2 UCI Sustento del uso justo de materiales protegidos por derechosde autor para fines educativos El siguiente material ha sido reproducido, con fines estríctamente didácticos e ilustrativos de los temas en cuestion, se utilizan en el campus virtual de la Universidad para la Cooperación Internacional UCI - para ser usados exclusivamente para la función docente y el estudio privado de los estudiantes en el curso Formulación del Portafolio de Inversiones y Proyectos de Tecnología perteneciente al programa académico Maestría en Administración de Tecnologías de la Información. La UCI desea dejar constancia de su estricto respeto a las legislaciones relacionadas con la propiedad intelectual. Todo material digital disponible para un curso y sus estudiantes tiene fines educativos y de investigación. No media en el uso de estos materiales fines de lucro, se entiende como casos especiales para fines educativos a distancia y en lugares donde no atenta contra la normal explotación de la obra y no afecta los intereses legítimos de ningún actor. La UCI hace un USO JUSTO del material, sustentado en las excepciones a las leyes de derechos de autor establecidas en las siguientes normativas: a- Legislación costarricense: Ley sobre Derechos de Autor y Derechos Conexos, No.6683 de 14 de octubre de artículo 73, la Ley sobre Procedimientos de Observancia de los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual, No artículo 58, permiten el copiado parcial de obras para la ilustración educativa. b- Legislación Mexicana; Ley Federal de Derechos de Autor; artículo 147. c- Legislación de Estados Unidos de América: En referencia al uso justo, menciona: "está consagrado en el artículo 106 de la ley de derecho de autor de los Estados Unidos (U.S,Copyright - Act) y establece un uso libre y gratuito de las obras para fines de crítica, comentarios y noticias, reportajes y docencia (lo que incluye la realización de copias para su uso en clase)." d- Legislación Canadiense: Ley de derechos de autor C-11 Referidos a Excepciones para Educación a Distancia. e- OMPI: En el marco de la legislación internacional, según la Organización Mundial de Propiedad Intelectual lo previsto por los tratados internacionales sobre esta materia. El artículo 10(2) del Convenio de Berna, permite a los países miembros establecer limitaciones o excepciones respecto a la posibilidad de utilizar lícitamente las obras literarias o artísticas a título de ilustración de la enseñanza, por medio de publicaciones, emisiones de radio o grabaciones sonoras o visuales. Además y por indicación de la UCI, los estudiantes del campus virtual tienen el deber de cumplir con lo que establezca la legislación correspondiente en materia de derechos de autor, en su país de residencia. Finalmente, reiteramos que en UCI no lucramos con las obras de terceros, somos estrictos con respecto al plagio, y no restringimos de ninguna manera el que nuestros estudiantes, académicos e investigadores accedan comercialmente o adquieran los documentos disponibles en el mercado editorial. sea directamente los documentos, o por medio de bases de datos científicas, pagando ellos mismos los costos asociados a dichos accesos.
3 Tomado de la página: Project Portfolio Management as a Best Practice: PPM Gaining Wide Acceptance This paper was written by Harvey Levine, former chairman of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and PMI Fellow. Harvey is recognized as the leading expert in tools for project management. Click here to get a complete list of white papers. When I had three requests in the same week to do presentations or seminars on Project Portfolio Management (PPM) to the government sector, I knew that we had turned a corner in the acceptance of PPM as a popular, preferred set of processes. As an enthusiastic supporter of PPM, I could hardly contain my excitement at this realization of PPM as a best practice. My first presentation, at a PMO Summit put on by ASMI, was to a diverse audience of practitioners from the private sector, some non-profits, several state agencies and a few federal agencies. While the announced focus of this conference was the Project Management Office (PMO), there was a clear inclusion of PPM in the mix. What I was seeing was a natural outgrowth of a trend, within the public sector, to explore and communicate best practices. And there was a clear interest in PPM among the attendees. There are two themes that I would like to discuss here, both coming out of my recent observations at these conferences. The first is the spread of a best practices mentality. The second is the influence of governments on furthering the practice of project management, and, lately, project portfolio management in the public sector. Best Practices I know that this might get a laugh or two, but did you know that the government abhors waste? Wherever I go, whether at the city, state, or federal level, I see concerted efforts to reduce unnecessary duplication of effort and to minimize reinventing-the-wheel activities. An early example of this was in New Your State, where the Office of Technology led a collaborated effort with 14 state agencies to produce a New York State Project Management Guidebook (September, 2001). The guidebook (in their own words) provides a standard approach to project management that will improve the success rate of the many complex, broad-based business and technology projects conducted in New York State. The guidebook and the common methodology that it represents were a top priority of the newlyformed statewide PMO (January, 2001).
