1 Second Report: Assessment on Management Effectiveness of Sangay National Park as A World Heritage Site Quito, August 2007
2 The Enhancing Our Heritage project is a joint initiative between UNESCO, the University of Queensland, and The World Conservation Union (UICN), financed by the United Nations Foundation. This four-year project takes place in 10 World Heritage Sites in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The main objective of the project is to show that monitoring, assessment, and reports can help improve the management effectiveness of World Heritage Sites. The Sangay National Park of Ecuador was selected as one of the sites of the Enhancing Our Heritage project. UNESCO and UICN-South made arrangements with the Ministry of the Environment and the Natura and EcoCiencia Foundations, both Ecuadorian members of UICN with ample work experience at the Sangay National Park, to coordinate the management assessment process along with several public and private national and international organizations that have accrued or collected information in/about Sangay National Park, in order to foster the exchange and the use of information available to improve park management. This document may be cited as follows: Ministerio del Ambiente Segundo Informe de la Evaluación de Efectividad de Manejo del Parque Nacional Sangay como Sitio de Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.. Proyecto Mejorando Nuestra Herencia: Ministerio del Ambiente, Fundación Natura, EcoCiencia y UICN-Sur. Quito, Ecuador. Ministry of the Environment Second Report: Assessment on Management Effectiveness of Sangay National Park as A World Heritage Site. Improving our Heritage Project: Ministry of the Environment, Natura Foundation, EcoCiencia, and IUCN-South. Quito, Ecuador.
3 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS... 3 INTRODUCTION RANGE: CONTEXT... 5 SITE VALUES: MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES... 5 THREATS... 8 RELATIONSHIP WITH STAKEHOLDERS AND PARTNERS GOVERNMENT SUPPORT NATIONAL CONTEXT PLANNING GENERAL PLANNING SITE DESIGN INPUTS FINANCING NEEDS PROCESSES PRODUCTS ASSESSMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PLAN IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS BIODIVERSITY HEALTH DESIGN OF A COMMUNITY WATER MONITORING PROGRAM FOR MICROWATERSHEDS IN THE OSOGOCHE RIVER (SNP) EVALUATION... 44
4 INTRODUCTION The Sangay National Park is part of the Enhancing Our Heritage Project, carried out in 10 World Heritage Sites around the planet. The project s main objective is to show that monitoring, assessment, and reports can help improve the management effectiveness of World Heritage Sites. In 2002, an initial report was done for the project about the conservation status and park management (Bajaña, et al. 2002). The Framework for Assessment on Management Effectiveness of Protected Areas (Hockings et al., 2000), developed by the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) of IUCN was used. The Framework is divided into six sections that refer to different elements of area management effectiveness: 1. Identification of existing values and threats 2. Analysis of planning 3. Assignment of resources (supplies) 4. Management actions (process) 5. Eventual production of commodities and services (products) 6. Conservation impacts or results These sections, however, are highly linked and complement each other. The identification of pressures and threats (context), for example, is the first step in analyzing the status of threats (valorization of results). In the same fashion, the identification of management objectives (context) provides a focus point for each and every assessment element. Due to time constraints when producing the initial report in 2002, the information was basically descriptive. Two years after the initial report, park management and partner organizations have developed several actions and studies to improve the original management status and have procured new park status information. This report is the Second Assessment on Management Effectiveness of Sangay National Park as a World Heritage Site. We have used the tools suggested in the updated toolbox of the Enhancing Our Heritage Project (Hocking, et al. 2007) adapted to the status and information available for the park. The assessment was based on a revision of information obtained during the last few years on issues such as management objectives, administrative management plan of the Sangay National Park (SNP), financial strategy of the SNP, financial needs of the System of Protected Areas, etc. This revision was complemented with a workshop for SNP staff, communities and technical staff of institutions linked to the EOP Project. Workshop participants helped adapt and select the most adequate tools to carry out the assessment (see Annex 1) and partial information was completed. Finally, we systematized the information and produced this report. We will also prepare a series of public information materials with some of the Project s results, and we will develop an Executive Summary and Guide for Action to implement the most important recommendations for the most effective management of the SNP.
