Nicaragua Action Plan

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1 ODAN.:: emergency needs assessment service National Capacity Development for Emergency Food Security Assessment and Preparedness Nicaragua Action Plan Project funded by the Royal Danish Embassy

2 National Capacity Development for Emergency Food Security Assessment and Preparedness Nicaragua Action Plan Prepared by Rima AL-AZAR and Marc DESANTIS May 2007 United Nations World Food Programme Headquarters: Via C.G. Viola 68, Parco de Medici, Rome, Italy ODAN Emergency Needs Assessment Service Chief: Wolfgang Herbinger Task Manager: Angie Lee Tel: The views expressed in this paper are the author s and should not be attributed to WFP. 2

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 4 ACRONYMS BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE METHODOLOGY SITUATION ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY CURRENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES FOR RESPONDING TO AN EMERGENCY INSITUTIONAL ANALYSIS The Institutional Framework SINAPRED Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAGFOR) Coordinating Bodies CONASAN, COTESAN, and PROCOSAN Committee of Interest in Food Security United Nations Equipo Técnico de Emergencias (UNETE) Donor Coordinating Groups Grupo de Interes por la Soberania y la Seguirad Alimentaria y Nutricional (GISSAN) CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES World Bank European Union (PRESANCA) ECHO United States Government OCHA UNDP WFP FAO Other Agencies THE SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths - Achievements Weaknesses - Gaps Identified Opportunities Leveraging Regional Initiatives Threats Continued Lack of Coordination and Weak WFP CO Capacity PROPOSED ACTION PLAN Objective Activities Expected timeframe Staffing/management requirements Respective roles and responsibilities of partners and potential sources of resources mobilization Budget

4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 ODAN, with funding from DANIDA, has embarked on elaborating a strategy for national capacity development for emergency food security assessment and preparedness. Strengthening the capacities of countries themselves to assess better the food insecurity challenges they confront as a result of a shock or protracted food crisis will not only enable those countries to respond more effectively, but also facilitate WFP s own efforts to address the needs of affected people. In parallel to the global strategy, ODAN is piloting national capacity development in a few select countries. Nicaragua is one of the countries chosen to pilot the strategy and to develop an Action Plan for National Capacity Development for Emergency Food Security Assessment and Preparedness. The Action Plan analyzes the backward linkages (pre-crisis data, early warning systems, triggers for an assessment, and contingency planning) and forward linkages (decision-making leading to an emergency response) to the extent these areas are relevant to an emergency food security assessment. The Action Plan is built on a consultative process and is expected to be implemented with various stakeholders. The action plan is a result of (i) a situation analysis of the food security situation in Nicaragua; (ii) a review of the existing information systems and processes for responding to an emergency; (iii) an institutional analysis of the main governmental institutions involved in emergency food security preparedness, assessment and response, mainly the Executive Secretariat of the Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED) and its decentralized structures and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAGFOR); and (iv) a stakeholder analysis identifying relevant national capacity-building activities supported by international organizations, including the World Bank, the European Union, ECHO, OCHA, the US Government, UNDP, WFP, and FAO. The proposed Action Plan is based on an analytical framework that assesses the needs in terms of capacity development by looking at the institutional, organizational and individual levels. The activities outlined in the action plan are a result of the gaps identified between the needs and the ongoing and/or planned activities for developing the national capacity for emergency food needs assessment and preparedness. In addition, a SWOT analysis identifies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to implementing the Action Plan. To address the policy/institutional issues, the Action Plan proposes three activities, including (i) holding a workshop for raising high-level political awareness regarding slow and rapid onset disasters and their impact on food security and malnutrition; (ii) organizing a trip to Guatemala for high-level government decision-makers (e.g., from SINAPRED, MAGFOR, MINSA, the office of the President, and the staff responsible for preparing the National Food Security Program) to exchange experiences regarding the institutional set up of an information system for food security and nutrition; and (iii) requesting the appointment of focal points dealing with food security in SINAPRED and MAGFOR. 4

