1 PLM APPLIED TO DIDACTIC FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING CELLS DEVELOPMENT Fuentes, Karen; Jiménez, Ricardo; Raygoza, Edgar Center for Innovation on Design and Technology, ITESM Campus Monterrey Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, México Abstract: In response to powerful business pressures the number of mechatronics systems in the manufacturing area is increasing. Mechatronics system as well as Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC) includes different engineering disciplines that often work with their own individual design processes and non-integrated information tools. The inclusion of PLM tools allow data exchange and support the design stage, increasing the efficiency of the mechatronic development. Thus, mechatronics engineering is emerging in order to assure this multidisciplinary knowledge needs. This paper presents an approach of the PLM tools application on Didactic Flexible Manufacturing Cells development, in order to illustrate PLM as a teaching tool. The case study is based on one of the Flexible Manufacturing Cells projects developed with didactic proposal, which are fully designed, assembled and integrated by the Automation Team of the Center for Innovation on Design and Technology, with participation of pre-graduate and master degree students of ITESM. Keywords: Educative Technology, Product lifecycle development, Mechatronic design, Flexible manufacturing system. INTRODUCTION Mechatronics systems are present in many industries such as automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics and industrial equipment. Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC) are industrial equipment produced in low volume with both customized, electrical and electronic devices as well as very complex control requirements. Therefore, the last product made is always different to the previously manufactured. Consequently, is especially important to improve continuously the manner of managing configuration changes in order to improve the product development efficiency. Over the last several years, Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) has emerged as a common term to refer design, development, use, information and processes product management throughout its entire lifecycle. In this matter, how PLM can contribute to industrial mechatronics product design and development is a significant and helpful opportunity area [CIMdata 04]. This paper presents how student can take advantage of the mechatronics cell development using the project oriented learning method to learn the PLM concepts.
2 PLM FOR FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING CELLS DEVELOPMENT The main challenge for PLM in mechatronics system development is the full integration of mechanical, electrical, and software/control. One of the greatest impediments that face the development of mechatronics systems is organizational. At most companies, organizational structure is defined for different disciplines to work independently, for the most part functioning in isolation from one another and passing project information from one group to another in serial way. Disciplines work in silos with their own design processes and nonintegrated information system tools. Such as result, engineers downstream have little opportunity to provide valuable input early in the cycle, and design deficiencies often are not uncovered until late in the process when changes are costly and time-consuming [Miller 06]. CASE STUDY The case study is applied on a Flexible Manufacturing Cell made it for didactic purposes. FMCs are fully designed and developed by ITESM to implement engineering laboratories (fig. 1). Figure 1: Flexible Manufacturing Cell of ITESM Campus Guadalajara Flexible Manufacturing Cell projects FMC`s are composed by the most typical technology used by the industry. These are material handling devices, Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems (AS/RS), industrial robots, vision cameras for quality inspection and CNC machines. All those mechatronics equipment comprises the FMCs basic layout (figure 2). AS/RS station is an electromechanical device with capacity for 24 pallets. The pallets are storied according a specific classification. Commercial parts, raw materials, finished products and failing product are storage in the AS/RS. The pallets movements are controlled by two electromechanical and a pneumatic I/O axis which are controlled by a PLC. Pallets are circulated over the stations through a chain conveyor. Installed in the chain conveyor is an engine, several pneumatic actuators, and sensors, which are controlled using a PLC. Quality inspection is performed by an industrial vision camera, which sends PASS o FAIL signals through Ethernet interface to the main control. A robotic assembly station includes an industrial robot and its end effectors like parallel grippers, vacuum cups, vision camera and a pneumatic screwdriver. CNC machine station is required to execute manufacturing process such as drilling, milling, turning, etc. The CNC machine