5 TECHNICAL INFORMATION World Heritage Site: IUCN Management Category: Area: Declared as National Park: Sangay National Park; Ecuador II (National Park) 502, ha 271,925 ha, July 26, 1979 (Inter- Ministerial Agreement 0322, Official Registry 69 of November 20, 1979). Boundary Modification: (1) Area extension. May 12, 1992 Ministerial Agreement 0206, Official Registry 939 of May 20, Total surface area: 517,765 ha (2) Ministerial Agreement 032, Official Registry 330, May 7, An area amounting to 15, ha corresponding to the strip surrounding the Guamote Macas Highway was removed from the park. Therefore, the area of the SNP is now 502, ha. World Heritage Site: 1983: Criteria ii, iii, iv (Only the 271,925 ha of the National Park that existed then were declared WHS) Placed on the List of Endangered Heritage Sites: 1992 (WHC-92/CONF.002/12) Removed from the List of Endangered Heritage Sites: 2005 (WHC-05/29.COM/22). 1 RANGE: CONTEXT SITE VALUES: MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES In 2003, as part of the activities of the Enhancing Our Heritage (EOH) Project, a study about the management objectives of the park was carried out (Environment Ministry, 2004a), based on the methodology proposed by The Nature Conservancy s Site Conservation Planning (TNC, 2001). A very integrated approach was used that not only took into consideration the preservation of the natural resources but the sustainable use of resources from a biological and ecological point of view. An analysis of the socio-economic and cultural background inside of which the protected areas are managed was also taken into account. For this reason, we worked with the management objectives scheme instead of focal conservation objectives. This process was undertaken by the main actors that are in any way associated with the park, such as park rangers, managers, municipalities, community representatives, support organizations such as Foundation Natura, EcoCiencia, the National Environmental Fund, and ESPOCH. Eight management objectives were identified by means of this process. They are presented in Table 1.
6 Table 1: Identification of the main values of the Sangay National Park Values Management Objectives Information sources used to determine values Biodiversity Other natural Andean bear and tapir Native forests threatened by weeds ( Guarumal, Colepato, Llusín and the Guamote-Macas road) Sangay Volcano Tungurahua Volcano Sangay National Park Document on Management Objectives, 2004 Sangay National Park Document on Management Objectives, 2004 Sangay National Park Document on Management Objectives, 2004 Sangay National Park Document on Management Objectives, 2004 Cultural Camino del Inca (Capaq Ñan Inca Trail ) Sacred or banned natural sites Sangay National Park Document on Management Objectives, 2004 Sangay National Park Document on Management Objectives, 2004 Lake systems with visitation potential (Osogoche, Sardinayacu, Atillo, Culebrillas, and Altar) Sangay National Park Document on Management Objectives, 2004 Financial Microwatersheds that generate identified environmental services Sangay National Park Document on Management Objectives, 2004
7 Table 2. Main Management Objectives of Sangay National Park and their links with Management Objectives and World Heritage Site Objectives MAIN OBJECTIVE RELATIONSHIP WITH AREA-SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES LINKS WITH CRITERIA FOR WORLD HERITAGE SELECTION 1 OBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION Sangay Volcano 1, 2, 3,4, 7 II, III, IV An emblematic site because the park took its name from the volcano. The volcano is constantly active and is one of the most visited attractions. Both the volcano and its natural surroundings are considered a main objective. Among the area s features, unique moorlands have sprung in new soil Tungurahua Volcano Andean bear and Andean tapir Sacred or banned natural sites Camino del Inca (Capaq Ñan) Micro-watersheds that generate environmental services (sectors inside the SNP) Native forests threatened by weeds ( Guarumal, Colepato, Llusín Guamote Macas ) 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11 II, IV This volcano is equally active and has erupted recently. This has implications in the management of the area and on the residents of Baños as well as the rural populations of the Quero, Penipe, etc. villages due to the financial and environmental implications. This MO takes into consideration both the volcano and its surrounding human settlements 3, 4, 8, 9 III These are the park s umbrella species. The populations of other smaller species benefit from the conservation of the habitat of the bear and tapir. Both species are considered as just one MO since they share many habitat requirements and monitoring actions. The same resources can be used to monitor both species simultaneously. 3, 6, 7, 9, 11 These sites are used by the Sshuar and Kichwa Indian populations. Sacred and banned sites should be set apart because the former are places where religious rites are carried out, while the latter are sites where nobody can enter because the Indians believe that the magic dwellers of the sites reject visitors. 