5 To strengthen the organizational capacities of the government, the Action Plan suggests the recruitment of an international consultant to provide technical assistance to the office responsible for collecting and analyzing information regarding food security in Nicaragua (once its institutional housing is finalized). It strongly recommends improving coordination of all food security activities by re-activating the Committee of Interest on Food Security and expanding it to include SINAPRED and MAGFOR as well as other organizations working on food security, such as PRESANCA, UNV, and Peace Corps. In addition, the Action Plan proposes the piloting of an early warning information system at the municipal level. As part of this piloting exercise, it recommends that the several organizations implementing the early warning information systems coordinate, collaborate and harmonize the process of selecting pilot municipalities, the format of baseline survey, the methodology for choosing indicators, and the training of staff/consultants/volunteers involved in pilot projects. Finally, the Action Plan envisages the development of rapid EFSA methodology and trigger procedures to implement an EFSA adapted to Nicaragua and in collaboration with partner organizations. Finally, addressing the building of individual capacities, the Action Plan envisages several training workshops. The first would be to build the capacity of new SINAPRED staff in the OFDA/DANA initial rapid evaluation methodology, incorporating the REDLAC methodology which complements the DANA one and addresses food security, nutrition, and health issues. A similar training would be held for COREPREDs and select COMUPREDs in the RAAN and RAAS. A second type of training is also recommended once the rapid EFSA methodology is adapted for Nicaragua and trigger procedures developed in collaboration with other organizations involved in food security/nutrition assessments. When it comes to building the capacity to carry out in-depth EFSAs, the Action Plan proposes first an adaptation of the EFSA Handbook to the Central American region followed by a regional-level training conducted in coordination with CEPREDENAC. Finally, the last type of training that the Action Plan proposes is one addressed to all the staff/consultants/volunteers involved in implementing the pilot early warning information systems at the municipal level. 5

6 ACRONYMS ACH Acción Contra el Hambre AMUNIC Asociacion de Municipios de Nicaragua BBC British Broadcasting Corporation BCPR Bureau of Crisis Prevention and Recovery (UNDP) BNPP Bank Netherlands Partnership Program CDM Comité de Desarrollo Municipal CEPREDENAC Centro de Prevención de los Desastres Naturales en America Central (Central American Center for Natural Disaster Prevention) CFSVA Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Assessment CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CO Country Office CODE Centro de Operaciones de Desastres CODEPRED Comité Departamental para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres COLOPRED Comité Local para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres COMUPRED Comité Municipal para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres COREPRED Comité Regional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres CONASAN Comité Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional COTESAN Comité Técnico de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional DANA Damage and Needs Assessment DANIDA Danish International Development Agency DFID Department for International Development ECHO European Commission Humanitarian Aid Department EFSA Emergency Food Security Assessment EN Ejercito Nacional (National Army) EU European Union EWS Early Warning Systems FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency (USA) FEWSNET Famine Early Warning Systems Network FISE Fondo de Inversión Social para Emergencia (Social Emergency Fund) FSMS Food Security Monitoring System GIS Geographic Information System GISSAN Grupo de Interes por la Soberania y la Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit HQ Headquarters (WFP) IADB Inter-American Development Bank IFRC International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent INCAP Instituto de Nutrición de Centroamérica y Panamá INETER Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales (Institute for Research and Earth Sciences) INIFOM Instituto Nicaraguense de Fomento Municipal (Institute for Municipal Development) INTA Instituto Nicaragüense de Tecnología Agropecuaria JICA Japanese International Cooperation Agency 6