3 communicates with the main control by the use of digital signals for the robotic interface and a serial port for CNC program transference purposes. Finally, a main control station integrates all cell modules mentioned above. Flexible Manufacturing Cells lifecycle Figure 2: FMC basic layout The lifecycle of a FMC is composed by four basic stages. The process begins with the identification of client requirements and the engineering understanding of them. This stage establishes a guideline for design and product development activities. The initial task is layout definition (fig. 2). Later it is necessary to define the productive processes to generate the manufacturing sequences of the product. In early design stage the first scheme of the FMC can be obtained. At this moment it is possible to know the class and the amount of actuators and sensors required but the models number or engineering data of each one is not yet available. In spite of unknown part of the engineering information it is possible to begin with the electrical and pneumatic design. The information is gathering until detailed design can be carried out. Manufacturing stage begins with electrical panels assembly and electrical devices such as PLC, reles, electrovalves, etc. are installed in. Finally mechanical assembly and electrical/pneumatic wiring are realized. PLM in supporting Flexible Manufacturing Cells development The impact of PLM implementation is shown in figure 3. At simple sight design and development stage is larger than without PLM case (fig. 3-a). This improvement is accomplished by means of different tools that support PLM. As a result, cycle time is reduced and errors minimized. The main issues at first stage are sharing information and full virtual manufacturing of the cell. In the case of a not PLM implementation, the idle time is evident when the engineering area is waiting that the other area completes its work. The most affected area is manufacturing (with the major idle time), because its work depends of the information generated previously by design and control. As a result, if an unsuitable communication between all actors exists, the project won t be able to finish on time. Integrating PLM in the FMC development (fig. 3-b), most of the work is developed in a virtual way, saving the time of each area and facilitating information exchange. PLM TOOLS To support PLM application exist a wide kind of software packages. Product and process definition are supported by CAD/CAM/CAE/CAPP/CAT software, digital mock up, etc. Exist a wide range of software for interaction such as electronic blackboard,
4 videoconference, etc. Coordination task are supported by workflows and project management software. Vaulting, role access, engineering change management, etc. are data management tools. Process mapping (a) Figure 3: (a) Without PLC case; (b) Whit PLM case Before PLM implementation is essential to detect all workers practices and transform them to clearly established processes. It can be done by IDEF0 which permit to develop models that show the functions of a system. In order to apply IDEF0 it is necessary to collect all data sent from one actor to another and outline it as is shown on figure 4. Knowledge and Product Data Management Information and knowledge related to processes must be documented (see figure 5). Knowledge management is the capacity for organize the expertise and intelligence of an organization in order to use it for innovation support. It is a good practice to arrange the know-how generated in a common repository. This information can be classified and organized to generate knowledge, and later shared it. Virtual manufacturing DELMIA tools are used to support the key processes of the mechatronic development, such as mechanical design, electrical design, mechanical tests, assembly design and robot, PLC and NC machine programming. All data and information generated during that processes is integrated by means of the PDM system, which, in addition allows a (b)
5 Cliente Necesidades 1. Direccion El ing. Jimenez traduce los requerimientos del cliente en una nueva configuracion de Manuales de suministros Configuracion de Capacitacion de nuevos diseñadores Departamen mecànico Departamento de control Departamento Elaborar manual de suministros electricos, neumaticos y de red Administracion de base de datos Resguardo de informacion de diseño Planificacion y programacion de tareas de diseño Planificacion y programacion de tareas de control Evaluar equipos de manufactura a comprar Cambio de extensiones en los planos de fabricacion Elaboracion de propuestas de nuevos diseños Modelacion de partes (MECHANICAL) Seleccion de materiales Analisis de cargas y deformaciones (INVENTOR) Integracion de tecnologias de control Investigacion, validacion, y seleccion de partes comerciales Rediseño Electrico y neumatico (AUTO CAD) Servidor de diseño Cotizaciones Integracion de nuevas tecnologias Elaboraciòn de planos de fabricaciòn y de ensamble Lista de partes a maquinar Negociacion de proveedores