Report of the implementation of the International Hydrological Programme. for Latin America and the Caribbean

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1 Regional Bureau for Science in Latin America and the Caribbean United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization International Hydrological Programme Report of the implementation of the International Hydrological Programme for Latin America and the Caribbean (IHP-LAC) ( ) UNESCO International Hydrological Programme for Latin America and the Caribbean REPORT IHP-VI / REPORT o N 8/ENG UNESCO Regional Office for Science for Latin America and the Caribbean, Montevideo, Uruguay.

2 UNESCO INTERNATIONAL HYDROLOGICAL PROGRAMME FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (IHP-LAC) Report of activities Montego Bay, Jamaica October, 2005

3 Foreword This report presents the activities carried out within the context of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) during the period corresponding to the second biennium of the IHP VI Phase: Water Interactions: Systems at risk and social challenges. The document consists of 3 parts. The first part refers to the report of the Regional Hydrologist for Latin America and the Caribbean (RH-LAC) to the VI IHP National Committees (NatComs) and Focal Points (FPs) Regional Meeting (Montego Bay, Jamaica, October 13-14, 2005). This report is followed by the Executive Summary presented by the Regional Coordinators of the IHP Programmes and Working Groups in LAC. Finally, the reports provided by the Member States are reproduced. Complementary information and reference materials are given in the annexed documents. 2

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5 Table of Contents Foreword Part I: Report of the Regional Hydrologist for Latin America and the Caribbean Introduction Report of the Regional Hydrologist, Ms. M.C. Donoso List of IHP-LAC activities Part II: Executive Summaries presented by IHP-LAC Programmes and Working Groups Regional Coordinators CAZALAC- Water Center for Arid and Semiarid Regions of Latin America and the Caribbean ECOHYDROLOGY FRIEND- Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data HELP- Hydrology for Environment Life and Policy UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas Transboundary Aquifers of the Americas ISI- International Sedimentation Initiative PccP- From Potential Conflict to Co-operation Potential Snow, Ice and Glaciers Water and Culture Water and Education Water Balance WHYMAP- World-wide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessment Programme Part III: Reports of activities presented by Member States Bahamas Barbados Brazil Chile Costa Rica Cuba Ecuador El Salvador Mexico Netherland Antilles Peru Uruguay Venezuela Annexes Annex 1. List of Acronyms

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7 UNESCO INTERNATIONAL HYDROLOGICAL PROGRAMME FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (IHP-LAC) Part I: Report of the Regional Hydrologist for Latin America and the Caribbean presented by Ms. María Concepción Donoso Montego Bay, Jamaica October 13-14,

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9 Introduction The International Hydrological Programme (IHP), UNESCO s intergovernmental scientific cooperative programme in water resources, is a vehicle through which Member States can upgrade their knowledge of the water cycle and thereby increase their capacity to better manage and develop their water resources. It also aims at the improvement of the scientific and technological basis for the development of methods for the rational management of water resources, including the protection of the environment. Recently, with the increased presence of the social science component, IHP has become a truly inter-disciplinary programme capitalizing on the recognition that the solution of the world water problems is not just a technical issue. The sixth phase of the IHP that comprises the period deals with the theme Water Interactions: Systems at risk and social challenge. The biennium corresponds to the second programmatic period of the sixth phase. During the biennium, four main lines of action were developed: 1. Global change and water: advancing hydrological sciences for improved assessment 2. Water for Human Needs 3. Water education and capacity-building for sustainable development and security 4. Land-water interactions: towards sustainable development In the framework of these main lines of action, different activity areas suitable for each region have been implemented. This report presents the obtained results for the activity areas being developed in Latin America and the Caribbean. 8