7 LSMS Living Standards Measurement Survey MAGFOR Ministerio de Asuntos Agricolas y Forestales (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry) MARENA Ministerio de Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources) MED Ministerio de Educación (Ministry of Education) MFEWS Mesoamerican Food Early Warning Systems MIDEF Ministerio de Defensa (Ministry of Defense) MIFAMILIA Ministerio de la Familia (Ministry of Family Affairs) MIFIC Ministerio de Fomento, Industria y Comercio (Ministry of Development, Industry and Commerce) MINGOB Ministerio de Gobernación (Ministry of Governance) MINHACP Ministerio de Hacienda y Credito Publico (Ministry of Finance) MINREX Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (Ministry of External Affairs) MINSA Ministerio de Salud (Ministry of Health) MOUs Memoranda of Understanding MTI Ministerio de Transporte e Infraestructura (Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure) NGI National Gross Income NGO Non-Governmental Organization NICASALUD Network of NGOs working on health issues NOAA National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Agency (USA) NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development OAS Organization of American States OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN) ODAN Emergency Needs Assessment Branch (WFP) OFDA Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USA) PESA Programa Especial de Seguridad Alimentaria PINE-MECD Programa de Nutrición Escolar del Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deportes PLAN ONG internacional a favor de la Niñez PMA Programa Mundial de Alimentos de las Naciones Unidas (WFP in Spanish) PN Policia Nacional (National Police) PNGR Plan Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo PNRR Programa Nacional de la Reducción de Riesgos PRESANCA Programa Regional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional en Centroamérica de la Comisión Europea PROCOSAN Programa Comunitario de Salud y Nutrición PROTIERRA Proyecto Municipios Rurales (Rural Municipalities Project) PRS Poverty Reduction Strategy PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper RAAN Northern Autonomous Atlantic Region RAAS Southern Autonomous Atlantic Region REDLAC Grupo de Trabajo de Riesgos, Emergencias y Desasteres del Comité Permanente Interagencial de la region americana y el caribe SAN Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional SDC Swiss Development Cooperation SENAC Strengthening Emergency Needs Assessment Capacity SESAN Secretaría de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional 7

8 SIDA SILAIS SINAPRED SISSAN SMART SWOT TOR ToT UCRESEP UK UN UNAG UNDAF UNDP UNETE UNICAM UNICEF UNISDR UNOPS UNV US USAID USGS USSR VAM WFP WHO Swedish International Development Agency Sistemas Integrados de Salud a nivel departamental Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Response) Sistema de Información para el Seguimento de la Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional del MAGFOR Standardized Monitoring Analysis for Relief and Transition Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Terms of Reference Training of Trainers Unidad de Coordinación de Reforma del Sector Publico (Coordinating Unit for Reform of the Public Sector) United Kingdom United Nations Union Nacional de Agricultores Ganaderos United Nations Development Assistance Framework United Nations Development Program United Nations Equipo Técnico de Emergencias (United Nations Emergency Technical Team) Universidad Campesina United Nations Children Fund United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction United Nations Office for Project Support United Nations Volunteer United States United States Agency for International Development United States Geological Survey Union of Socialist Soviet Republics Vulnerability Assessment and Mapping World Food Program World Health Organization 8

9 NICARAGUA ACTION PLAN for National Capacity Development for Emergency Food Security Assessment and Preparedness 1. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE 1. Assessing and analyzing emergency needs are core functions of WFP and a field of substantive expertise in which WFP is a global leader. The role of the Emergency Needs Assessment Branch (ODAN) is key to such practice in that it ensures accurate, reliable and transparent emergency needs assessments conducted in a timely manner to form the basis for decision-making and programming in the area of food security. 2. Based on a 30-month implementation plan (July 2004 December 2006) approved by the Executive Board in March 2004, ODAN has made noteworthy progress in improving emergency needs assessments by, inter alia, building capacities of WFP staff and cooperating partners through trainings and workshops. In addition, field capacities have been expanded by hiring 11 experts in regional food security assessments and market analysis. 3. One area that has not yet received sufficient attention is national capacity building. Strengthening the capacities of countries themselves to assess better the food insecurity challenges they confront as a result of a shock or protracted food crisis will not only enable those countries to respond more effectively, but also facilitate WFP s own efforts to address the needs of affected people. 4. Based on several selection criteria, including the commitment of the national government and the interest of WFP s Country Office (CO), Nicaragua was selected as a pilot country to develop an Action Plan for National Capacity Development for Emergency Food Security Assessment and Preparedness. The Action Plan analyzes the backward linkages (pre-crisis data, early warning systems, triggers for an assessment, and contingency planning) and forward linkages (decision-making leading to an emergency response) to the extent these areas are relevant to an emergency food security assessment. The Action Plan is built on a consultative process and is expected to be implemented with various stakeholders. 2. METHODOLOGY 5. The Nicaragua Action Plan for National Capacity Development for Emergency Food Security Assessment and Preparedness is based on a desk review of available documents (see Annex A for list of references) regarding emergency needs assessment and preparedness; consultations with most government officials, UN agencies, multilateral and bilateral partners, and NGOs working on emergency issues (see Annex B for a list of persons met); and field visits to two departments (Madriz and Matagalpa) as well as one autonomous region, the Northern Autonomous Atlantic Region (RAAN). 9