6, 7, 8, 11, 12 This site was selected FOR its cultural and visitation relevance. The SNP is the only protected area in Ecuador through which the Inca Trail passes and the best preserved site of this Trail in Ecuador. Inca Trail goes through almost 5 km of SNP at the Culebrillas (Cañar) area. 1, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12 IV The areas of the SNP corresponding to the following micro-watersheds were selected: Alao River, Ozogoche, Puela River, Abanico, Tutanangoza, and Juval River in order to protect the watersheds from the effects of the Paute, Abanico and Agoyan hydroelectric projects that provide water to cities and settlements close to the SNP. 3, 4, 5, 10, 11 IV These forests were selected because of the threats they face and because it was deemed necessary to take emergency actions to prevent deforestation in areas close to or inside the SNP. The most important forests in the Guamote Macas area are Ashilan, Tinguichaca, Purshi, San Vicente, and San Francisco. Lake systems with tourism potential 3, 5, 7, 9 IV The Sardinayacu, Ozogoche, Atillo, Culebrillas, and Altar ponds were chosen because of their potential as tourism sites. The criteria for the selection of this MO were: tourism potential and cultural and natural values CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF WORLD HERITAGE SITES Criteria II: Examples of geological, biological, or ecological evolutionary processes Criteria III: Containing extraordinary natural phenomena or areas of exceptional beauty and esthetic importance Criteria IV: Containing the most important and meaningful habitats for the conservation of biological diversity 1 It was decided to maintain the criteria number scheme previously used by UNESCO, which can be found in the documents that support the declaration of SNP as a World Heritage Site, as opposed to the new number scheme that has not yet been approved (Decision 6 EXT.COM 5.1)
8 MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES OF SANGAY NATIONAL PARK GENERAL OBJECTIVE To guarantee the sustainability of natural resources and ecosystems of Sangay National Park for the benefit of present and future generations SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To preserve the upper Andean terrestrial ecosystems, mountain ledges and moist subtropical forests as well as the wetlands and water resources that feed the most important hydroelectric centers of the country (Agoyán and Paute). 2. To procure minimal disturbance to the main geological features such as the Tungurahua Volcano, Altares, the Sangay Volcano and the Cubillín Mountains and the surrounding areas of each, with the purpose of securing the maximum ecological diversity possible. 3. To maintain the present natural vegetation coverage in the park in order to guarantee the almost pristine conditions and the ecological succession of the Amazon subtropical forest and the Andean forest represented in the area, where the presence of species representative of the high Amazon or scientific and tourist interest has been proven. 4. To protect the fauna of the park from negative impacts caused by human activities, in order to guarantee the preservation of wildlife populations, including vulnerable, endemic, and endangered or very rare species. 5. To recuperate the natural vegetative coverage and the wild fauna of SNP in the areas that have been altered or destroyed by human intervention. 6. To protect archaeological resources and cultural features of the park and its buffer zone. 7. To protect and develop tourism, landscape, and recreational potential of natural areas of the park with the collaboration with residents of surrounding populations. 8. To provide opportunities to research natural resources and ecosystems inside the park as well as the socioeconomic component of the buffer area with the purpose of providing the most suitable management for the area s status. 9. To intensely develop environmental education activities in the settlements inside the buffer zone with the purpose of raising awareness of the environmental goods and services that the park provides. 10. To gradually rollback activities incompatible with the park s conservation objectives carried out by communities and residents of the buffer zone and the SNP itself. 11. To promote development of sustainable production alternatives for the benefit of populations and communities of the park s buffer zone. 12. To gradually develop the park s self-management through goods, services, and activities of the park that generate funds enabling SNP to generate its own monies, and to motivate and/or procure national and international donations. Source: Sangay National Park Management Plan. THREATS Using the identified MOs, we analyzed the threats that each faces. First, we determined the pressures and then causes of each. Table 4 summarizes the threats. The three main threats are: 1. Cattle herding 2. Agriculture and 3. Uncontrolled tourism It should also be noted that, although the loss of traditional and cultural values of sacred and prohibited sites occurs in only one of the MOs, the incidence is high and it should be taken into consideration when choosing strategies. Construction of infrastructure affects four of eight MOs, but the rate is low. The Tungurahua volcano faces the most severe threats (3); sacred/prohibited sites are in second place, with 2 strains. The bear/tapir and native forests MOs face medium global threats. In general terms, the global rating for the threats faced by the selected MOs is high.