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11 Report of the Regional Hydrologist for Latin America and the Caribbean to the VI Meeting of the UNESCO-IHP Latin America and the Caribbean National Committees and Focal Points Main Line of Action 1: Global change and water: advancing hydrological sciences for improved assessment A1. Activity area: Hydrologic sensitivity to climatic, social, and economic conditions This activity aims at the assessment of water-related stress under different climatic and socioeconomic conditions in LAC. Within this context, the IHP-LAC has supported ongoing Climate Outlook Forums periodically held in the region. These forums gather representatives of the Meteorological and Hydrological services of LAC countries. The objective is to use national climatic experience to elaborate a regional consensus for the climate outlook. An English- Spanish manual: "Use of a Contingency Table for Climatic Applications" and the application (CD) was published to be used for training purposes to facilitate forecasting climate during the Forums. The Conference of the Parties (COP10) of the United Nations Convention for Climate Change, a key intergovernmental event addressing climate change and related issues, took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina, December, In parallel to the COP10 the Development and Adaptation Days event addressed the mechanisms in place or developing by the different sectors to adapt to climate change. One of the sensitive sectors is the Health sector, in particular in relation to water related issues. The IHP-LAC, through its Regional Hydrologist, was invited to present an analysis on the relation "Water and Health" within the context of discussing potential actions of the sector for adapting to Climate Change. Wide dissemination was given to this activity through the IISD reporting services. To promote various activities within the Americas humid tropics, IHP supported participants to the Fourth International Implementation Planning Meeting for the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) and the First Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partners (IGOS-P) Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations Theme (IGWCO) Workshop which took place at the University of Tokyo, Japan, 28th Feb. - 4th March, The execution/up-dating of the assessment of Water Resources (New Generation of Water Balances) in the LAC region is being developed through a common methodology adopted during the First Extended Meeting of the Group of Experts on Water Resources Assessment of Latin America and the Caribbean that took place in San Jose, Costa Rica, May, In the framework of the meetings planned by the Water Balance Working Group for the Southern Cone (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay) the Thematic Workshop of the Water Balance Working Group and Evaluation of the Various Usages of the Resource was held in Montevideo, Uruguay, April, 2005 in order to establish the workplan for the region. The Water Balance of the La Plata watershed will be carried out under the IHP regional water balance group. It is expected that this effort will be part of the Framework Programme for the Sustainable Management of the Water Resources of the La Plata Basin in relation to the hydrologic effects of the variation and climate change coordinated by the Inter-Institutional Commission of the La Plata Basin (CIC, Comité Intergubernamental Coordinador de los Países de la Cuenca del Plata). This activity will be part of the La Plata Basin project being proposed for GEF funding (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2 March, 2005). Presently all of the Latin American countries are engaged in or have completed their Water Balances. 10

12 A2. Activity area: Transboundary Aquifer Systems The expected result for this activity is to improve the coordination in Transboundary Aquifer Systems management through the development of policies and improved management. In this framework UNESCO, with its partner the Organization of the American States (OAS), have strengthened the UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas Programme, a collaborative effort of several agencies that have come together to support and promote the sound use and management of transboundary aquifer resources. All Latin American countries sharing aquifers are participating in the programme. As a first step, an inventory of 62 transboundary aquifers in the Americas was developed (36 in South America, 15 in Central America, 8 in North America and 3 in the Caribbean). The inventory also includes a description of the hidrogeological characteristics, use of the shared groundwater resource, and institutional and legal aspects. Three transboundary aquifers in critical areas of the Americas were chosen as models for implementation of aquifer management mechanisms, these are: - Transboundary inter-mountain and coastal aquifers situated in Caribbean Islands: Artibonito and Masacre in the Hispaniola Island (Haiti Dominican Republic) - Transboundary aquifers situated in semi-arid zones in South America: Yrenda-Toba- Tarijeño in the Great American Chaco (Argentina-Bolivia-Paraguay) - Transboundary aquifers in urban zones: Hueco Bolson (Mexico-United States) The II Coordination Meeting UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas took place in El Paso, USA, November The Meeting mainly focused in a review of the goals achieved by the UNESCO/OAS ISARM programme and planning of future activities. Among the planned activities, especial attention was given to the publication of the Inventory of Transboundary Aquifers in the Americas. Following this event, a UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas Coordination Committee Meeting took place in Brasilia, Brazil, 29 March, 2005, to review the status of activities. The III Coordination Meeting was scheduled to take place in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on November 30 December 2, The meeting will contribute to further develop the planned ISARM projects in the Americas, especially those that have been classified by the Coordinating Committee as advanced, as well as to provide an opportunity for bi-lateral and multi-lateral networking among the participants of the UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas Programme. UNESCO IHP is contributing to enhance the professional capacity of the region in groundwater by providing, through UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas activities, horizontal knowledge exchange, but also by supporting academic programmes and grants, such as the ALHSUD postgraduate grant programme Ing. Germán Galarza. UNESCO-IHP is supporting the government of Uruguay in its effort to increase the knowledge of its groundwater resources. In this regard, information for the decision-making and policy formulation for the sustainable exploitation of the Littoral Aquifer System (Uruguay) will be made available through the development of maps, description of the main characteristics and current situation of the aquifer resulting from a study supported by UNESCO. A3. Activity area: Regional water resources availability, withdrawal and consumption The expected result for this activity is to provide policy makers with updated information to improve water resources management. Within the framework of UNESCO IHP-VI, Theme 2 Integrated Watershed and Aquifer Dynamics, Focal Area 2.4 Methodologies for integrated river basin management, and as part of the global IHP project Guidelines for an Integrated River Basin Management, guidance was provided to the consultancy carried out on the multibasin case study under the project Status of Integrated Water Management in Latin America and the Caribbean. In this project, selected basins in Latin America and the Caribbean (with especial emphasis in: San Francisco basin (Brazil, OAS-GEF basin), Sao Francisco Verdadeiro basin (Brazil, HELP basin), San Juan (Costa Rica and Nicaragua, OAS-GEF basin), and Chaguana basin (Ecuador, HELP basin) are the area for the analysis of different guidelines/methodologies, existing or recommended in the framework of the Integrated Water Resources Management. A technical visit to the Chaguana HELP basin (Ecuador) by experts in 11