10 6 The action plan is a result of (i) a situation analysis of the food security situation in Nicaragua; (ii) a review of the existing information systems and processes for responding to an emergency; (iii) an institutional analysis of the main governmental institutions involved in emergency food security preparedness, assessment and response, mainly the Executive Secretariat of the Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres 1 (SINAPRED) and its decentralized structures and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAGFOR); and (iv) a stakeholder analysis identifying relevant national capacity-building activities supported by international organizations, including the World Bank, the European Union, ECHO, OCHA, the US Government, UNDP, WFP, and FAO. 7. The proposed action plan is based on an analytical framework that assesses the needs in terms of capacity development by looking at the institutional, organizational and individual levels (see Chart 1). The activities outlined in the action plan are a result of the gaps identified between the needs and the ongoing and/or planned activities for developing the national capacity for emergency food needs assessment and preparedness. In addition, a SWOT analysis identifies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to implementing the action plan. 8. Finally, the action plan was presented to stakeholders during a consultation workshop to solicit their comments and feedback and was finalized based on the suggestions and ideas received. 3. SITUATION ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY 9. With a per capita National Gross Income (NGI) per capita of 830 dollars, Nicaragua is the second poorest nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. 2 It ranks 112 out of 177 countries on the UNDP s Human Development Index (2006). Recurring natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, drought, swells, and volcanic eruptions) have had a great impact on the country s economic base and caused great human loss. The incidence of poverty is highest among rural populations, where 68% live in poverty and 27% live in extreme poverty 3. According to the World Bank, the Gini index for Nicaragua was 40 in The median income of the poor covers only 24% of the cost of the basic food basket. Box 1 1 National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Response. 2 World Bank, World Development Indicators. 3 Living on less than US$1/day. 4 The Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or in some cases consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index score of zero implies perfect equality while a score of one hundred implies perfect inequality. 10

11 Nicaragua s Recent Political History Nicaragua has traditionally relied on agricultural exports to sustain its economy. But these benefited mainly a few elite families of Spanish descent, primarily the Somoza family, which ruled the country with US backing between 1937 and the Sandinista revolution in The Sandinistas began redistributing property and made huge progress in the spheres of health and education. They won a decisive victory in 1984 elections, but their leftist orientation also attracted US hostility and drove them to turn to the USSR and Cuba. This set the scene for a US-sponsored counterrevolution, which saw Washington arm and finance thousands of rebels, or Contras, in order to carry out attacks on Nicaragua from bases in Honduras. The US also imposed trade sanctions and mined Nicaraguan harbors. By 1990, when the Sandinistas were defeated in elections held as part of a peace agreement, Nicaragua's per capita income had plummeted and its infrastructure was in tatters. Peace brought some economic growth, lower inflation and lower unemployment. But this was more than counter-balanced by the devastations of Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed thousands, rendered 20% of the population homeless and caused billions of dollars worth of damage. Left-wing Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega made his political comeback in the November 2006 elections, having led Nicaragua through revolution and a civil war before being voted out in He took office again in January Mr. Ortega has sought to calm fears about his Marxist past. He says he will make no major economic changes and he backs a regional free trade deal with the US. At his inauguration, he advocated a new path for Nicaragua, away from what he called the savage capitalism that had mired millions in poverty. Source: BBC website 10. Nicaragua's history has been punctuated by devastating natural disasters which have set back the country's social and economic progress. Its geographic location makes it a target for hurricanes, droughts and fires, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and especially severe earthquakes. Among Central American countries, Nicaragua stands out in both the frequency and severity of natural catastrophes. On average, annual deaths due to disasters in Nicaragua stand at some 3,340 between 1970 and 2000, and the number of persons injured or left homeless runs to some 60,000 per year, according to figures of the International Red Cross. Each disaster has left the country more vulnerable to the next round of natural catastrophes. 5 5 World Bank,

12 Chart 1 Analytical Framework for Capacity Development CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT Policy/Institutional level Organizational level Individual level Institutional framework Legal framework Policies Cooperation between state, private sector, and civil society Systems Procedures Work processes Coordination Information databases Financial resources Communication strategy Logistics Hardware Experience Knowledge Technical skills 12