9 Table 3. Summary of the Threats to the Management Objectives of Sangay National Park Management Objectives THREATS GLOBAL THREAT LEVEL Environmentally unfriendly cattle raising Low Very high Medium - High Medium - Low High Environmentally unfriendly agriculture - Very high Medium High Uncontrolled tourism Low Very high - Low Low High Loss of traditions and cultural values Very high High Partial observance of contingency plan - Very high High Construction of infrastructure - - Medium - Medium Low High Low Medium Deforestation - - Medium - - Low High - Medium Lack of information management - High Medium Human settlements High - Medium Trade in wild fauna and flora - - Medium Medium - Medium Hunting due to conflict with corn farmers - - Medium Low Transversal watering canals Medium Low Threat status of OMs Low Very high Medium High Low Low High Low High 1. Sangay Volcano 2. Tungurahua Volcano 3. Bear / Tapir 4. Sacred or prohibited natural sites 5. Inca Trail 6. Micro-watersheds that generate environmental services that have been identified (sectors inside SNP) 7. Threatened native forests (Colepato, Guarumales, Guamote Macas, and Llushín) 8. Lake systems with tourism potential
10 Table 4. Threat matrix for each management objective of Sangay National Park. Threats to biodiversity values (Bear and Tapir) List of Threats Is there an actual or potential threat? Identify the most probable sources of threat Threat Impact Extent Severity Action Management prescription Immediateness of Action Fauna and flora (hunting) trade Medium Medium Environmental education activities Medium Source(s) Population decrease Establish legal processes Medium Hunting due to conflict with corn farmers Source(s) Population decrease Low Low Income alternatives Medium Bear-watching tourism Medium Environmentally unfriendly agriculture Source(s) Habitat decrease Low Medium Environmental education Recuperation of degraded zones High Environmentally unfriendly cattle raising Source(s) Habitat decrease Low Medium Environmental education Recuperation of degraded zones High Construction infrastructure of Population decrease Low Medium Habitat decrease Low Medium Recuperation of degraded zones High 10
11 Deforestation Population decrease Low Medium Environmental education High Source(s) Habitat decrease Low Medium Recuperation of degraded zones High Threats to other natural values (threatened native forests) List of Threats Is there an actual or potential threat? Identify the most probable sources of threat Threat Impact Management prescription Severity Action Severity Action Fauna and flora (hunting) trade Loss of species low High Environmental education Control High Source(s) Landscape change Research (doubt) low medium Environmental education Control High Construction infrastructure of Loss of species low low Control Low Source(s) Landscape change low low Habitat fragmentation low high Recuperation High Deforestation Loss of species low medium Recuperation High Source(s) Landscape change low medium Recuperation High Human Settlements Source(s) Habitat fragmentation Loss of species Low medium Control High Landscape change Habitat fragmentation Low medium Control High
12 Threats to other natural values (Sangay Volcano) List of Threats Is there an actual or potential threat? Identify the most probable sources of threat Impact of threat Management prescription Environmentally unfriendly agriculture Uncontrolled tourism Source(s) Source(s) Habitat change Soil and water contamination Habitat change Soil and water contamination low medium Control Agreements with communities to lower cattle populations low low Control Agreements with communities to lower cattle populations Necessary analysis for soil and water low low Control Environmental education Training of guides low Low Control Environmental education Training of guides Studies of water and soil contamination medium medium low low
13 Threats to other natural values (Tungurahua Volcano) List of Threats Is there an actual or potential threat? Identify the most probable sources of threat Impact of threat Management prescription Environmentally unfriendly cattle raising Source(s) Erosion low low Increased vulnerability of human population Soil and water contamination Environmentally unfriendly agriculture Source(s) Erosion low low Increased vulnerability of human population Soil and water contamination Uncontrolled tourism Source(s) Erosion Increased vulnerability of human population Soil and water contamination Lack of information management Source(s) Erosion low low Research on soil and water Control Increased vulnerability of human population Soil and water contamination Low