13 IWRM took place as part of this project. A report on the state-of-the-art review of existing/recommended guidelines/methodologies, including the application of IWRM in the referred basin was elaborated. In the framework of the project for execution/up-dating of Water Balances in the LAC region, a Training Workshop on Assessment of the state of water resources (Water Balance) of Mesoamerica and the Spanish speaking countries of the Caribbean was held in Jiutepec, Mexico, 7-8 April, Representatives of the Water Balance for Mesoamerica and the subregional coordinators for the projects participated in this meeting. As a result of this event, the schedule for the preparation of the water balance was agreed upon. Honduras, Costa Rica and El Salvador are to complete their water balances in UNESCO-IHP is also coordinating a project for the establishment of data bases exchange and optimization of information. The LAC Group of Experts on Water Resources Assessment and the IHP-LAC Project and Working Groups Coordinators are contributing in the development of this project. A UNESCO Chair in Sustainable Water Resources has been established at the Regional School of Sanitary Engineering and Water Resources at the University of San Carlos (Guatemala). The Guatemala UNESCO IHP National Committee is participating in this innovative initiative for the country. Within the context of the Chair, a short and medium term operational plan biennium were established in order to improve knowledge for integrated water resources management. This plan includes: training of human resources, development of the scientific research, enhancing computing faculties, participation at different activities related to water resources, environment, health, and others at the regional and global level. A4. Activity area: Integrated assessment of vulnerability of water resources to extreme events The expected result for this activity is to improve methodologies for mitigation of extreme events such as droughts and floods. In this line of action, a research project: Vulnerability and risk of the population to precipitation anomalies in South America was jointly developed by scientists of the University of New Hampshire (USA) and the University Simon Bolivar (Venezuela). This project provides a sound methodology to quantify vulnerability, exposure, and risk of the population to anomalous rainfall in South America by linking past information on people affected and human losses occurred by floods as a proxy measure of population vulnerability to high-resolution bio-geophysical data sets. In this biennium the IHP-LAC has sponsored events to disseminate methodologies for mitigation of floods and droughts. A meeting was held in Kingston, Jamaica, March 17-19, 2004, to discuss and assess the state of water resources in the Caribbean island states and to analyse the impacts of climate change and variability on social and economic developments. Representatives of the UNESCO IHP-LAC co-chaired a session on: "Promoting Integrated Watershed Management and research to foster sustainable development" at the White Water to Blue Water Conference (Miami, USA, March 22, 2004). During the session, information was exchanged on practices for the integration of floods and droughts. Negotiations with the European Union and other parties to establish a joint project on risk assessment and disaster response and management are being held. The Director of the Regional Office for Science for LAC is spearheading this initiative. The 4 th World Water Forum (4 th WWF) to be held in Mexico in March 2006 has the aim of raising the awareness on water issues all over the world, by enabling multi-stakeholder participation and dialogue to influence water policy making at a global level while assuring better living standards and a more responsible social behaviour towards water issues in-line with the pursuit of sustainable development. The Preparatory Meeting for the 4 th WWF took 12