13 11. Administratively, Nicaragua is divided into 15 departments and two autonomous regions. Geographically, Nicaragua has three distinct regions: the Pacific Lowlands, the North-Central Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. The Pacific Lowlands are in the west of the country and consist of a broad, hot fertile plain which supports most of Nicaragua s population. Punctuating this plain are several large volcanoes, many of which are active. In addition to volcanic activity, this region is also prone to earthquakes. Much of central Managua was destroyed by an earthquake in The North-Central Mountains are an upland region away from the Pacific coast, with a cooler climate than the Pacific Lowlands. About a quarter of the country s agriculture takes place in this region, with coffee grown on higher slopes. It is the region that is most affected by droughts and economic shocks (e.g., coffee crisis). The Atlantic Coast consisting of two autonomous regions, the RAAN and RAAS - is a large rainforest region with several large rivers running through it. The climate is hot and humid and the region is sparsely populated. The Atlantic regions are the most likely to be affected by flooding, hurricanes, and tsunamis, especially the southern region, the RAAS. 12. In 2005 alone, the country was struck by two tornados, seven major tropical storms, three hurricanes, such as hurricane Beta which caused flooding and significant damage to infrastructure as well as the loss of productive assets, one major earthquake (6.2 at Richter Scale), two volcano eruptions and a widespread plague of rats resulting in significant crop losses. In a normal month, some 180 earthquakes occur, many of them reaching 5.3 at Richter Scale and, in any given year, there is more than a 25% chance of substantial agricultural losses from drought. 13. The Food Security and Livelihoods Survey in the Autonomous Atlantic Regions, a Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) study conducted by WFP in February-March 2005, classified 17% of households in both regions as having very poor food consumption and another 19% as having poor consumption. The main causes of food insecurity were varied and included recurrent natural disasters and health problems (North Coast), food utilization, physical and economic access (North Interior), food access (South Coast and Interior), and poor maternal and child-care practices (Littoral 6 ). 14. According to the VAM study, more than 50% of the households reported that they did not apply a coping strategy to manage shocks. However, among those who did, several coping mechanisms across the two regions and the different food consumption groups were identified. The most common were the reduction of quantity of diet (17%) and finding temporary work (17%). 15. More recently, in February 2006, WFP carried out a nation-wide VAM in order to determine the following (i) the geographic distribution of food insecurity in Nicaragua; (ii) the characteristics of food insecurity per type of household; (iii) risk factors that could increase food insecurity in these households; and (iv) food security vulnerability at the municipal level. 6 The Littoral is a zone identified purposively for the VAM study. It includes the communities located close to the Atlantic Coast (in a buffer zone of 12 km from the shoreline) 13

14 16. When it comes to malnutrition, an evaluation, undertaken in 2004 by WFP in cooperation with Federación Red NICASalud (NGO Network), determined that one out of every three children suffered some degree of chronic malnutrition while in some areas - such as the region affected by the coffee crisis- more than 40% of the children surveyed suffered from chronic malnutrition. This situation is primarily due to insufficient access to food, micronutrient deficiencies, poor consumption habits and limited access to basic services - especially water and sanitation. In terms of life expectancy, it is estimated that an average Nicaraguan lives up to 69 years. Infant mortality is registered at 30 per 1000 live births. 17. In order to address food insecurity and malnutrition in Nicaragua, there are several projects (e.g., World Bank 7 and European Union 8 funded ones) as well as activities implemented by UN agencies (WFP, FAO, UNDP) and international and national NGOs (Save the Children, Oxfam, Acción Contra el Hambre, NICASalud, SoyNICA, etc...) that work at national and local levels. By strengthening the national capacities to assess needs and to prepare for eventual food shortages, the interventions of all partners including the UN, NGOs and the government will be more effective. 4. CURRENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES FOR RESPONDING TO AN EMERGENCY 18. WFP s Emergency Preparedness and Response Framework (see Chart 2) describes the inter-linkages between baselines, contingency plans, food security monitoring and early warning systems, needs assessments and responses. It is used to analyze the existing information systems and processes in Nicaragua for assessing needs and preparing in case of a rapid or slow onset emergency. 19. Knowledge Base Information: The two organizations that have produced studies on poverty and vulnerability in Nicaragua are the World Bank and WFP. In 2001, the World Bank carried out a Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS). Following this survey and using data generated by it, the Nicaragua Poverty Assessment - Raising Welfare and Reducing Vulnerability - was prepared in The report was part of a collaborative effort between the Government of Nicaragua, the World Bank, and the Nicaragua Program for Improving Living Standards Measurement Surveys (MECOVI). A second LSMS was conducted in However, its results are still not available. According to the World Bank (2001), fully 45% of Nicaragua s population lives under $1 per day. 9 7 Programa Comunitario de Salud y Nutrición (PROCOSAN) is the World-Bank financed project. 8 Programa Regional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional en Centroamérica de la Comisión Europea (PRESANCA) is the EU-funded project. 9 World Bank website. 14

