguró en el La historia de la ciudad no sería la misma sin él. Yo diría, que además de bonito, enorme y entretenido es el parque más famoso de mundo. Todo el mundo lo conoce aunque no lo haya visitado jamás, ya que se han rodado en él innumerables películas. Upper West Side: Completamente distinto al Upper East Side. No es que sus habitantes no tengan dinero, que lo tienen, no es que no haya casas de lijo, que las hay (por ejemplo el Dakota Building, uno de lo edificios más caros de Nueva York), pero es un barrio menos selectivo, con menos ricos de los de siempre y más difícil de definir. Al lado de los lujosos apartamentos que dan a Central Park, hay barriadas modestas, y en general, en él vive la clase media, profesionales de todo tipo relacionados muchos de ellos con el mundo del arte.

18 3.1. Upper East Side Queensboro Bridge: The best known use of the bridge was from Woody Allen's film Manhattan. It has been used in each side of the credits of the television series as well as being the backdrop of scenes in the films Escape from New York or Spider-Man It was opened in 1909 from East 59th Street to the Borough of Queens. The bridge was designated as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers during the year of its centennial anniversary. It s the first entry point into Manhattan in the course of the New York City Marathon. Its structure is an intricate mass of interlacing steelwork. The bridge has two levels. It's a double cantilever bridge, as it has two cantilever spans, one over the channel on Roosevelt Island: It s known as Welfare Island from 1921 to It's a narrow island in the East River. It's about 3 Kilometres long, with a maximum width of 240 metres. It has a population of about 12,000. Roosevelt Island is owned by the city and has had several uses. It began hosting a mental hospital, a jail, a shelter for poor and a hospital for smallpox patients. Then it was urbanized with an attempt to create a residential community. A cable car was built in 1976 to connect the island to Manhattan and Queens. Today it has become the symbol of the island. Franklin Delano Roosevelt also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32 nd President of the United States ( ) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He led the States during Great Depression and World War II. He got a near-unanimous declaration of war Harbour on December 7, 1941, calling it a date president elected to more than two terms. His reviving the national spirit (the New Deal: a against Japan after the Japanese attack on Pearl which will live in infamy. FDR was the only American combination of optimism and activism contributed to complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce relief; the economy improved quickly from 1933 to 1937) He worked closely with Churchill and Stalin in leading the Allies against Germany and Japan, but he died just before the victory. The creation of United Nations was an example of his administration's wide-ranging impact. FDR is consistently rated by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents. Bloomingdale s: It s an iconic American department store owned by Macy s. It started in 1861 when brothers Joseph and Lyman G. Bloomingdale started selling hoop-skirts in their Ladies Notions' Shop on Lower East Side. Both were sons of Benjamin Bloomingdale, a Bavarian--born salesman who had lived in North Carolina and Kansas, and settled in NYC. In 1872 the Bloomingdale brothers opened their 1 st store at 938 Third Av. It moved in 1886 to its current location on 59th Street and Lexington Avenue. The store was designed with large plate glass display windows and spacious merchandising areas. The Rockefeller University: It was founded in 1901 by J. D. Rockefeller Sr. as Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. The first institution in the States devoted solely to using biomedical research to understand the underlying causes of disease, Rockefeller is today one of the foremost biomedical research centres in the world, and its scientists have made numerous contributions to biology and medicine. Over the years, 23 scientists associated with the university have received Nobel Prizes and 21 have earned the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award. 14 have received the Gairdner Foundation International Award and 14 have been given the National Medal of Science, the nation's highest scientific honour. Guggenheim Museum: It s situated in Fifth Avenue between 88 th and 89 th Streets. In 1943, Frank Lloyd Wright was commissioned to design a building to house the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, which had been established by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in It opened to the public on October 21, 1959, and was immediately recognized as an architectural landmark. A monument to modernism, the unique architecture of the space, with its spiral ramp riding to a domed skylight, continues to thrill visitors and provide a unique forum for the presentation of contemporary art. Metropolitan Museum: The MET, as the former Guggenheim is in the Museum Mile (Fifth Avenue-82 nd Street). It s undoubtedly the most important museum in the country. It was founded in 1870 and contains more than one million pieces from all places and times in history, including a complete Egyptian temple taken by boat to NYC. Website: Cuando visites el MET debes buscar en su interior una pieza procedente de Valladolid. De que pieza se trata? No te olvides de tomar una foto de la misma.