14 place in Mexico City, February, During the meeting a set of recommendations for potential UNESCO IHP participation at the WWF IV were made. A5. Activity area: Regional Diagnostics of Groundwater Improved capacities to assess groundwater are expected to be the result of this activity. In this regard, the Latin American region is participating in the World Hydrogeological Map project (WHYMAP). The Regional Coordinator participated in both annual WHYMAP Steering Committee Meetings that took place in Paris, France, March 8-10, 2004 and April 13-15, 2005 respectively. This project is reaching conclusion. The WHYMAP Committee has confirmed the presentation of the World Hydrogeological Map in the World Water Forum IV (Mexico, March 2006). National and regional capacities are being built by supporting periodic academic programmes on groundwater related sciences. On of such programmes is the biannual courses on groundwater organized by the School of Engineering of Uruguay of the University of the Republic (Montevideo, Uruguay, October-November, 2004). IHP-LAC supported the IAH Round Table held in parallel with the XXXIII Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists and 7º ALHSUD Congress (Zacatecas, Mexico, 14th October, 2004) through facilitating Spanish to English translation. As a result of the discussions in this round table, recommendations were made to advance the knowledge and sustainable management of groundwater. The potential presentation at the WWFIV of the theme of groundwater was also addressed. The IHP-LAC is supporting the development of the methodology for schematic cartography representation of the Regional Aquifer Systems. The application of this methodology to Chaco- Toba in the Central South American region and Artibonito-Masacre in Dominican Republic-Haití is tested in order to prepare a schematic map for each of these aquifers. This methodology is to be used to produce schematic maps of aquifers to be used by policy-makers and managers without a hydrological or geological background. In the framework of improving groundwater management within the context of Integrated Water Resources Management, the workshop "Groundwater Governance and Management in Arid/Semiarid Countries" was held during April 3-7, 2005, El Cairo, Egypt. This workshop was based in case studies and country practices, also it was an instance for exchange and dialogue to provide practical pathways. At the Conference, the UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas Programme was introduced, as a success story of cooperation among countries and organizations in the identification and characterization of transboundary aquifers. The IHP-LAC was represented in the Sweden Water Week UNESCO Seminar (Stockholm, Sweden, August 21-27, 2005), annual global meeting place for the world's diverse water community. A6. Activity area: International sediment initiative and related topics The International Sediment Initiative is a new programme recently launched by IHP. To increase participation of LAC professionals in sediment dynamics and related process studies, two sub-regional workshops are programmed in Brasilia and Mexico. As a result of this activity it is expected a detailed plan for the implementation of ISI in The ISI-LAC Coordinator participated in the Meeting of the International ISI Steering Committee (Verna, Switzerland, March 7, 2005). The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) organized the VII Scientific Assembly Conference in Foz de Iguazú, Brazil, April 1-5, Discussions on water 13