15 Chart 2 WFP EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS & RESPONSE FRAMEWORK Global Early Warning Contingency Planning Emergency Needs Assessment Food Security Monitoring Systems (FSMs) Intervention Decision (Y/N) Knowledge Base Comprehensive Food Security & Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) Annual Danish Consultation Rome, 2 November Whereas the World Bank studies address poverty more generally, the WFP Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) reports examine specifically the food security and nutrition situation in Nicaragua. The analysis for the first report Food Security and Livelihoods Survey in the Autonomous Atlantic Regions was carried out jointly with MAGFOR in February-March 2005 as mentioned earlier. Following this, WFP conducted a nation-wide VAM study "Análisis y cartografía de la vulnerabilidad a la inseguridad alimentaria y nutricional en Nicaragua" in February The 2006 VAM study provides recent information for the targeting of the most vulnerable municipalities. It contains a new Global Food Insecurity Vulnerability Index or a Hunger Map, which is a combination of the Food Insecurity Index, the Stunting Index and the Vulnerability (of agricultural producers) Index. The sub-indices and their analysis have allowed the targeting of specific programs within each pillar of food security depending on the objective of the program. 21. Early Warning Information Systems: Currently, there are no information systems that serve as effective early warning in case of food insecurity in Nicaragua. There are several government institutions and non-governmental organizations that 15

16 collect agriculture figures and meteorological data that could be used as part of an early warning information system. Mesoamerican Food Early Warning Systems (MFEWS): MFEWS produces a monthly food security bulletin based on secondary data obtained from various government agencies, such as MAGFOR and INETER. Also, on a monthly basis, MFEWS disseminates a report on the regional hydrological balance and a soil index. Every week, it produces a list of potential climatic threats at the regional level. And, twice a year, it prepares a special issue on food security scenarios. Though it is widely disseminated, the MFEWS information is seldom used as an early warning system and has never triggered any food security assessment. Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER): The Institute for Research and Earth Sciences produces regular and updated meteorological data, including rainfall information. It also analyzes earthquake, volcano, hurricane and tidal wave activities in addition to providing information about droughts, floods, and landslides. Ministerio de Asuntos Agricolas y Forestales (MAGFOR): The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry produces on a monthly basis reports of quantities/type of seeds planted, estimates of crop production, losses in production, and actual crop production. These reports suffer from several weaknesses including the timely production of the reports, the capacity of MAGFOR staff in collecting the information, issues with estimating crop production 10, and sometimes political interference. In addition, in some departments, MAGFOR collects price information on certain agriculture products which are then forwarded to the Ministry s Department of Statistics. 11 The SISSAN (Sistema de Información para el Seguimento de la Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional), which is housed under MAGFOR and supported by FAO, is supposed to provide information on food availability and utilization as well as on health and nutrition. SISSAN s work has been impaired by weak cooperation and collaboration with other ministries. The lack of regular updates limits the usefulness of this system. In addition, with the ongoing reorganization of MAGFOR, it is unclear if and how the SISSAN will be continued. 22. Planned Initiatives for Piloting Early Warning Systems at the Municipal Level: There are several organizations that are in the process of setting up early warning information systems at the municipal level. They include: 10 In addition to the difficulty in estimating crop production in general, a bias is introduced in the assessment because often it is the same person who distributes the seeds that calculates the estimated crop production. 11 For example, in Matagalpa, the MAGFOR Delegado Territorial confirmed that he sends on a regular basis price and market information on key agriculture products to Managua; however this was not the case in the RAAN. 16

