1 The Past Participle and the Present Perfect Indicative (El participio pasado y el presente perfecto de indicativo) He limpiado el virus de su computadora y he instalado un programa antivirus.
2 How the past participle is formed For -ar verbs: Start with the infinitive... and add ado. remove the verb ending... cerr ado ar For -er and -ir verbs: Start with the infinitive... remove the verb ending... and add ido. vend er ido recib ido ir
3 How the past participle is formed The past participle is used in Spanish and English as an adjective or as part of the perfect tenses. In English, it is usually the -ed or -en form of the verb. tomar tomado (taken) comer comido (eaten) vivir vivido (lived) An accent mark is used when a past participle has the combination of vowels ai, ei, or oi. creer leer creído leído believed read oír traer oído traído heard brought
4 How the past participle is formed The following verbs have irregular past participles. abrir abierto opened morir muerto dead cubrir cubierto covered poner puesto put decir dicho said romper roto broken descubrir descubierto discovered ver visto seen escribir escrito written volver vuelto returned hacer hecho done; made
5 The past participle used as a verb The present perfect in English and Spanish is considered a compound tense because its forms require two verbs. In English, the present perfect is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb to have + past participle. In Spanish, the present perfect is formed with the present tense of the verb haber + past participle. to have I have you have he, she has, you have we have you (pl.) have they, you (pl.) have Past participle taken eaten lived yo tú él, ella, Ud. nosotros/as vosotros/as ellos/as, Uds. haber he has ha hemos habéis han Past participle tomado comido vivido
6 The past participle used as a verb In general, the present perfect is used to refer to a past action that is perceived as having some bearing on the present. Ya has usado la impresora? Have you already used the printer? Estoy buscando el cajero automático. Lo has visto? I m looking for the automatic teller. Have you seen it?
7 The past participle used as a verb The auxiliary verb haber agrees with the subject of the sentence. The past participle, however, is invariable when used in the perfect tense. It always ends in o. Mi jefe me ha dado un teléfono celular muy bueno. My boss has given me a very good cell phone. Marisa ha preparado la hoja electrónica. Marisa has prepared the spreadsheet.
8 The past participle used as a verb The auxiliary verb haber and the past participle cannot be separated by another word. Object pronouns and negative words are always placed before haber. No la he preparado. I haven t prepared it. La has abierto? Have you opened it?
9 The past participle used as a verb It is important to remember that the present perfect in English is often contracted, particularly in everyday speech. Such contractions do not exist in Spanish. Has leído el informe, verdad? You ve read the report, right? Sí, lo he leído varias veces. Yes, I ve read it several times.
10 The past participle used as a verb The verb haber is not interchangeable with tener. Haber means to have only when used as an auxiliary verb with the past participle. Tener means to have or to own in the sense of possession. Julia tiene muchos amigos en esa empresa. Julia has many friends in that company. Has tenido experiencia en hacer diseños? Have you had experience in doing designs?
11 To have just... The present tense of the verb acabar, to finish, is used with de + infinitive in order to describe events that have just happened. Acabamos de ver la videoconferencia. We have just seen the videoconference. Acaban de borrar el archivo. They have just erased the file.
12 The past participle used as an adjective In both English and Spanish, the past participle may be used as an adjective to modify a noun. The Spanish past participle used as an adjective agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies. Vimos las conferencias grabadas por nuestro supervisor. We saw the conferences recorded by our supervisor. Hay muchos programas escritos en Visual Basic. There are many programs written in Visual Basic.
13 The past participle used as an adjective The verb estar may be used with the past participle to describe a state or condition resulting from a previous action. When used with estar, the past participle is an adjective and agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies. El libro está cerrado. La puerta está cerrada. Los escritorios están vendidos. Las computadoras están vendidas.
24 THE PRESENT PERFECT He hecho The Present Perfect in English is used in sentences like I've never been to Spain, or She has already finished her homework. We use the verb To Have, and the Past Participle
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