15 resources uncertainty and water management in the region took place during the Conference. At the conference the theme of sediment dynamics was addressed in various sessions. The course "Quality of Coastal Waters" took place in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, September 19-24, National and International experts and students participated in the course that dealt with physical process over the coastal regions, environmental monitoring of chemical variables, bioindicators, mass balance and mathematical modelling, data analysis, water quality, and others. During the course, particular attention was given to the impact of sediments in the quality of coastal waters. More information on ISI-LAC is provided in Part II of this report. A7. Activity area: FRIEND-Latin America (South America) During the biennium, the National IHP Committees and Focal Points of the region have designated FRIEND National Focal Points who established a FRIEND South America programme. The FRIEND project (Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network data) was coordinated and implemented in the Caribbean and Mesoamerica during biennium The expected result of the activities of FRIEND was to increase the number of countries participating in this project. At the beginning of the biennium, only the Central American and five countries in the Caribbean participated in FRIEND related activities. The goal for the biennium was to establish the FRIEND South America. The FRIEND South America Meeting took place in Montevideo, Uruguay, October 26-28, 2004, with the participation of representatives of countries from this subregion. During the Meeting the representatives formally established the FRIEND South America project, designated the Project Coordination for South America, and approved the workplan At the FRIEND-LAC working team made a review of the activities carried out during the biennium and planned the activities to be developed in the biennium A8. Activity area: FRIEND-Latin America (Mesoamerica and the Caribbean) FRIEND project is developing a series of activities in the Caribbean and Mesoamerica. Among these, it is of great importance the methodology being developed for identification of high risk drought areas. The web site of the project was developed and is available at The working team of the project has started the logistic arrangements for the V FRIEND World Conference that will be held in Havana, November 27 December 1, The Conference aims at presenting the results of the UNESCO FRIEND research programme that has stimulated international cooperation to meet local and regional needs. It will be focused on discussing how advances in analytical techniques and process hydrology are improving the assessment of water resource variability and the impacts of environmental change. The conference will also give high priority to establishing links with related international programmes and with related disciplines of groundwater hydrology, ecohydrology and climatology. To better coordinate activities and optimise resources within the IHP-LAC, a Workshop of Coordination of the IHP/LAC FRIEND and HELP Programmes was held in Foz de Iguazú, Brazil, August For more information on FRIEND-LAC, see the executive report of the Regional Coordinator in Part II of this report. 14

16 A9. Activity area: HELP - LAC Comparative case studies (South America and Mesoamerica) The expected result of the HELP programme (Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy) was to establish additional HELP basins in LAC. At the beginning of 2004, only 4 basins were considered HELP basins. Presently, nine basins have been established in LAC. The HELP Regional Coordination Unit (RCU) for LAC has developed an inventory of HELP basins in LAC, and is working in the establishment of the Virtual Application Center. The web page of the project (http://www.fimcm.espol.edu.ec/webpages/help/index.htm) includes information on implemented, ongoing, and planned activities. The project coordinator has participated in several meetings in the region where she presented the advances in the implementation of the project. In order to increase synergies among the most long-standing IHP-LAC projects/programmes, a Workshop of Coordination of the IHP/LAC FRIEND and HELP Programmes took place in Foz de Iguazú, Brazil, August 10-12, The objective of the event was promoting collaboration and optimization of the capacities in each of the regional programmes. The event was cosponsored by the Brazilean IHP National Committee, the Brazilean Water Agency (ANA) and Itaipú Bi-national. For more information on HELP-LAC, see the executive report of the Regional Coordinator in Part II of this report. A10. Activity area: WWAP: Resources Studies in LAC Various IHP-LAC programmes and projects are contributing to improve the comprehensive assessment of freshwater resources in the region. Among these the FRIEND-LAC project, the Water Balance project, as well as the WHYMAP and UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas are the most relevant contributors. Furthermore, a number of pilot basins have been established by WWAP in LAC with the purpose of testing methodologies and indicators aimed to better assess water resources. Also, in collaboration with WMO, three exercises were carried out in the region to test-drive 2 indicators to be used in the upcoming WWDRII. The first indicator referred to was an TARWR (Total Actual Renewable Water Resources). In this exercise participated the IHP National Committee of Brazil, Costa Rica, Chile, Mexico and Cuba. The second indicator, namely the WRAI (Water Resources Assessment Index) is a newly conceived indicator to define to what extent the state of water resources are known in each Member State. Four exercises to testdrive IWRA were carried out: two in South America, one in Mesoamerica, and one in the Caribbean. The results of those exercises are to be used in the IV Chapter of the WWDR III. Main Line of Action 2: Water for Human Needs A11. Activity area: Integrated water resources management under extreme events conditions Various mechanisms for the improvement of integrated water resources management incorporating social and institutional aspects were analysed at the XXXIII Congress of the International Association of Hydrologists Congress and to the 7th Ground Water for Development Latin American Association took place in Zacatecas, Mexico, October 11-15, The principal aim of these activities was to focus on the political agenda to address water issues. The special relevance of the groundwater dimensions of in terms of the need for political action, policy reform, and financial investment were discussed from a cross-cutting perspective. 15