17 WFP has submitted two proposals (see Annexes C and D) to pilot both a VAM at the municipal level as well as to set up an early warning information system in four municipalities. Acción Contra el Hambre is preparing a project which would be piloted in six municipalities in collaboration with WFP and AMUNIC as implementing partners. UNDP, with the involvement of several UN agencies, is recruiting 52 UNVs to be placed within municipalities to help them prepare municipal development plans which include food security. In addition, the UNVs are supposed to assist the municipalities in establishing food security indicators at the municipal level. The EU-funded PRESANCA project has recruited six Residentes who are providing technical assistance to municipalities on food security and nutrition. In addition, FAO as one of PRESANCA s implementing partners is responsible for setting up an early warning information system in these six municipalities and linking it to national and regional level food security information systems. 23. Contingency Plans: In addition to the two National Contingency Plans (a winter and summer one), SINAPRED and the Civil Defense have assisted 136 municipalities (out of 151) in preparing municipal contingency plans with the technical support of consultants who acted as facilitators. The UN agencies have also developed a UN-wide plan that includes the individual agency s specific contingency plan. 24. Emergency Food Security Assessments: WFP has carried out several food security assessments in the most vulnerable areas of the country, especially those that experienced natural disasters such as the Atlantic Coast and the regions affected by the coffee crisis (see Annex E for a summary of the most recent food security assessments in Nicaragua). Often, the trigger for implementing these rapid EFSAs (see Box 2 for the methodology used by WFP for a rapid EFSA) has been initial reports in the media and/or pleas for assistance from the mayors. 12 Initially, WFP had carried out these assessments jointly with UNICEF and FAO. However, due to disagreement on the methodologies used and, therefore, results of the assessments, WFP more recently has implemented the rapid EFSAs only in collaboration with MAGFOR. 25. In Nicaragua, in-depth EFSAs, that are based on random sampling and that usually need a few weeks to be implemented, have never been carried out. 13 There are several reasons for the lack of in-depth EFSAs in Nicaragua. The range from lack of financial resources; most of the EFSAs are carried out after a sudden onset disaster with the purpose of recommending immediate response; and, finally, given the limited size of the administrative unit and population (as well as the fact that the mayors have a good 12 According to the former VAM officer in WFP s Country Office. 13 The former VAM officer has indicated that a full-efsa was carried out in 2005 in preparation for the PRRO and covering 10 municipalities. However, she mentioned that it was never finalized. The mission was unable to locate a copy of the draft in-depth EFSA to review it. 17

18 oversight of all administered communities), an in-depth EFSA with an intricate process of random sampling is not necessary or applicable. Box 2 The Methodology of the Rapid EFSA in Nicaragua In Nicaragua, the rapid EFSAs have usually taken around 10 days to be completed and have used the following methodology: key informant interviews at national, regional, municipal levels; community group interviews in selected communities; subgroup interviews within selected communities; and/or a rapid household survey based on a sample of households selected using purposive sampling. 5. INSITUTIONAL ANALYSIS 5.1 The Institutional Framework SINAPRED 26. Following Hurricane Mitch, the Nicaraguan Government took decisive measures to reduce Nicaragua's vulnerability to natural disasters. With help from UNDP, the Governments of Spain and Colombia, a task force headed by the Vice President designed a plan for a National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Response (PNRR). 15 The plan led to the passage of the Law #337, creating the Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención a los Desastres in To coordinate the National System's members, the Executive Secretariat for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Response (known as SINAPRED) was established within the Office of the Vice- Presidency. 27. According to the Law #337, SINAPRED is responsible for: making the National System operational, ensuring appropriate staffing of the Secretariat and of member agencies; preparing and activating a National Emergency Plan, clarifying policies, procedures and standards to be applied, and training System members in the Plan and, specifically, in their respective roles in disaster response, prevention and mitigation; establishing a Disaster Management Fund to assure sustained financing for emergency response and relief; establishing and maintaining a data base, supported by geographical information systems (GIS), relevant to disaster management, including information on hazard and vulnerability assessments, as well as on programs, 14 After the recent presidential elections resulting in a change in government, public institutions are undergoing a major reorganization and, at the time of the mission, both SINAPRED and MAGFOR s organization structures and staff responsibilities were being reviewed. 15 In Spanish known as the Programa Nacional de la Reducción de Riesgos (PNRR). 18