14 Threats to cultural, economic, educational values and other social values (natural sacred/banned sites) List of Threats Is there an actual or potential threat? Identify the most probable sources of threat Threat Impact Management prescription Severity Action Severity Action Uncontrolled tourism Source(s) Environmental deterioration (vegetation, etc.) low low Identification of sites Information collection Medium Loss of traditional and cultural values low low Identification of sites Information collection Medium Source (s) Decrease of values and visits to sites
15 Threats to cultural, economic, educational values and other social values (Inca Trail) Threat Impact Management prescription List of threats Identify the most probable sources of threat Identify the most probable sources of threat Severity Action Severity Action Environmentally unfriendly cattle raising Source(s) Compacting/destruction of original path High High Agreements with communities to lower cattle populations High Transversal watering canals Source(s) Compacting/destruction of original path Low low Recuperation High
16 Threats to cultural, economic, educational values and other social values (micro-watersheds that generate environmental services) List of Threats Is there an actual or potential threat? Identify the most probable sources of threat Threat Impact Management prescription Severity Action Severity Action Environmentally unfriendly cattle raising Source(s) Erosion / Sedimentation medium Low Control medium Agreements with communities to lower cattle populations medium Low Recuperation medium Technical assistance Loss of vegetative cover Agreements with communities to lower cattle populations Soil compacting low Low Research on soil low Construction infrastructure of Source (s) Erosion / Sedimentation Loss of vegetative cover Razing Deforestation Source(s) Loss of vegetative cover low Medium Environmental education Control Law enforcement Erosion low Medium Environmental education Control Law enforcement medium medium Erosion / Sedimentation low Low Control medium Source (s) Loss of vegetative cover low Low Control medium
17 Threats to cultural, economic, educational values and other social values (lake systems with tourism potential) List of Threats Is there an actual or potential threat? Identify the most probable sources of threat Threat Impact Severity Action Severity Management prescription Immediateness of Action Environmentally unfriendly cattle raising Uncontrolled tourism Source(s) Source(s) Erosion / compacting Loss of vegetative cover Alteration of tourism attractions Erosion / compacting Alteration of tourism attractions medium medium Agreements Control Fines medium medium Agreements Control Fines Recuperation medium medium Agreements Control Fines low Low Control Production of guides Low Low Control Production of guides Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Construction infrastructure of Erosion / compacting low low Control Low Source(s) Loss of vegetative cover Alteration of tourism attractions low low Recuperation medium low high Tank relocation (Atillo) high
18 RELATIONSHIP WITH STAKEHOLDERS AND PARTNERS Within the context assessment, we analyzed information about the main stakeholders, taking into consideration their relationship with SNP, its MOs and resources, and the stakeholders level of enthusiasm and participation in the management of the area. The nature of the persons/groups that interact with the area, whether formal or informal organizations or private or government entities, was taken into consideration when identifying the groups of stakeholders. Stakeholders were identified for each MO selected, except for micro-watersheds and lake systems, which were subject to a single analysis since they have similar stakeholders. The total results can be seen in Annex 2. Table 5 shows a summary of the main stakeholders based on their level of commitment, their relevance for each MO and their scores.