Negociar tiempos y condiciones de entrega Planos de ensamble Mandar a maquinar piezas a taller Ensamble fisico de manera modular Ensamble fisico de prototipos Requisicion de partes y/o componentes Lay out de la Supervision de fabricacion y costos de piezas Programacion de software de integracion (WN CC) Programacion de PLC`s (STEP 7) Programacion de Robot y CNC`s Correccion de fallas de diseño Elaboracion de reporte de piezas comerciales y/o maquinadas recibidas control de inventarios Elaboracion de manuales de mantenimiento Prubas de funcionamiento de manera modular Esamble integral de la Elaboracion de reporte de efectividad de proveedores Prubas de funcionamiento integral de la Reporte de efectividad de proveedores Direccion Evalua efectividad de proveedores Eficientar estaciones en terminos de robustez, facilidad de ensamble, peso y costo. Cliente Retroalimentacion de fallas durante el uso de la Soporte tecnico en fallas durante la implementacion de la Buy SmartDraw!- purchased copies print this document without a watermark. Visit or call collaborative environment as well as the information integration, which improve the efficiency of the mechatronics development. Celda Didactica Mecatrònica Diagrama de flujo Modelos de proyectos anteriores Lista de partes comerciales Lista de componentes Lista de partes comerciales Archivos CAD, ensambles y de pruebas mecanicas de partes Planos de fabricaciòn Soporta Retroalimentacion en errores de diseño Lista de partes recibidas Retroalimentacion de areas de oportunidad Manuales de mantenimiento Celda terminada Retroalimentacion de areas de oportunidad Propuestas de nuevos proyectos Figure 4: Process mapping. (a) Figure 5: (a) effort analysis documentation; (b) process documentation (b) The main advantage of DELMIA is being able to perform process simulation and modeling which is depicted in figure 6. It also has modules to simulate ergonomics issues, factory flow and NC manufacturing. Resource Simulation (also known as IGRIP) from DELMIA is useful to simulate mechanisms and robotics behavior. It has the advantage to be fully integrated to CATIA allowing parts modifications while a simulation is carried out. DELMIA Automation permit evaluate virtually PLC programs and simulate it in 3D environment reducing considerably FMC launching [Guerra 06]. PLM IMPROVING INNOVATIONS SKILLS The learning in PLM supply at the students with a greater vision and capability to solve the problems of the industry in an innovating way, for example a problem very common in the industries nowadays is the synchronization of automated cells which can be solved with a simple simulation. Application of PLM concept in education allows to student to have an innovating vision to solve typical problems of automated industry. Students are available to train their inventiveness skills allowing them to resolve problems using virtual simulation. Robots collision is an example.
6 Figure 6: DELMIA tools The students who participate in FMC developments and use PLM tools have the opportunity to increase his capacities to work collaboratively through the easy access to the information and knowledge related to the project. This allows student to extend his learning possibilities of diverse knowledge areas increasing his capacity to innovate. CONCLUSIONS Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC) are completely developed in the ITESM campus Monterrey. This represents an opportunity for ITESM s students to collaborate in the FMC development. Students in control, design and manufacture participate during the entire life cycle of the cell. As result, students obtain experience in some software tools related to some mechatronics discipline. In the short term, students have the opportunity to learn different engineering tools such as CATIA, robot offline programming (IGRIP), NC simulation, ergonomic, QUEST,, etc. As a result, students reach an expertise with some software tools. At long term the students acquire abilities on collaborative working and they are able to comprehend the importance of knowledge generation activities and to obtain a systematic and holistic vision of the mechatronics systems development which allows him to expand its possibilities of creating innovating solutions for the industry REFERENCES [CIMdata 04] Inc. CIMdata. Enterprises of All Sizes Can Benefit from PLM. Cimdata position paper, CIMdata, Inc., 3909 Research Parck Drive, Ann Arbor, MI USA, [Miller 06] Ed Miller. How can PLM help in designing mechatronics: Products with mechanical, electronic, and software components?, February [Guerra 06] Guerra, D. Mechatronics Design Methodology Applied at Manufacturing. Companies and a Mexican University. Proceeding. Mechatronics Forum Biennial International Conference. Penn State Great Valley, June 2006 [Isermann 03] Rolf Isermann. Mechatronic systems: Fundamentals. Springer, 1 edition, [Jackson 06] Chad K. Jackson. The Mechatronic System Design Benchmark Report. Rapport technique, AberdeenGroup, 206 franklin Street, Suite 1700 Boston, Massavhusetts USA, August 2006.