19 projects and actions relevant to disaster prevention, mitigation and response; and establishing and coordinating working committees on sector issues and on territorial issues to support disaster prevention and mitigation through national agencies and local governments respectively. 28. Specifically, the National System is comprised of the following: (a) the National Committee, which is a political body headed by the President of the Republic, and includes representatives of several ministries and agencies; (b) the Executive Secretariat 16, which is the National System's coordinating entity; (c) relevant government, semi-autonomous agencies, ministries, private sector firms, and NGOs, some of which participate also through work commissions on key issues (i.e., education, natural hazards, infrastructure, etc.); and (d) departmental/regional, municipal, and local committees, which ensure territorial coordination at their respective levels. 29. In case of an emergency, the Centro de Operaciones de Desastres (CODE) which is led by the Civil Defense, coordinates the response. SINAPRED is assisted by the nine sectoral Commissions (Education and Information, Natural Phenomena, Security, Health, Environment, Coordination of Humanitarian Aid, Infrastructure and Transport, and Special Operations). Annex F provides for SINAPRED s institutional structure. 30. The departmental/regional, municipal, and local committees known as CODEPRED/COREPRED, COMUPRED and COLOPRED respectively - are SINAPRED s decentralized structures and are headed by the Governors, Mayors, and Community Leaders with ministries staff and, often, civil society representatives as members. 31. With funding from the World Bank, the PNRR was updated in 2004 and the National Plan for Risk Management 17 was elaborated by SINAPRED. The National Plan consists of six components: Protection of development and investment: (i) risk management at national and sectoral levels; and (ii) risk management at local level; Strategy for financial protection and risk transfer; Disaster management: preparedness and response; Risk management in the private sector; Information system for risk management; and Civil society participation Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAGFOR) 32. In 2001, Nicaragua prepared its Food Security and Nutrition Policy (Política de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional (SAN)) as an instrument to guarantee the basic human right of sufficient and adequate food intake. After the recent elections, food security has been identified as one of the main priorities of the new government. To 16 Hereafter referred to as SINAPRED. 17 In Spanish kown as Plan Nacional de Gestión del Riesgo (PNGR). 19

20 highlight the importance attached by the new administration, a presidential decree has created three new councils: (i) communication, (ii) food security and sovereignty, and (iii) peace and reconciliation. 33. A new program called Hambre Cero has been launched by the new government. One of its three components, El Bono Productivo, is implemented by MAGFOR and the government has already allocated US$10 million and is seeking to raise an additional US$20 million. The program is meant to improve food security by improving the production capacity of rural dwellers and by providing them with technical assistance. A National Food Security Program and a Law on food security is being prepared with technical assistance from FAO. 34. Currently, MAGFOR is undergoing a major reorganization and therefore, the organizational structure and responsibilities of the various MAGFOR divisions are unclear. 5.2 Coordinating Bodies CONASAN, COTESAN, and PROCOSAN 35. Since the Decree 07/2007 that created the Consejo de Seguridad y Soberana Alimentaria was never executed, the CONASAN (Comité Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional) still remains in place and together with the COTESAN (Comité Técnico de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional) they represent the two national multi-sectoral committees coordinated by the Ministry of Health (MINSA). The former is a high-level forum composed by all the Ministers of the Government. The latter is the technical committee formed by representatives nominated by the ministers as well as by civil society organizations. The COTESAN usually meets on a monthly basis and recently, with the new government s commitment to improving food security and nutrition, it has become more active. The COTESAN discusses policy issues related to food security as well as technical ones. A factor that limits CONASAN and COTESAN is that they are institutionally housed within a ministry MINSA, and are thus situated among equals. Attempts to coordinate the actions of other ministries could be difficult. Their effectiveness would potentially be enhanced if they were housed in an entity other than a ministry and at a higher level within the executive branch. 36. In addition, the Ministry of Health coordinates the Technical Committee of PROCOSAN. PROCOSAN, which stands for Programa Comunitario de Salud y Nutrición, is a World Bank-funded project that is being implemented at the community level to monitor nutrition. The Technical Committee s members include the Ministry of Health, WHO, FAO, MFEWS, and several international and national NGOs. It is one of the few fora that meet on a regular basis to discuss technical issues related to nutrition and to coordinate the activities of all implementing partners. 20

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