17 IHP-LAC supported the participation of experts from the region and co-sponsored events were IWRM-related themes was discussed. For example, a representative of Paraguay participated in the Extension Course in Management of Water Resources in Pantanal that was held in Cuiaba, Brasil, November 22 - December 5, A12. Activity area: Air-sea-land interactions: Global Water Systems The IHP-LAC was represented in FIDAE 4: Space and Water: Towards sustainable development and social security (Santiago, Chile, April 1-2, 2004) The initial analysis/discussion on potential regional water systems models which includes a human dimension was carried out at the First Extended Meeting of the Group of Experts on Water Resources Assessment of Latin America and the Caribbean that took place in San Jose, Costa Rica, May 24-26, During the meeting, a set of methodology for assessing Water Resources in the LAC region were presented. The Group of Experts concluded that steps are being taken for the implementation of the so called Integral Water Balance in the LAC region. The latter should include the definition of uses and demand of water resources that requires the human dimension perspective. The Mexican IHP NatCom, through IMTA is consolidating a methodology that is tested in Mexico. The Itaipu binational group has also developed a comprehensive tool for this purpose. A13. Activity area: Hydrology in different climate zones With the aim of further collaborating with various active donor agencies in LAC, the IHP-LAC participated in the workshop: "Bridging research and development assistance: Strategies for adaptation to climate change in developing countries" which took place in Copenhaguen, Denmark, August 26-27, The outcome of the meeting produced recommendations to Danida in terms of the areas of research that need to be strengthened in different sub-regions (Sub-Saharean Africa, Coastal Asia, Latin America). The IHP-LAC agreed to provide advice (upon request) to Danida on specific areas of water-related research within the context of the LAC region. The IHP-LAC supported the establishment of the M. Sc. Program on Integrated Coastal Zone Management at the Universidad de la República (UdelaR) in collaboration with the University of Dalhousie. The contribution of UNESCO was key to the process carried out at UdelaR that ended with the granting of a five year support by CIDA (Canada) for the final development, evaluation, implementation, and regionalization of the referred MSc Programme. As part of the activities carried out in the humid tropics, the IHP-LAC supported the XI Governing Board of CATHALAC that took place in Panama, February 2, CATHALAC s main activity in the biennium has been establishment of a Regional System of Visualization and Monitoring (SERVIR). Studies in mountain hydrology have consolidated as the group on snow, ice and glaciers has strengthen and increased its activities. This network is now fully operational. One of the major national water networks in LAC is the Associação Brasileira de Recursos Hídricos (ABRH). Over the years the IHP-LAC has contributed in different ways to the ABRH activities. The XVI Brazilean Symposium in Water Resources will take place in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil from November 20 24, In the framework of the Symposium, the Young Researcher Prize will be awarded with the financial support of UNESCO to the best scientific article written by a young researcher is aimed at fostering young intelligences to research on water issues. The Map of Arid and Semi-arid Zones for LAC is being coordinated by the Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Zones (CAZALAC). The Sub-regional Coordinators of the Andean, Caribbean, Southern Cone and Mesoamerica regions have carried out planning and activity review 16