19 3.2. Central Park Se inauguró en 1876, después de una larga lucha entre los que defendían un gran parque público en Manhattan y las inmobiliarias, que veían la expansión de la ciudad en esta zona norte. Por fin el Ayuntamiento cedió 341 ha de terrenos pantanosos, ocupados por infraviviendas para la construcción de este enorme parque, 1,3 veces mayor que el londinense Hyde Park, casi 3 veces el Retiro madrileño y casi 30 veces nuestro Campo Grande. Se tardo en construir 20 años (de 1856 a 1876). Los arquitectos fueron Frederick Law Olmsted y Calvert Vaux. Participaron más de 20 mil obreros, dinamitando rocas y plantando más de 270 mil árboles, con la idea de que fuera un parque para todos y lo más semejante a un espacio agreste. El éxito fue tal, que NY sería inimaginable sin este pulmón donde conviven gentes de todas las razas clases sociales. Tu serás una de los 25 millones de personas que visitan cada año el parque. Woody Allen es el realizador cinematográfico más identificado con NY. Su casa está en la Quinta Avenida con vistas a Central Park, donde ha ambientado muchos de sus películas. Seguro que ya conoces Central Park por los cientos de escenas cinematográficas que se han rodado aquí. Lo mejor es explorarlo en un día completo de fin de semana: Entramos por la Gand Army Plaza (en la esquina sureste) y llegar al Conservatory Pond, un pequeño estanque. A la derecha subimos hasta el Children s Zoo (a la altura de la calle 64). Seguimos por East Drive hasta el cruce con Transverse donde se halla Dayry, una antigua vaquería neogótica convertida en centro de visitantes. Hacia la izquierda cruzando Center está el Carousel, un típico tiovivo. Más a la izquierda, está el distinguido restaurante Tavern on the Green (aunque su elevado precio no te permita comer aquí, no dejes de visitarlo). Puedes ahora cruzar la enorme alfombra verde Sheep Meadow hacia la punta noreste donde encontrarás Bandshell, el quiosco de la música (semicírculo rojo en el mapa a la izquierda de Rumset Playground). Muy cerca, hacia el norte llegas a Bethesda Fountain, coronada por el Angel of the Waters, la terraza tiene magníficas vistas a el lago; debajo de la misma hay un precioso túnel donde suele haber algún músico o artista. Hacia el este, a la altura de la calle 72, queda el Strawberry Fields, jardín en memoria de John Lenon, pero ya lo verás desde el Upper West Side otro día. Ahora es mejor que bordees el lago hacia el norte hasta Loeb Boathouse donde te recomiendo que alquiles una barca por una hora ya que es la mejor manera de conocer los recovecos del The Lake y sus románticos puentes, como el Bow Bridge, hecho famoso por el cine. Después del paseo en barca y un buen aperitivo te recomiendo que te pierdas por The Ramble hacia el norte hasta llegar al Belvedere Castle, merece la pena que subas para contemplar el Belvedere Lake. Sal ahora hacia el Egyptian Obelisk, un monolito de 3000 años de antigüedad donado a la ciudad en 1877 (detrás del Metropolitan Museum). Por último, si coincide con la caída de la tarde en un día soleado, te recomiendo ir hacia el noroeste, a la orilla del Reservoir (en el punto donde te he puesto un sol); te garantizo las mejores fotos del skyline de los rascacielos de la Fifth Av. del Upper East Side, ya que el sol los refleja perfectamente en este enorme estanque de 42 ha (más de tres veces y media el Campo Grande) que separa el sur (barrio blanco del Upper) del norte (barrio negro de Harlem). Alrededor verás mucha gente haciendo jogging, pero no debes pasar de aquí. No subas de la calle 88!

20 3.3. Upper West Side Lincoln Centre: It was inaugurated in 1959 by President Eisenhower. It s located in Broadway and 64th Street. Envisioned as the largest and most ambitious of any performing arts complex in the world, it was considered a radical idea at the time, since the plan called for both educational and performing arts institutions in one location. Its mission of bringing the finest possible performing arts to the broadest possible audience takes many forms. Dwight David Eisenhower was a 5-star general and the 34 th President of the States from 1953 until During World War II, he served as the Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in In 1959, he was the first U.S. President who visited Spain. He set up NASA to compete against the Soviet Union in the space race. He s often ranked as one of the top ten U.S. Presidents despite several political mistakes. Dakota Building: It was NYC s first large, luxury apartment building. The 10-story building, designed in the French Renaissance style, with a heavy nod to German Gothic, featured many unique amenities for its time, including an independent power plant, a gymnasium, playrooms, and wine cellars. It remains a very prestigious address, particularly for those people in the arts and entertainment. The former resident best known today is John Lennon, who was tragically shot in front of the building in Less than a year after his death, Strawberry Fields was built as a memorial to Lennon on the western border of Central Park. His widow, Yoko Ono, who is still living in Dakota building, donated $1 million to build the landscape opposite the Dakota building (72 nd Street). The most relevant is the large mosaic with the word IMAGINE written in tile. It often has flowers in the shape of a peace sign. Each year, on Lennon s birthday, loyal fans gather in Strawberry Fields to pay tribute to their beloved Beatles. Sabías que el Dakota es un edificio donde mucha gente se ha suicidado y donde se dice que se generan fuerzas malditas. La semilla del Diablo de Roman Polansky fue rodada en este edificio construido en Sabes porque el edificio se llama con el mismo nombre que uno de los estados de EE.UU.? The American Museum of Natural History is part of the "museum mile" and opened in It has 4 floors (plus the lower level floor) full of interesting things to learn about such us humans, the space, the sea, animals, minerals, etc. Website: Seguro que has visto la 1ª película de Noche en el Museo de 2006, protagonizada por Ben Stiller (el guarda) y Robin Williams (Theodore Roosevelt) Riverside Park: It s the most spectacular waterfront park in NYC. It stretches from 72 nd to 158 th Streets along the Hudson River. Since 1875, the landscapes of Frederick Law Olmsted have offered an escape from the city and opportunities for people of all incomes to relax, play and socialize in tranquil settings. The landscape of the park contains rocky precipices, sylvan lawns, groves of mature elm trees. There are a vital north-south automobile artery and a railroad running in a tunnel under the entire park. You will pass through that tunnel when travelling between Tarrytown and Manhattan without realising it.

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