4 The development of these standards and the guidebook were based on a collection and synthesis of best practices for project management within the state and several outside sources. With so many people and agencies being at the novice level in project management, the standards help to provide clarity and guidance, as well as some consistency in the way that things are done. The States of Michigan and California were also early developers of best practices and standards in project management. Today, most state DOT and IT operations are heavily invested in project management and are promoting best practices through their PMOs The PMO and Best Practices One thing that has emerged as a best practice in project management during the past decade is the establishment of a centralized office for project management, usually called the Project Management Office, or PMO. Lately (I think in a pretentious effort to aggrandize the function) we are seeing EPMOs (Enterprise Project Management Office) and GPMOs (Global Project Management Office). I m certain that it won t be long before we see at least one IPMO (Intergalactic PMO). All kidding aside, the PMO, as a product of best practices, is itself the center of best practices in project management. While there are many flavors of a PMO, including some Project Support Offices (where the project managers reside outside of the PMO), these offices play an important role in researching best practices in project management, adapting them for in-house use, and communicating them to the project management community. PPM as a Best Practice While C-level management is recognizing the benefits of the PMO and the use of best PMO practices, it continues to question the typical wisdom being applied to the selection of projects. Among the repeated concerns are projects that do not support the enterprise mission or strategies, that do not represent the best value for the investment (cash and resources), and that have not adequately incorporated risk into the evaluation. Many of these organizations in the private, public, and non-profit sectors, are implementing policies that will promote and enforce improved selection of projects and improved management of project portfolios, with the objective of maximizing the realization of benefits from such projects. This is being accomplished by adopting emerging PPM best practices as a way of life in the firm or agency. An excellent example of this trend in the public sector can be found in several directives issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The OMB policies apply to all agencies within the executive branch of the (U.S.) federal government. A good reference to this directive is:
5 OMB CIRCULAR NO. A-11 PART 7(JUNE 2005) SECTION 300-PLANNING, BUDGETING, ACQUISITION, AND MANAGEMENT OF CAPITAL ASSETS Section 300 establishes policy for planning, budgeting, acquisition and management of Federal capital assets, and instructs you on budget justification and reporting requirements for major information technology (IT) investments. An exhibit 300 must be submitted for all major investments. Section 300 spells out the requirements for supporting several legislative directives, including: The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA), which establishes the foundation for budget decision-making to achieve strategic goals in order to meet agency mission objectives. The Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994, Title V (FASA V), which requires agencies to establish cost, schedule, and measurable performance goals for all major acquisition programs, and achieve, on average, 90 percent of those goals. The Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996, which requires agencies to use a disciplined capital planning and investment control (CPIC) process to acquire, use, maintain, and dispose of information technology. Section 300 goes on to equate CPIC to Capital Programming and Project Portfolio Management (they use PfM ) and defines PfM as a decision-making process for ensuring that IT investments integrate strategic planning, budgeting, procurement, and the management of IT in support of agency missions and business needs. In order to implement Section 300, the directive instructs agencies to institute the following functions: Establish and maintain a capital programming process that links mission needs and capital assets in an effective and efficient manner. Effective capital programming requires long-range planning and a disciplined budget decision-making process as the basis for managing a portfolio of assets to achieve performance goals and objectives with minimal risk, lowest life-cycle costs, and greatest benefits to the agency's business. A cross-functional executive review committee acting for or with the Agency Head must be responsible for managing the agency's entire capital asset portfolio, making decisions on the best allocation of assets to achieve strategic goals and objectives within budget limits. Evaluate and select capital asset investments that will support core mission functions that must be performed by the Federal Government and demonstrate projected returns on investment that are clearly equal to or better than alternative uses of available public resources. Institute performance measures and management processes that monitor and compare actual performance to planned results.
6 Agency heads must review major acquisitions that are not achieving 90 percent of the goals to determine whether there is a continuing need and what corrective action, including termination, should be taken. Core Practices for PPM The example above is consistent with the developing core practices for PPM. In a nutshell, we can say the following about PPM: Project Portfolio Management is a set of business practices that brings the world of projects into tight integration with other business operations. PPM brings projects into harmony with the strategies, resources, and executive oversight of the enterprise. PPM provides the structure and processes for project portfolio governance. The objective of PPM, therefore, is to create and maintain the mix of projects which are most likely to support the achievement of the organization's goals, aligned with the preferred strategies, and within the organization's resource (people and funding) constraints. The core practices for PPM can be summarized in these three categories. The Selection Process involves: Ranking potential projects by value & benefits Appraisal of risk Inventory of resource availability and allocation Determination of an optimal or acceptable size of the project pipeline Alignment of projects with strategic plans Balancing different types of projects by purpose and benefit Balancing opportunity, benefits, and risk The process of Managing the Pipeline involves: Periodic measurement of project status and performance (Using Earned Value Analysis techniques) Evaluation of project status and performance against critical parameters Reporting items outside of targets/limits/thresholds Applying stage-gate techniques for continuation or termination decisions (Note that it s OK to terminate a project) Organizing for PPM involves two groups: The PMO is the Information Center Supports development of project proposals Builds database of potential and current projects Maintains data on resources Evaluates project performance
7 Recommends projects for selection, de-selection, or delay. Prioritizes projects. The Governance Council (executive steering team) is the policy center Reviews and probes data and recommendations Interprets strategic plans and initiatives Provides enterprise budget and resource parameters Responsible for the final selection decisions Most project-oriented organizations have implemented some type of PMO operation. Moving to a PPM capability will require adding and integrating the governance team. This is not an addition to staff, but rather the structured participation of executives in the development and maintenance of the project portfolio. C-level executives are demanding that projects be better aligned with missions and strategies, and that they deliver their full potential. This requires a proactive methodology that covers projects from initial visualization through realization of benefits. The emerging best practices for Project Portfolio Management, as described above, will provide a roadmap and basis for achieving this goal.