18 meetings in Quito, Ecuador (January 20-21, 2005) and Buenos Aires, Argentina (May 25, 2005). Emphasis was made to have the map ready by early 2006 to be published for distribution at the World Water Forum in Mexico. A14. Activity area: Water Resources in Coastal Zones (Coastal Zone Management) The expected result for this activity was to contribute to improve the capacity of the Member States to efficiently manage water resources in coastal zones. To accomplish this goal, it is of outmost importance to assess the availability and use of water resources in Member States. In this context and in the framework of the project for execution/up-dating of Water Balances in the LAC region, a training Workshop on water assessment and mapping of the arid and semiarid zones for the Caribbean was held in Port de France, Martinique, September 30 October 2, 2004). The purpose of this workshop was to train water experts from Caribbean countries in methodologies for developing the water assessment and the mapping of the arid and semi-arid zones. A15. Activity area: Andean Hydrology The expected result for this activity was to improve the capacities of countries and the guidelines for efficient management of water resources in montaneous areas (Andes). During the biennium, three technical meetings of the Andean Working Group on Snow, Ice, and Glaciers of IHP (WGSIG IHP) have taken place in the region. These sessions have been carried out together with a scientific event. The 2nd WGSIG Coordination Meeting was held in Huaraz, Peru, July 8 and 10, 2004, following the Workshop on Mass Balance of Andean Glaciers. The Third WGSIG Meeting took place in Foz de Iguazú, Brazil, in the framework of the IAHS Scientific Assembly (April 3-9, 2005) during which took place a special Workshop on Andean Glaciology. The IV Meeting of the IHP-LAC UNESCO WGSIG and the Training Workshop on Glacier Observation Methods took place in La Paz, Bolivia, August 1-11, 2005 with the participation of all country members of the Working Group. The Andean Hydrology programme is carried out in collaboration with IAHS, and another partners, in particular the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD-France). A steam drill device for glacier mass balance to be used by the IHP-LAC UNESCO Andean Snow and Ice and Glaciers Working Group (Bolivian component) was acquired with financial support from the IHP-LAC. For more information on IHP LAC activities in Andean Hydrology carried out by the WGSIG refer to Part II of this report. A16. Activity area: Water in urban areas The expected result for this activity is to improve the capacity for management of water resources in urban areas. In this framework, the ECOPLATA Project in San Luis community (Uruguay) is being implemented. The objective of this project is to support the sustainable development of the local coastal community and surroundings. The IHP-LAC supported IDEAM authorities (Institute of Hydrology, Metheorology and Environmental Studies) of the Colombian Ministry of Environment, Housing and Urban Development to establish a Regional Center for LAC under the auspices of UNESCO on Water Management in Urban Zones. As part of the UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas Programme, UNESCO IHP-LAC participated and provided technical advice in the formulation of a GEF-OAS project proposal for the Pantanal Aquifer. The Meeting on the Pantanal Aquifer took place in Corumba, Brazil, March 30-31, 17

19 2005. As a result of this meeting the grounds for the preparation of a proposal to GEF were established. An integrated view of Urban Water Management was presented at the International Capacity Building Course in Integrated Urban Flood Management (Lima, Peru, August 2005). The IHP-LAC provided financial support for participants to this event. IHP-LAC contributed with the publication of a brochure and the organization of the V Inter- American Dialogue on Water Resources Management (D5) which was launched in Kingston, Jamaica, March 22, 2005 within the context of the World Water Day. The V Inter-American Dialogue on Water Management will take place in Montego Bay, October 9 14, 2005 hosted by the Government of Jamaica (Water Resources Authority), in collaboration with various agencies and organizations in the water sector. The theme of the V Dialogue is Strengthening Local Capacities to Achieve Global Challenges. This theme will complement the Fourth World Water Forum, to be held in Mexico in March The V Dialogue will be an important means by which regional lessons from the Americas will be transmitted to the Fourth World Water Forum, as well as providing policy input to Summit of the Ministers of the Environment of the Americas Meeting, to be held in Caracas, Venezuela in late A17. Activity area: Transboundary water management and poverty alleviation The expected result for this activity has been to improve institutional and participatory framework in transboundary water management for poverty alleviation. In this regard and in the framework of UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas programme, the workshop on Central Region of Hispaniola Island Transboundary Aquifers - Dominican Republic - Haiti took place in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, August 20-24, Another project being presented to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for financing; namely this Yrenda-Toba-Tarijeno (Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina). These projects are expected to contribute to the efforts carried out by participating countries actions through improved water management. An important goal of IHP-LAC has been to support efforts carried out by Member States to improve the assessment of their transboundary water resources with the aim of carrying out sustainable management, both from an environmental and socio-economic perspective. To address this goal the IHP-LAC in collaboration with CRRH (Regional Hydraulic Resources Committee) and IMTA (Mexican Institute in Water Technologies) organized the Training Workshop on methodologies for assessment of the state of water resources and mapping of arid zones (MAZ) of Mesoamerica and the Spanish speaking Caribbean (Jiutepec, Mexico, April 7-9, 2005). Following up on the above cited goal, IHP-LAC is contributing with activities carried out by CIC La Plata (Comisión Interinstitucional de la Cuenca del Plata) in this transboundary basin of great importance for the Member States of this region. Within this framework of the meetings planned by the Water Balance Working Group for the Southern Cone, the Thematic Workshop for the Working Group on Water Balance and Evaluation of the Multiple Use of the Resource, was held in Montevideo, Uruguay, April 18-19, After the review of the available resources, and the needs for the development of the Water Balance in the Southern Cone, the methodology to be used for the development of the Integral Water Balance and the workplan were established. An important mechanism to increase awareness for sustainable transboundary water management is by involving the media. IHP-LAC is initiating a process of approaching journalists and communication companies. In this sense, a contribution was made to the Meeting of Environmental Reporters and Communicators "Management of Shared Basins and Aquifers in Latin America and the Caribbean" was held in Porto Alegre, Brasil, November 8 9, The President of the Network of Environmental Communication for LAC (Colombia) participated in this meeting. 18