19 Table 5. Commitment of stakeholders/partners Summary Main values Micro-watersheds and lake systems Tungurahua Volcano Sacred Sites Camino del Inca Bear and Tapir Sangay Volcano Threatened native forests General commitment of stakeholder Name of stakeholder Zula Osogoche Corporation Totoras Community H.C.P. Chimborazo Penipe Municipality El Tambo Municipality (Culebrillas) CICDA, CEDIR PROTOS (catering canal) San Antonio Community X X X X X X Runtún X X Shuar Kunkup Center Tinguichaca, San Vicente X X X X X Support the management and conservation of the PA Support the management and conservation of the PA Support the management and conservation of the PA Support the conservation of the area to generate employment for Tungurahua Volcano displaced families Support the management and conservation of the PA Support the management and conservation of the PA Support the protection of the resources of the protected area and observe with established rules Support the management and conservation of the PA Support the management and conservation of the PA Comply with the management plans in their farms; reduce hunting Tropical Range X Support conservation OTTO (community Support the information about X organizations) deforestation Hidropaute X Follow-up of logistics support Juval Community X X Conservation disposition Pulpito, Bomboiza X Conservation disposition Observe rules and support Cultural Patrimony X X commitments to strengthen the management of resources in a participative fashion. 19
20 Main values Micro-watersheds and lake systems Tungurahua Volcano Sacred Sites Camino del Inca Bear and Tapir Sangay Volcano Threatened native forests General commitment of stakeholder Name of stakeholder Archaeological Capital Commission El Altar Parish Kaguanapamba and Sisid Community Guargualla Guides Association X X X X X X Observe rules and support commitments to strengthen the management of resources in a participative fashion. Support conservation (reduce hunting in the highlands) Observe rules Conserve the area, collect trash, fix trails, fix Pamba Plaza and Sangay Beach, respect fees of admission into protected area
21 GOVERNMENT SUPPORT It was necessary to carry out a specific analysis of local governments since, according to the Political Constitution of Ecuador, local governments including province councils, municipalities and parishes, are legally responsible for some of the natural resources and can access the state and international cooperation budgets. Sangay National Park is located in four provinces and 17 cantons. For this reason, it is necessary to define what type of support is given by the local governments and by the other stakeholders that were identified and analyzed in Table 5. Regarding the definition and relationship with the local governments, Table 6 classifies the types of support to park management given by the local governments. Table 6. Support of local governments for the management of Sangay National Park LOCAL GOVERNMENT TYPE OF SUPPORT COMMENTS Province Council of Morona Santiago Moderate support They have supported public information activities and they have a good relationship with park authorities. There are plans to declare Morona Santiago an ecological province, since it harbors several conservation areas, of which the SNP is the most important. There are plans to link the conservation theme with the province s tourism development Palora Municipality Moderate support They are willing to collaborate with park management, especially Llushín River area. They participated in the creation of the Llanganates- Sangay Ecological Corridor. The Lower SNP administration was able to appoint a representative from the Palora Municipality to carry out patrols and control and surveillance of the area. Pablo Sexto Municipality Potential support This municipality has collaborated, for some years already, with conservation and development projects. This community has shown that they are quite interested in conservation and this can be taken advantage of by establishing links with the park. The residents of this municipality delve in cattle herding and logging. El Tambo Municipality Strong support They have contracted a pro bono park ranger. They have also supported several activities that have to do with the conservation of resources, especially regarding environmental education. Chimborazo Province Council Slight hostilities There have been slight problems due to the construction of the Guamote Macas Highway and the possible construction of some other roads. Some problems have risen because there have been initiatives to increase visitation to the park without paying an admission fee. Riobamba Municipality Strong support The municipality, in collaboration with the SNP administration, the Natura Foundation, and SNV has developed an exhibition about the SNP at the Riobamba City Museum. They are interested in further collaboration. Alausí Municipality Moderate support These four municipalities have collaborated with the management of the watershed of the Chanchán River, Chambo Municipality Chunchi Municipality Guamote Municipality Moderate support Moderate support Moderate support which flows from the SNP buffer zone. Although there is no formal relationship with the park s administration, there are good relationships that should be fostered in order to formalize agreements for the benefit of the conservation of the natural resources. Penipe Municipality Potential support Tungurahua Province Council Potential support There is no relationship with the park s administration, but there is information about environmental themes. Baños Municipality Moderate support Cooperative agreements have been signed between the Baños Municipality and several organizations for the management of the watershed of the Pastaza River, which flows from the SNP. They participated in the creation of the Llanganates-Sangay Ecological Corridor.