20 A18. Activity area: Caribbean Islands The expected result for this activity area is to improve the capacities of island states in assessing water resources availability and use in support of integrated management. A meeting was held in Kingston, Jamaica, March 17-19, 2004 to discuss and assess the state of water resources in the Caribbean island states, and to analyse the impacts of climate change and climate variability on water resources within the context of social and economic developments. Another important objective of this activity area was to increase the participation and visibility of the Caribbean Member States in regional and global water-related fora and Conference. Consequently, IHP-LAC supported the participation of the President of the Jamaican IHP National Committee to the Planning Meeting of the WWF IV in Mexico city, Mexico, March 23-24, The support of the IHP-LAC to carrying out the V Inter-American Dialogue on Water Management (Montego Bay, Jamaica, October 9 14, 2005) is another mechanism to show the water-related activities of the Caribbean and strengthen the links and position of this region of the Americas. A19. Activity area: Water Management for conflict prevention and resolution The objective of the Co-operation Potential Programme (PccP) Programme is to strengthen the capacity of Member States and other key players in the management of shared water resources, to anticipate, prevent, and resolve water conflicts. In the first phase, courses in different regions of the world are being implemented. As a result of the implementation of these courses is expected an improvement in the methodologies on water conflict resolution and cooperation aiming at the reduction of water conflicts in LAC. A working group has been established in LAC to regionalize and implement courses in the region. The First Meeting of the UNESCO PccP Programme in LAC was held in Montevideo, Uruguay, May 2-4, 2005, as a result, the workplan for the adaptation/regionalization of the PccP short course to the LAC region scenario was established. The Second Meeting of the UNESCO PccP programme in LAC will be held in Miami, USA, October, The pilot course for test-driving the course book and other materials will take place in Guayaquil, Ecuador, November 28 - December 2, This will be followed by an evaluation workshop to be held in December 4-5, For more information on PccP LAC refer to Part II of this report. Main Line of Action 3: Water education and capacity-building for sustainable development and security A20. Activity area: Capacity building for sustainable development in Haiti (LDC) As a result of the financial contribution provided by UNESCO, six presentations on research carried out by the University of Quisqueya were made at the XXIX Inter-American Congress of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering (San Juan, Puerto Rico, August 22-27, 2004). The presentations were on water quality related studies developed in Haiti. To improve capacities in Haiti for water management performance, IHP-LAC supported a diagnosis of the state of Haiti hydrometeorological data bases and a proposal for the rescue and re-establishment of these data bases was developed. A platform for the creation of a data bank in support of integrated water resources management in Haiti was established. During the present biennium, efforts have been made to increase the involvement of Haitian water-related professionals and academics in regional programmes. A Haitian representative participated in the Hispaniola Transboundary Aquifers Workshop (Santo Domingo, Dominican 19

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